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danger and folly of resting any sys- plicity which gave it birth, that he

tem on coincidence, that frultful pa- might have a favourable opportunity ‘rent of palmistry, physiognomy, cra- of chastising the insolence of the Inniology, astrology, and every other quisition, through the instrumentality absurdity which has amused or asto- of its royal friend ; and therefore sent nished the world.'

back the following message.--" That he was extremely glad to find his good

friend and ally, the king of Portugal, ANECDOTE OF CROMWELL.

had not been concerned in the affront WHATEVER opinions may be enter- which had been offered to the commontained respecting the tyranny and usur- wealth of England, by the imprisonpation of Cromwell, it must be allowed ment of its Consul. That as this act by all parties, that through the wisdom had been done by another power, of his administration, and the terror called the Inquisition, which was unof his arms, he procured for the Eng- known to Cromwell, and independent lish name, a degree of respectability in of his very good friend the king of the eyes of foreigners, which former Portugal, he hoped for his majesty's ages had never witnessed, and which assistance and co-operation, in chassince his days has rarely been sur- tising that court, which had alike inpassed. The following anecdote fur- sulted both powers by imprisoning the nishes no contemptible evidence of English Consul, who had been appointthe dread, with which his words were ed to transact business in Portugal, capable of inspiring the conductors of under the immediate protection of his a tribunal, before whose power, even royal authority. Relying on this, he kings and emperors had been accus- informed him, that he should instantly tomed to tremble.

send over a fleet and an army, to fight During the protectorate of Crom- that Inquisition; and he doubted not well, when Mr. Maynard was British of his majesty's concurrence and aid Consul in Portugal, the Inquisition, in revenging the insult, by punishing prodigal of its influence, forbad him to those who had been guilty of the ofhave divine worship performed even in fence.” his own house, according to the rites The king of Portugal, on receiving of Protestantism, although it was de- this message, found himself in a most signed only for the members of the unpleasant situation. With the intifactory. Mr. Maynard, however, mations of Cromwell, he well knew it though a Catholic himself, was so far would be as vain to trifle, as it would an Englishman, and so much a man of be unavailing to attempt a resistance honour, that he disregarded this order, of his power. The Holy Inquisitors and continued the chapel service as were soon made sensible of their conusual. As this was an affront neither dition; and their only hopes of avertto be tolerated nor forgiven, he was ing the impending tempest, depended seized by the Inquisition, and com- upon their success in securing the mitted a prisoner to a cell in this Holy friendship of Mr. Maynard, whom they Dungeon.

had confined. From the king of PorIt was not long before Cromwell be- tugal they had nothing to expect. He came acquainted with this affair; and, was glad to seek security in silence, on making himself master of all the leaving them to extricate themselves circumstances connected with the tran- in the best manner they could, from saction, he sent to the king of Portu- the vengeance which they had ingal, and in a peremptory tone de- curred, by the undue exercise of their manded his release. The king, being authority. equally unwilling to oppose the power Their first attempt to liberate the of the Inquisition, and unable to re- prisoner, was through an officer, whose sist the demands of Cromwell

, had re-duty it was to supply him with his course to equivocation. He stated in daily food. This man having received his reply, that the Consul was not put his instructions, entered into familiar under restraint by any power of his, conversation with the Consul; and but by the authority of a religious after expressing a regard for his perbody ; which acted in a great degree son, and compassion for his condition, wholly independently of him.

offered to be an assistant to him in Oliver, on receiving this reply, de- making his escape. This proposal termined to avail himself of the du-l being rejected, the officer expressed 713

Persian Ethics.


his wonder, that any one should ap- Such was the honourable manner, pear backward to get by any means both to his country and himself, in released from such a confinement; which this worthy Englishman at saying, he never knew a prisoner length obtained his liberty. before, in that house, who would not have run any risks in endeavouring to obtain his liberty. To this, the Consul

PERSIAN ETHICS. replied, that having been guilty of no offence, and trusting to his country for In the Morals of Nasir, a celebrated procuring him justice, or for revenging Persian system of Ethics, it is said his wrongs, he therefore of himself that seven high qualities are necessary should make use of no extraordinary to give completion to the character of means for his deliverance; neither their kings: these are enumerated as would he dishonour himself by any follows: 1. Paternal kindness. 2. clandestine practices for that purpose. Magnanimity, including the moderaThis project failing, the next contri- tion of anger, the subjugation of lust, vance to which they had recourse was, and the perfection of mental excellenthat of leaving his prison door un- cies. 3. Firmness and consistency in locked; nay, open, with the passages counsel. 4. Resolution in the execusufficiently free for his going away, if tion of designs. 5. Patience in adverhe had been inclined. But this like-sity, and steady perseverance. 6. Clewise proved equally unsuccessful ; for mency. 7. A disposition to encourage he kept within the cell, and discovered and render assistance to what is right. no kind of disposition to avail him- Of the fourth quality, the following self of any opportunity for making his illustrative anecdote is related.escape. The next stratagem was, for

