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“ It is now high time to say something far as I am able to judge, one remaining of the two Cingalese Priests, MunHI RAT prejudice: but they find it difficult to Hana and DHERMA RAMA, you have perceive the suitableness of many things, placed under my care. These young while they admit of their general truth. men are cousins-german ; the first 27, the In a word, they want to perceive and latter 25 years of age. It will give you comprehend the reasons of those things ; satisfaction to know, that they still behave and they have not, as yet, English sufwell, are meek, gentle, and submissive. ficient to understand those arguments, They are very diligent in their studies, which I know would at once set their and have an insatiable thirst for know- minds at rest on such points. ledge, and particularly religious know

" These men

cannot be treated as ledge. They continue to improve in their common heathens : they are both philosowriting, and will soon write a very ele. phers ; men of profound erudition in their gant hand; their profiting in this is sur- way; with, as far as I can judge, a pow. prising, as they had never done any thing erful commanding eloquence. They are in this way before : their own writing deeply read in the most speculative, most gave them no advantage liere, as that is refined and purest ethics of the Brahman a mere species of engraving with a steel and Budhoo systems. In these respects, point on the talipot leaf, which is the sub their acquirements are immense. I bave stance used instead of paper. They im- myself read the Dupnek'hat, and some prove also both in reading and speaking other works of this kind, and well knowEnglish : this is of vast importance, as I ing the subtle and specious reasons which am satisfied the English language is, under both these systems can bring forth in be. God, the grand key to their salvation. half of their ethics and philosophy, I do Nothing but a thorough course of theolo- not a little wonder at the blessed subjecgical and pbilosophical English reading, tion of these men's minds to the general can ultimately conquer and remove all truth of the gospel. I must say, I see the false notions and deep-rooted prejn- them at the feet of Christ; and they are dices, relative to God and nature, found ready to lie at my feet, in order to be in that Priesthood. I say deep-rooted; taught. Every new truth, they receive because with false theology and philo with gratitude, delight, and often with sophy they have had their minds imbued extasy. from their earliest infancy. Munhi Rat “ I think they are both pretty nearly Hana and Dherma Rama entered the masters of the Cingalese Catechism ; I temple when they were abont five years mean Mr. T. Wood's Catechism, which of age; and before they could arrive at has been translated into Cingalese, and their high order in the Priesthood, were to no part of this do I find them making obliged' to learn several languages; not any serious objection : indeed I have only the Cingalese in its purity, but also made it a maxim in their education, that the Pali, Patois-Portuguese, Tamul, and “ Christianity is indubitably true, comes Sanscrit; and to commit to memory, immediately from God, and cannot be many thousands of Slocas, or verses, con successfully controverted.” This assumptaining their Theology, Physic, Meta- tion I found it absolutely necessary to physics, Traditions, History, Mantras or adopt from the beginning : on this I foundIncantations, and their most cariously ed another, not less necessary to my

difinvolved doctrine of the Metempsychosis, ficult work, viz. that “all other systems or Transmigration of Souls. From these of religion are false or forged; and on they have derived all their principles of them no man can rely, but at the utter morality, theology, medicine, philosophy, risk of his salvation.” I told them, and political economy. Till now they | however, that I was at any time willing have had no opportunity of knowing to enter into the pronfs and demonstrations better; these false principles had undis- of these points, as soon as they were capaturbed empire in their minds. In a word, ble of comprehending the argument. all their thoughts, ideas, and moral feel. Thus I became necessarily pledged to ings, were cast in this mould. They now prove much, and satisfy many a scruple : see they were wrong in many things, and but in this I found no other difficulty than strongly suspect they were wrong in all their imperfect knowledge of English to They wish for instruction ; they devour comprehend the requisite argumentation. it with the keenest appetite ; and long, They never carp or cavil, nor start a difardently long, to have their minds stored ficulty that is not serious and conscientious. with nothing but what is true and useful. They pray often, and are very devout Against Christianity, they have not, as in prayer: and I am sure they have now

AND ANIMALCULES ON TREES.

