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glanced at in the conclusion, and only | It is a well-known law in Chemistry, as much as would suit the theophilan- that Caloric, or the matter of heat, exthropist; I cannot, therefore, help re- pands all bodies. When applied to cording by the side of a system, pro- any body, either in a solid, fluid, or fessing no peculiar religious tenets, aëriform state, that body suffers exthe following anecdote, which may be pansion in a ratio proportioned to the new to some of your readers :
quantity of Caloric it receives. A lady boasted to archbishop Secker, 1. For instance, if a solid cylinder of that she followed Rousseau's plan, in iron is passed through a bore in any preventing her children from reading other piece of iron, of sufficient direligious books, till they were ten or mensions to admit it to move easily, twelve years of age, and could com- and the cylinder afterwards be made prehend them. “Madam,” said the red-hot, it will be found that it cannot archbishop, if you don't put some- be passed through the same bore, until thing into your children's heads be- it has become cold, or, in other words, fore that age, the devil will !!"
has parted with its Caloric. P.S. At such an early period of our 2. If Caloric be applied to water, at intercourse, it is unfortunate that I 40° Fahrenheit, until it has become should have to apologize, for leading heated to 212°, that is, to the boiling you into an error respecting the Lime point, this fluid will gradually expand trees : inserted in column 395 of the until vapour is produced. Imperial Magazine. It was the Plane 3. If Caloric be applied to common tree, and not the Lime tree, which suf- air, or to any other gas, a very confered so severely all over England. I siderable expansion takes place. This should be glad to learn, how one may be illustrated, by exposing to the cause could operate so instantaneously heat of a fire, a bladder half filled with throughout the kingdom ?
air, and made air-tight: the confined To the important queries inserted air immediately expands, and, if the col. 340, I beg to add the following :- heat be continued, the bladder bursts Are any words in reality synonyms, with a loud report. and has not each word its own distinct One exception to this general rule and appropriate mcaning?
is worthy of our attention. If water, July 18,1819.
at 212° of Fahrenheit, be cooled down to 32°, that is, to the freezing point, a gradual diminution of volume takes
place, until it arrives at 40°. When, We learn from an account, dated so however, it has arrived at this degree, recently as the 12th of August last, instead of contracting, it begins to exthat Professor Meinicke, of the Uni- pand ; and the expansion continues, versity of Halle, a town of much cele- until it arrives at that point at which brity in the duchy of Magdeburg, has congelation takes place. succeeded in producing a beautiful il- In this deviation from a general rule, lumination, by means of electricity we clearly behold the hand of Proviand a factitious air, which does not dence, and observe how attentive the burn, but only shines, inclosed in glass Deity is to the meanest of his creatures. tubes. As electricity may be propa- -If water continued to contract until gated ad infinitum, it will in future be congelation took place, ice would be possible, by means of a single electri- specifically heavier than this fluid, and, cal machine, and application of the instead of swimming upon its surface, proper apparatus, to light up a whole would sink to the bottom : the consecity.
quences of which would be, the complete congelation of our lakes, rivers,
and ponds; the destruction of all the Effects of Caloric.
fish contained therein; and serious
inconveniences from want of a due MAGAZINE,
supply for the cattle.—Let the sceptic Sir,
say what he pleases; let him deny the PERHAPS the following remarks may existence of an all-wise Providence; not be thought unworthy of a place in the true Christian will behold maniyour Magazine.
fest design in this, as well as in the I am, Sir, your's, &c.
numerous other provisions of nature : H. B. he will admire the wisdom, and adore
TO THE EDITOR OF THE IMPERIAL
EMPLOYMENT OF THE POOR.
658 the goodness, of that God who is the pauperism and disquietude, and recreator, the preserver, and the bountiful store to our country its welfare, secubenefactor, of every thing that lives, rity, and prosperity. moves, and has a being.
“ The following is extracted from Sept. 9th, 1819.
an account given by Mr. B. overseer at Birmingham: (That he was an overseer of the Poor in the years 1817 and 1818; that there were 800 adult
poor in the workhouse, for whom there It is with the most unfeigned pleasure, was no employment: that about thirty that we give publicity to the following acres of land belonged to the town; documents, with which we have been that these were let to different tenants : lately favoured for this purpose. And but that four acres were obtained, on we do it the more readily, from a full which they planted cabbages and poconviction, that the plan thus recom- tatoes, and obtained a sufficient supply mended, if carried into execution, will for 600 persons in the house, from July be attended with the most beneficial to September. In March, 1818, he effects.