The caliph Mamoon was seized on a an Inquisitor to visit him by a kind of certain occasion with an unnatural apaccident, while walking among


petite for eating earth; which very cells. His door being purposely left

soon produced some visibly pernicious open, the Inquisitor affected to see him effects in his constitution. On conas he appeared to be passing by it; sulting his physicians, they readily when, out of much humanity, he stop- furnished a variety of prescriptions, ped, and asked him who he was ? To the whole of which were tried, without this inquiry, the Consul, in his answer, subduing his strange propensity. One gave the proper information. The In- day, when he and his physicians were quisitor then proceeded to inquire the consulting on what might further be cause of his being there? to which the done, an acquaintance of the caliph prisoner replied, that he knew of no entered the room. No sooner had he just cause, as he had been guilty of discovered, from their consultation of no offence ; nor was he subject to that books, the affair which they had in court. The Inquisitor then said, if hand, than he addressed himself to his such was the case, he might go about afflicted friend in the following words: his business. To this, he intrepidly

“Oh, leader of the faithful, where is answered, that as his country had been that resolution which belongs to kings?” dishonoured, and himself injured, by Mamoon, on hearing this, turned to bis being brought thither, unless due his physicians, and said, “ You need public satisfaction were given to both, not take any further trouble, I shall he neither could, nor would, quit the

soon get the better of my disease.” place. After many consultations and expostulations, it was however at length stipulated, that he should be taken from the Inquisition in one of A correspondent who subscribes himthe king's coaches at mid-day, and selfA Reader,says, that the letter set down in the middle of the great of the late Robert Burns, which apsquare, on the eastern side of the pa- peared in the third number of the Imlace; which square was called the perial Magazine, has been before the Perciro de Paco, and was one of the public twenty-four years. He also obmost frequented places of the city. serves, that it was originally addressed To this humilitating condition, the to Gavin Hamilton, Esq. and that, Holy Inquisition was compelled to although it escaped the vigilant eye of submit

, to avoid the vengeance of Dr. Currie, he has a printed copy of it Cromwell.

now in his possession.






On Warming School Rooms, &c. ney, closed at the top, forms the case

ment for the hot air, which may be let As the season is fast approaching, in out at pleasure, by a valve in each which fire will become a necessary ar- room over the stove. The junction of ticle in domestic comfort, we insert the flue with the fire, admitting the the following observations, which we cold air into the case, without admithave had in our possession for some ting the smoke, may be adapted to the time.

oldest fire-places. Whatever difficulty and delay may prevent a more general

application, the fact deserves publiSir,

city, as it has succeeded perfectly in ON visiting a Sunday School, of two the rooms described. rooms, one over the other, I observed

V. a stove in the lower one, which heated the upper, by a sheet-iron case round the stove and flue, open at the bottom, and shut at the top; with a valve in

[Continued from col. 359.] the side, for letting out the hot air, which was continually replaced by the Times of Algol's least splendour in the cold air admitted at the bottom, and

months of October, November, and heated on the principle of the patent

December, of the present year. hot air-stoves. This appeared an in

October. vention that may hereafter be extend First day, at 35 minutes past 2, afternoon. ed, to deliver the chimney-sweeps Fourth day, at 25 minutes past 11, forenoon. from their worse than negro depra- Seventh day, at 15 minutes past 8, morning." vity. The economy in fuel also re- Thirteenth day, at 53 minutes past 1, morncommends it; and the little room it

ing." takes up, must be an advantage to Fifteenth day, at 43 minutes past 10, night.*** houses and manufactories built suit- Eighteenth day, at 32 minutes past 7, evenably for it. No doubt, the heat let

ing. out in the upper room, was taken from Twenty-first day, at 21 minutes past 4, afterthe lower; but the object is to save noon.* the heat from waste by misapplica- Twenty-fourth day, at 10 minutes past 1, tion, which is invariably the case

afternoon. where there is too great a supply. Twenty-seventh day, at 59 minutes past 9, How many houses are damp and com

morning. fortless, which at the same time con

Thirtieth day,at 48 minutes past 6, morning. ** sume as much fuel as makes the air

November. over the chimneys abundantly warm.