61
Methods for destroying Insects.

62 no object of adoration in heaven or earth | unsnitableness to present powers of apbut the true God : and his favour they prehension : for if it be of God, He will seek through the only Mediator. Here, give the understanding to know that much is gained. The Budhoo system has, which is true.” properly speaking, no prayer : because in

[To be continued.] fact it has no God. The decent regula. tion of the life, and the subjugation of the passions by strong ascetic discipline, is

METHODS FOR DESTROYING INSECTS their law of righteousness, and the sum of their religion. Under this kind of discipline these men were brought up A Gentleman in Oxfordshire has lately from their infancy; and have, I believe, tried some experiments with the ammonever been guilty of any acts of immora- niacal liquor produced by the manufaclity. In consequence of this, I cannot ture of gas. Among these experiments expect them to mourn on account of he fortunately thought of trying what sins which they have never committed. effect it would have on grubs and Swearing, lying, drunkenness, theft, un- worms, which infested his garden; but cleapness, &c. they have in the utmost fearing lest the means he was about to abhorrence. They have the highest opi. employ, for destroying his unwelcome nion of our Decalogue, and make it most tenants, should prove pernicious to his conscientiously their rule of conduct: at trees, he for some time gave way to the same time, they see that it cannot be hesitation. The attempt, however, was properly observed but by the especial at length made; which, in the destrucassistance of God; and for this they pray. tion of animalcules, succeeded beyond In speaking to them about the divine his most sanguine expectation. His nature, I have been truly astonished to trees also, he soon discovered, had susfind bow mnch they have apprehended of tained no injury; but, on the contrary, even the most abstruse subjects. I often they appeared in a more thriving state felt much difficulty to give them any such than they had previously displayed. description of the mysteries of Christi- But whether the additional luxuriance anity, as would lead them to form just which they have shewn since the expenotions of those mysteries: and indeed I riments, has arisen from the negative often trembled, lest, in endeavouring to benefit they have received in the debring down these subjects to low appre- struction of the worms and insects, or hensions, my trumpet should give an from any thing nutritive that has been uncertain sound. I could not bear the imparted by the fluid with which their thought that these persons should be only limbs have been washed, are points Christian Theists; and, with scarcely a which future experiments must deterhope that they would as yet form any mine. proper notion on the subject, I ventured to mention to them the doctrine of the Trinity! I did not wish them to enter deeply into it as yet; but I wished them to know it was an essential article of the Christian religion. My laudable caution, An American farmer lately informed the I thank God, was vaiu: His eternal Spirit | Public, that if the water in which potahas taken up the lesson, and opened their toes have been boiled, be sprinkled understanding that they might know the over plants, shrubs, and trees, it will Scriptures: and, to my great astonishment, most effectually destroy those insects on a recent examination, I found that they with which they are infested. At what had clear and satisfactory views of the particular season of the year this sprinkTrinity, of the personality of the Trinity, ling must take place, we are not informand of the infinite unity in this person- ed. We are only told, in general terms, ality! I saw the truth of that word, All that this water will destroy the insects in thy children shall be tuught of the Lord: every stage of their existence. As the and I saw also the truth of that saying of trial may be made with only little trouone of the primitive fathers ; “ When ble, and

no expense, we cannot God teaches, there is no delay in learn- conceive that time would be misapplied, ing." This has taught me a good lesson, if some gardener were to carry on a never to be afraid to propose any doc- course of experiments throughout the trine which I believe to be of God, on ac- year, in various ways, in order to ascercount of its apparent difficulty, or fancied tain the result.

AN EXPERIMENT THAT IS WORTH

TRYING.

TO THE EDITOR.

IMPROVED MILL FOR GRINDING PAINT. ground fine, is obvious to every person

whò haš observed the present improved

state of house-painting; as smoothness of Sir,- About two years ago, an ingeni. surface in painting is an important obous friend of mine elicited an idea of an ject. By means of this machine, I can improved method of grinding Paint, grind colours exceedingly fine, with much on which he had made some experiments, less labour than upon the ordinary plan of in connexion with a steam-engine. I stone and muller; as a man and boy, with saw immediately the application of the this machine, may grind as much as six principle to a machine to be worked by men in the ordinary way, in the same hand, of which the annexed is an exact space of time. It would be found to be model. I had one made by an ingenious an useful acquisition to those persons who millwright, (Mr. Thos. Pearson,) which grind colours for Artists, &c. &c. &c. was found to answer the purpose beyond A wish to communicate whatsoever my most sanguine expectation. I have may be conducive to the improvement of had it in constant use for about eighteen the Arts, has induced me to transmit this months, and find it a most useful append for insertion in your Imperial Magazine. age to my shop.