took seven and a half acres more, and “ The Provisional Committee for En- cultivated two acres in flax. The soil couragement of Industry and Reduc- was hard and sterile, but being dug tion of Poors’ Rates, reflecting on the by the spade, and the turf buried growing dissatisfaction, and want of without manure, it has a very promisemployment in various parts, is in- ing appearance.' Mr. B. accedes to duced to accelerate the publication of the established sentiment, that the culthe following, which is with confidence ture of land by hand labour is the recommended as a most important only suitable employment for the pamean of relief.
rochial Poor. Under such circumstances, the Signed on behalf of the Provicultivation of land may be realized as sional Committee, an universal as well as permanent re- “ BENJAMIN Wills, Hon. Sec.” source; and this might be immediately | King's Head, Poultry, 5th July, 1819. commenced—the Act intituled, “ An Act to amend the Laws for the Relief of In another paper, dated King's Head, the Poor,' and passed in the present Poultry, 18th August, 1819, Mr. Wills Session, empowering each parish to observes as follows:obtain land for the purpose of employ
“ It is hoped, that those owners and ment and for letting. It may be re- occupiers of land, and parishes, who, marked, that the low wages which from a conviction of the utility of the would be cheerfully accepted, would plan, are now in so many parts engaged be reimbursed by the products ob- in furnishing the labouring Poor with tained, while the management of the small portions of land, will by their exspade is universally available. ample be the means hourly of exciting
“ The above Act (limiting the land others to the adoption of this very imto be taken by each parish to twenty portant mode of ameliorating the conacres) confers, as before noticed, a dition of the Poor, and reducing poormost judicious discretionary power, rates. What is effecting in Kent by by which land may be let in small por- Lords Abergavenny and Le Despeneer, tions at a fair rent, for the profitable as well as by parishes in that county, occupation of themselves and families merits universal notice.
There can during leisure hours, and which cannot scarcely exist a doubt, that the gofail of producing the most essential | vernment will, ere long, co-operate in effect, by the stimulus thus afforded to granting land at no great distance the industrious Poor to recover an in- from London, on which a number of dependent state.
Metropolitan Poor may be employed." “ Overseers, Guardians of the Poor, and Parishes, are therefore earnestly and respectfully invited to apply them
Queries on Domestic Economy. selves to the above object; noblemen, magistrates, and occupiers of land, and the community generally, doubtless, being found to co-operate; where- I am very partial to reading, esby to arrest the overwhelming tide of | pecially those books which contain No. 7.-VOL. I.
TO THE EDITOR OF THE IMPERIAL
“ Religious, Moral or Philosophical What inventions are there (if any) Knowledge:” but at the same time I that will enable a person to bake a loaf find my means so scanty, that to enjoy or two at a time, either before, or on, a these mental luxuries, I am often ob- common fire? liged to debar myself of what are com- You will observe, I have no doubt, monly reckoned the comforts of life. Sir, that, in all these questions, I have
When your Prospectus made its first my eye upon those thousands of inappearance, I was led to reflect whe-dustrious mechanics who are pent up ther, notwithstanding my desire to read in cities and towns, and who have only your work, which promised to be so one or two rooms, and yet would be agreeable to my best feelings, I should glad to eat their own bread, and drink be able to bear the expense, trifling as their own drink, if they knew how to go it is. But I was encouraged to gratify about it: therefore, it will be necesmyself by reflecting, that, as you had sary to be very explicit in the direcpromised to give us some “ observations, and also to mention the prices of tions on aliment in general, and on the the different articles. nutritive qualities, and best mode of I hope that I have not trespassed preparing food, so as to preserve the too much on your valuable time ; and if most valuable parts; and also direc- there is any thing in these suggestions tions for rendering small sums most ad- that will answer the desired end, the vantageous in the support of families,” insertion thereof will much oblige, &c. by putting these observations, di
Dear Sir, rections, &c. into practice, I should
Your constant reader, be no loser, but perhaps a gainer.