Second day, at 37 minutes past 3, morning.** or flats, have but one fire in the bot- Tenth day, at 4 minutes past 6, evening. If a house of four or six stories, floors, Fourth day, at 26 minutes past 12, night. ***

Seventh day, at 15 minutes past 9, night.* tom, this invention may be applied to Thirteenth day, at 53 minutes past 2, afterheat any or all of the rooms over it. The iron flue which takes up the Sixteenth day, at 42 minutes past 11, foresmoke, may be cased in a small brick funnel, which holds the hot air, until Nineteentu day, at 31 minutes past 8, mornit is let out by an aperture in each ing.*

A small chain in the flue, pass- Twenty-second day, at 20 minutes past 5, ing over a roller at the top, and within reach at the bottom, will draw up and Twenty-fifth day at 9 minutes past 2, morudown a brush, or other proper instrument, to cleanse the flue. In manu

Twenty-seventh day, at 58 minutes past 10, factories, the stove may be cased with Thirtieth day, at 47 minutes past 7, night** sheet iron, as mentioned.

Two or three inches' interstice between the

December. case and the stove, and its flue, heats Third day, at 36 minutes past 4, evening. ** the air, and it may pass with safety Ninth day, at 14 minutes past 10, forenoon.

Sixth day, at 25 minutes past 1, afternoon. through all the floors, either in the Twelfth day, at 3 minutes past 7, morning. *** centre, or whatever position is most Fifteenth day, at 52 minutes past 3, mornconvenient. In chimneys already ing." built on the old plan, the flue may be Seventeenth day, at 41 minutes past 12, inserted as described ; and the chim





morning. **

ing. ***








717 Mr. Exley's Reply to Sir Richard Phillips. 718 Twentieth day, at 30 minutes past 9, night.*** But the “special exposure” of five Twenty-third day, at 19 minutes past 6, even- appeals made to credulity, claim our ing.

notice, of which the first respects the Twenty-sixth day, at 8 minutes past 3, aster- terms, Attraction and Gravitation; and

here we observe, that if genuine Twenty-ninth day, at 57 minutes past 11, forenoon.

philosophy may not “ give names to N. B. One asterisk denotes that the phasis allowed to give a name, or at least to

effects, yet the philosopher may be of the least splendour will not be visible; only a part of the variation from the second to adopt one, expressive of any thing he the fourth magnitude, or from the fourth to the has occasion frequently to mention, or second. By two asterisks is signified that the introduce in his discourse. Again, if minimum splendour will be visible together we grant,“ that it is the bounden duty with a part of the variation. When the whole of every legitimate philosopher, to phænonienon of variation will be visible, this adopt an explanation of the proxicircumstance is pointed out by three asterisks. mate cause of an effect," should he

know the cause, we likewise insist, that if he cannot give the explanation, it is his duty to acknowledge his ina

bility : but surely, the Newtonians Sir,

cannot be accused of “refusing to inOn reading Sir Richard Phillips' reply quire into the cause: they, of all to my strictures, inserted in your Ma

philosophers, are the most rational, gazine for August, p. 563, or rather to and most diligent inquirers into the the advocates of the philosophy which

causes of phænomena; using the comin supreme contempt he denominates, bined efforts of continued experiments “ the legerdemain philosophy,” it ap- and observations, to obtain from the peared to me at first unnecessary to lips of Nature herself, the secret make any further remarks on the sub

springs which give rise to her beauty, ject; but judging that some of your and life to all her charms. numerous readers may expect a few

An attempt is made to prove, that observations on his paper, I present the Newtonians, by the term attracthe following, for a place in the Impe- tion, necessarily mean a force, whatrial Magazine, if they meet your ap- ever they affirm to the contrary; for probation.

they invent a force to oppose it; if so, Thos. Exley.

they have laboured in vain; to what Bristol, Sept. 16, 1819.