- I am, yours, respectfully, The advantage of having colours Liverpool, March, 1819. Geo. Lyon.

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Plate. Fig. 1, represents an elevation stone C. G, an upright spindle of wrought of the mill. A, a flag for the mill to be iron, which moves in its socket at N, and fastened to, to keep it steady. BB, in a collar fixed in the cross-piece of the the frame, which is made of cast iron, frame at o. I, an horizontal spindle, on screwed together. C, the stone made of which are affixed the flywheel pinion and hard Yorkshire flag, turns round by the handle KHP. spindle G, while the muller or upper Fig. 2, is another view of the above, stone is stationary, and is fastened to the with references corresponding. frame by means of the bar L. D, the Fig. 3, is a ground plan of the muller. muller or upper stone is the segment of a A is a piece of iron, let into the muller circle, made of the same material as the to receive the point of the bar L, in fig. 1, under one, and has the collar of brass, M, which keeps it in its place, while the attached to it, through which the upright stone C, fig. 1, turns round the contrary spindle revolves. E, a collar of iron, let way. B, an iron fork let into the muller, into the stone C, to keep the colour from holds the brass collar C, in which the upapproaching too near the centre. F, an right spindle moves. The curve in the horizontal cogwbeel, fixed on the upright muller is to keep the colour from running spindle, which, when turned round by off the stone. The muller may be the corresponding cogwheel H, moves thc I weighted, to increase the pressure.

TO THE EDITOR OF THE IMPERIAL

MAGAZINE.

65
An Extraordinary Privilege.

66 such taxes as all besides must pay, is

but little better than establishing smugSIR,

gling by law. The right of all governments to levy I have been almost insensibly led into taxes on the various districts over which these general reflections, by revolving their influence extends, is scarcely less in my mind a question which has been evident than the necessity of taxation frequently proposed; namely, why is itself. Without the latter, no public the Commentary on the Bible, edited measures could be carried into execu. by Dr. Mant and D’Oyley, which aption; and without the former, the mere pears to be well executed, and orna. abstract propriety of the latter would be mented with many plates, sold at a price rendered inefficient. Against the neces- below that of others, which now appear sity of taxation, and the simple right of in the same market? To all Printers levying imposts, no advocate either for and Booksellers, this is certainly a quesliberty, anarchy, or despotism, has pre- tion of no common import. The fact sumed to argue. This is a general point, itself, very few will be disposed to deny, in which the advocates of almost every whether they approve or dislike the political creed seem most cordially to doctrines which that work contains. To unite, how diversified soever their views account for this on the principles of may be respecting the origin of power, trade, was soon found to be impossible: the principles of civil constitutions, the the cause, therefore, was suspected to alienation of rights, and the sanctions of lie deeper. Here it was sought; and in legal authority.

its dark recess it has been discovered. Consonant with this common feeling, I bave been credibly informed, by there is another general principle, on an authority in which I can place the which few parties will be found to enter- fullest confidence, that for the paper tain jarring opinions. All must allow, consumed in the printing of this Comwhether the existing laws ensure their mentary, no duty whatever is ultimately approbation, or excite their disgust, paid to Government; while all other that, while they continue in force, they Tradesmen and Authors throughout the should be administered with the strictest kingdom pay, to the utmost farthing, impartiality. To levy a tax upon any those imposts from which this work is branch of the community, while the happily exempted. This fact will serve general mass escape through an acknow- to explain the meaning of Cum privilegio ledged exemption, would appear to in a more forcible manner, than a whole every one as an act of the most flagrant volume written upon etymologies and injustice. The case will not be altered, Acts of Parliament. The duty on the if the body of the people submit to tax- paper used in the copies already pubation, while a few favoured individuals lished of this Commentary, amounts to plead an immunity, and triumph in their nearly three thousand pounds ! privileges over the common lot of their