T. B. As I am well aware that much may August 14th, 1819. be saved in a family in the course of a month, by knowing how to make the most of an article, therefore judge how Review.-"An infallible Guide to a disappointed I have been, at seeing so
pleasant and happy Marriage." A little relative to Domestic Economy in
Poem. pp. 32. Alexander, Islington. the five numbers that are out. But as
Price one shilling. I hope that some of your kind corre- It has been reported, that on a certain spondents in future, will favour us from occasion, some lines being presented to time to time with such rules, directions, Dr. Johnson for his opinion, produced &c. as may increase the comforts of the from him the following reply:-“I have lower orders, that while they are lay- seen several such pieces written by ing out a little of their small pittance in many a man, many a woman, and many purchasing knowledge for the mind, a child.” This is a compliment which they may also increase their domestic nothing should induce us to withhappiness. As a beginning to their ef- hold from the author of the Poem beforts, permit me, as Dr. Franklin says, fore us, but our extreme reluctance to to“ start some game” for those who are be indebted to charity. We can, howphilosophic enough to follow up.- ever, assure our readers, that it is
Which is the best method of brew- “handsomely printed on a beautiful ing beer
small quantities ? and what wove demy paper, hot-pressed, and substitutes (if any) can be used for that it contains about one thousand making a wholesome and palatable lines.” drink? Which is the best method of The design of the writer evidently is, making bread? and which way can the to impress upon the minds of his readlabouring Poor who are situated in the ers, this important apostolic precept, heart of cities, &c. get the flour or meal Be ye not unequally yoked together (say a bushel at a time) so as to get it with unbelievers.” We readily give genuine, and at the same time reason him, without the least hesitation, the able ?
utmost credit for the purity of his intenIs there any substitute for yeast? or, tion; and could we persuade ourselves if not, which way can yeast be pre- that the execution bore any resemblance served ? as it is well known that per- to the motive, the severity of criticism sons who attempt to brew or bake up- might be spared. The preface correon a small scale, are forced to purchase sponds with the work; and from that lomore than they can use at one time, cal feeling which occasionally appears which is therefore a drawback upon in each, the idea is suggested, that their efforts.
many an instructive lesson may be
662 learned in the school of adversity, | the remains of a castellum, from which which prosperity can never teach. the wall has its course across the river
The principal merit of this produc-Irthing to Birdoswald, (the Ambologna tion, seems to consist in its being of the Romans) which was garrisoned printed on fine paper, and entered at by the Cohors Prima Ælia Dacorum; Stationers' Hall; and in having what and at the distance of two and a half the celebrated Edmund Curl used to miles from Carr-Voren, there are still call “ a taking title-page.” If the au- visible three Roman castella. A great thor had not unfortunately concealed number of inscriptions have been his name, he might have stood a chance found at this place, most of which have of occupying a niche in the temple of been taken away; the remaining are poetic fame, by the side of Tom Durfey. now in the possession of Mr. Bill, of
Gilsland, in the neighbourhood, whose
collection of these, and other monuHistory, Description, and newly disco-ments of antiquity, is accounted very
valuable. vered Antiquities, of Agricola's Ram
The distance from Birdoswald (or part, Adrian's Mound, and Severus's
Amboylana) to the next station, called Stone Wall; with profiles of each,
Cumbeckford, or Castle-steads, (the drawn to their proper heights and di
Petriana of the Romans,) is six and mensions; with a Scale of Feet.
a quarter of miles, in which tract of The Roman or Picts' Wall, as it is ground, the vestiges of seven castella sometimes called, was erected as a are observable, at equal distances. In barrier to prevent the ravages of the this place, the Wall of Severus is so Caledonian Britons; and was first distinct, that the facing stones may be formed by Adrian, A. D. 121. It con- seen in several places near Wallbours. sisted of a high bank of carth, with a It is of considerable height, at which large ditch ; but this barrier being place it is passed by the Military-road. found insufficient to check the impe- On the opposite side of the brook,called tuosity of the Caledonians, Severus Bankhill-burn, the ruins of the wall built a wall of stone, which extended are nearly the original height, but from Tinemouth in Northumberland, without any facing stones; having to the banks of the Solway Frith, in been robbed of them for the purpose the county of Cumberland, which di- of building, in the immediate vicinity. vided the island of Great Britain into | Near the village of Binkshaw, the two parts, by extending the wall from wall built by Severus takes a sweep the German ocean to the Irish channel. over the summit of the bill, where it On this wall, at proper distances, cas- is rather imperfect, and at Highwelltles and towers were erected, to pro- town all the works are obscure. tect the country from incursions; and Castle-steads lies about 400 yards more effectually to convey intelligence south of the wall. The Alta Petriana from one of the walls to the other. of the Romans was situated here ; and This wonderful and extensive piece of the ruins of the wall are very distinct. architecture, the remains of which in making improvements upon the may be traced at this day for nearly site, many antiquities were disco70 miles, was built by the Roman sol- | vered, which are carefully preserved diers; and in all probability, some at Walton House, together with some fragments may remain for many hun- that had been previously found. From dred years, as a monument of the this place to Watchcross, a distance consummate skill and perseverance of three miles, three vestiges of casof that brave and formidable people. tella are observable; and the site of