purpose was the legerdemain employAmong the fanciful agents which the ed to call up innate attraction, if they Newtonian Philosophy is said to have were obliged to exercise their hocusintroduced into nature, I cannot con- pocus, to conjure the same into a nonceive the reason why the epithet ETER- entity? The truth is, they every where NAL, is connected with PROJECTILE see the projectile force, of bodies in FORCE ; surely none can sanction the motion, which is nothing else than phrase“ETERNAL PROJECTILE FORCE,” their tendency to continue moving in except those who impiously deny crea- the same line of direction, with the tion, and assert the eternity of matter : same velocity; or, in other words, to but is it not a curious fact, that Sir preserve their momenta in that direcRichard himself admits of the projec- tion. In the planets, it appears evitile force ? Even he cannot do without dently, that the tendency to continue in it; and hence he frequently speaks of the same direction is constantly dethe momenta of bodies in the direc- stroyed, by some power deflecting tion of their motions; of forces gene- them toward the sun, as if the sun had rating, and destroying the momenta, hold of them, and attracted them aland deflecting moving bodies from the ways from their course in a line drawn line of their direction, &c. Is it not to his centre. Hence, they say, the strange for him to rail at Newton, for sun attracts the planets, &c.; and inventing this force, (though he never surely, they may well be allowed the invented it,) and then freely employ- free use of the term attraction, to deing the same “ fanciful agent?”. This signate an effect, which appears very force, however, is not an invention to much like the act of drawing ; espeserve a theory, it is not fanciful, but cially when they distinctly inform us, presents itself in every phænoinenon they cannot tell what the cause or real of matter.

operating force is, or where it resides,

whether in matter or out of it, only these forces will vary, if the distance that they can judge of its quantity and vary; and therefore, the planet may direction, and the law of its operation, sometimes actually approach nearer to by the effects produced on the bodies the sun, and at other times recede. subject to its influence; and as the The deflection is, in fact, an effect conforce and its effect reciprocally mea- tinually observed; and from this most sure each other. Thus, by the word evident fact, it is legitimately inferred, attraction of a body, is denoted very that the “ planets have a tendency tó appropriately, the effect, or the mea- fall to the sun ;” the Newtonians, do sure of the force, whatever it is, and not, therefore, at all deduce the conits direction toward the body, which, clusion from the fall of a stone! A for conveniency, is said to attract quotation from Mr. Cotes' excellent the other; and the name is not “ by preface to Newton's Principia, will themselves converted into a force or properly close this part of my obsertendency,” but very properly serves to yations. “ That every body perseveres express the effect, which measures the in its state, either of rest, or of movquantity of force or tendency, and at ing uniformly in a right line, unless in the same time readily conveys the idea so far as it is compelled to change that of the direction of that force. Hence, state by forces impressed, is a law of it is no otherwise the name of a force, nature universally received by all phithan as that force is expressed by its | losophers. But from thence it follows, proper measure, that is, by its effects; that bodies which move in curve lines, in this way, it is indeed, necessarily and are, therefore, continually going expressive of force.

off from the right lines that are tanBut, Sir Richard admits the law of gents to their orbits, are by some conthis force: very good; this law was tinued force retained in those curviliNewton's great discovery, and the near paths. Since then the planets glory and crown of all his discoveries move in curvilinear orbits, there must in astronomy. This great acquisition be some force operating, by whose rehas vastly extended the field of science, peated actions they are perpetually and unfolded mysteries in nature not made to deflect from the tangents.” otherwise to be unravelled; and pre- The greatest part of the second“ spesented beauties in the grand system cial exposure,” is far beyond the reach of material existence, not otherwise of my capacity; and therefore, leaving to be seen. But we are told, that " a the sublime explanation of the eccenplanet does not face to the sun :” true; tricities of the planetary orbits, to perbut it falls towards the sun, and while sons of more skill in the mysteries of its tendency towards the sun would philosophy, I shall confine my obserhave carried it in a straight line, con- vations on this, and the fourth exnecting its place and that luminary, posure, to the application of geometry its momentum in the direction of its to astronomical science. And since motion, (its projectile force,) carries it geometry is conversant about quantiout of that line in advance; and it is ties, and their relations, any science

, actually nearer the sun than it would as far as quantity is concerned, may have been if the attaction had not ex- be served by geometry : and since asisted, but farther from the sun than it tronomy, and physical science in gewould have been if the projectile force neral, every where contemplates quan(momentum in the direction of its mo- tities, as those of space, time, magnition) had not existed; that is, the tude of bodies, velocities, momenta, distance from the sun will be between with a variety of others, and the quanthe limits of the distances which would tities are frequently connected by nehave been attained by supposing first cessary relations, it will not be thought one tendency to exist alone, and then wonderful, if geometry should be abunthe other. But whether the planet | dantly useful in physical astronomy; will be actually nearer to, or farther yet, they who make the application, from the sun, will depend on the pro- cannot be thought to be so void of portion of the two tendencies, and the sense, as to suppose that the physical angle contained by their directions ; phænomena exist in virtue of the reand since the law of the tendency to-lations of the geometrical quantities. wards the sun is admitted to vary in- Newton is accused of a whimsical versely as the square of the distance, “ attempt to connect the motions of it is allowed that the proportion of the moon, with the quantity expressed

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