The last Roman station on the wall a fourth was to be seen a few years in Northumberland, is Carr-Voren, the ago. The state of the wall here is Magna of the Romans; from which very indistinct. From Cambeck-hill the wall passes down to the river to Irthington, it may be traced in vaTippal, where considerable remains of rious parts. Near Old Wall, the seit are to be seen. Leaving Thirwall veral works may be distinctly seen ; Castle to the north, (at which place it and between Old Wall and Bleaturn, is supposed the Pícts broke through) at a place called House-steads, a Roit
passes the little brook Pottras, and man altar was discovered, and taken enters the county of Cumberland. up some time ago, but without
inOn the west of the river Tippal, are scription on it. In the Notitia, Watch
cross is called Aballaba, and it held a ridge which the wall has left is very condetachment in the time of the Romans, spicuous in many places, and may be styled Numerus Mansorium. This sta- traced running parallel with the ditch tion is on a dreary waste ; and near till it meets with the banks of the river. Bleasarn, it passes through a morass. At the bottom of a precipice, nearly 100 A little south of this part of the wall, feet in perpendicular height, by the marseveral inscriptions have been found. gin of the river, at a place called Hissop
From Watchcross to Stanwix, dis- holm-well, the remains of the wall are tant about five miles, the wall extends still to be seen; and the fishermen, when through a richly cultivated country hauling their salmon nets, have rein this distance not more than two peatedly dragged up from the bottom of castella have been discovered ; yet ac- the river, large stakes upon which the cording to the general distance of the wall was built. Tradition informs us, castella from each other, in the other that a wooden bridge extended from parts of the wall, there might have Stanwix to the castle bank, near the been five. The other three, in all pro- end of which, there was a gateway in bability, have been completely de- the castle wall, now closed up. Withstroyed.
in the last five years a handsome new The footpath betwixt Farraby and bridge has been erected over the river Stanwix, is at this time carried along Eden, nearly opposite to the gate in the the foundation of the Roman wall for castle wall. When the foundation of nearly a quarter of a mile, in which this bridge was excavated, the workdistance, when cutting a drain a few men found an enormous piece of oak, years ago, a perfect Roman altar was turned quite black with lying under the found among the foundation-stones of bed of the river, but as perfectly sound, the wall, with the following inscription and free from rottenness or decay, as upon it:
though it had just been laid down: by MART. COCM
its having holes made in the upper side, LEG: II AVG.
wherein upright posts had been fixed, SANCTA NA
it had every appearance of having been SECVNDINI
the sole of a wooden bridge. And al•D.SOL.SVBCv
though it must have been buried above RA: ALIANIC
a thousand years, the holes were as
square and distinct as if they had but CVRA OPRV
just been made. They seemed to have
been filled with a glutinous fluid reFELIX OPTO x'OP
sembling tar, where the broken tenons
were taken out. The direction in which Which has been read and translated this lay evidently demonstrates, that as follows:
the traditional story is perfectly cor“ MARTI cocideo MAGNO, Legio rect, relating to a wooden bridge having SECUNDA AUGUSTA SANCTA SUB CURA crossed the river at this place, conÆLIANI DUCIS SOLUS NUMERI Secun- nected with the castle, and through DINI OPPIUS FELIX OPTIO, DEDICAT which all goods and passengers were PONENDUM CURA."
obliged to pass before they were adTranslation—" The second sacred mitted into the southern districts of Augustine Legion, under the charge of the kingdom. Although this circumAlianus, Commander-in-chief of the stance is not mentioned by any person second Legion. Oppius Foelix being who has written on the Antiquities of bis deputy Lieutenant, dedicates this the North, yet I am led to believe that altar to Mars, the great local deity, to the castle at Carlisle stood originally be set up with care.”
in the Roman wall, not by it, and that Stanwix, (the Congavata of the Ro- the wall joined to the castle on the mans, as is evident from the inscrip- north side, where there has evidently tions found here)was garrisoned at that been a fractured place, and where the time by the Cohors secunda legorem. two walls were originally united. At Severus'stone wall formed the northern the bottom of the castle bank on the rampart of this station, and extended north side of the wall, and under a through the present gardens of the vil- large thorn bush which was standing lage. The ditch may be distinctly in 1814, I accidentally discovered the traced from the west side
of the village end of an old wall, resembling in all its to the banks of the river Eden; and the parts that of the Roman, which is a