Diminutive as this article may appear, lellow-citizens. If any law be just, why when compared with the vast and comshould it be restricted in its operation ? plicated concerns of an empire, we can, and if unjust, why should it ever have perceive no reason why it should be been enacted ? All exemptions must treated with contempt. On what pretend ultimately to lessen the aggregate tensions this privilege is presumed to of the public revenue ; and in propor- rest, we have no means of knowing, tion to their extent, they not only lay a besides those which arise from common foundation for complaints, but also pre-observation. It is not to be supposed, pare the way for the introduction of that the Society with which the Com additional imposts. For services done, mentary originated, can claim a specific an excmption from the operations of | exemption from the operations of a law may, in certain instances, be con- public edict. And if we trace the lenisidered in the light of a remuneration ; ent partiality to the University, a quesand, on many occasions, the duties con- tion will naturally arise, as to the extent nected with various stations can only be of its power. A privilege which is performed while the law is forbidden to bounded in its operation only by the operate: but where the members of a discretion of those who exercise it, may community stand on the same common be extended to defeat the purposes of ground, and are engaged in the same law. But with such a power we cannot commercial transactions, to exempt a imagine any branch of the community solitary individual or company from to be invested. The reason for this sin No. 1.- Vol.I.

F

gular immunity is therefore wrapped up | America. They seem apparently open in a strange kind of obscurity.

to the inspection of all; and no one can If we reason only from fact, while doubt, that, in their final issues, they the cause is admitted to be concealed, are deeply interesting to mankind. Yet it appears before us as a plain violation the accounts we receive respecting them of general principle, which calls aloud are frequently conflicting, inconsistent, for redress. There are many who will and even contradictory. view it in the light of an unjustifiable It has long since been remarked, that partiality, calculated to sow the seeds EMPIRE, which began in the East, will of uneasiness, and finally to lead to finally take up its abode in the West; consequences, which ingenuity may at- and erect its vast metropolis in a region, tribute to other causes. Privileged which shall be sufficiently extensive for orders, and chartered monopolies, gene- its gigantic form and power; and which rally give disgust to men of liberal is not too thickly sown with kingdoms views and honourable feelings. And in to be long at peace. So far as history the eyes of disaffection, they appear and observation can give us any inforlike nests, in which hornets assemble mation, we have seen this prophetic to find security, and from which they sentiment partially verified. The four swarm, to prey upon the vitals of their great monarchies of the world have country.

lived their day, and disappeared; and In imaginary theories, and visionary we have seen another, which, in one speculations, it may sometimes be pleas- period of its history, threatened to rival ing to indulge; but neither Annual Pars its predecessors, perish almost with the liaments, Universal Suffrage, the anni- moment that gave it birth. hilation of the Borough System, nor On the Western side of the Atlantic, Parliamentary Reform, is required to we beheld, about forty years since, a remove the evils to which I have allud- convulsive effort made, by an embodied ed. His Majesty's Ministers already association of colonists, in favour of possess a sufficiency of power. Neither that freedom for which many of their have we a right to accuse them of indif- ancestors had bled.

Their struggles ference to the voice of local complaint, were successful : and we now perceive, when the affairs of an empire demand on a scale which modern Europe never their attention. Disappointed ambition, saw, an independent nation springing and selfish feeling, may generate princi- from this source, and rising above the ples which prudence will not adopt. political horizon, decorated with majesOn every occasion, patience and mode- tic splendour, like the orb of day; and ration are guides which discretion will rapidly advancing towards a degree of direct us to follow. Affairs of prior perfection, which seems to set all calimportance have the first claim on the culation at defiance. wisdom of our rulers; but when these South America is, now, almost what are adjusted, more diminutive objects North America was; and, if we may may expect to be examined. These presume to reason from analogy, it considerations should admonish us ra- will be what North America now is. ther to “ bear the ill we have, than fly Should this dreadful contest thus termito others that we know not of.” We nate, those who are now denominated hope, however, that the period is not Insurgents, will hereafter be considered remote, when legislative wisdom will as the founders of an empire, which be directed to more domestic concerns, may rival the splendours of the North ; and when the language of complaint and we may expect it to shine with will be followed by a redress of griev- undiminished lustre, when the Mother

Country shall be consigned to those I am, Sir, yours, &c. shades in which nothing can thrive, but AN OBSERVER. | the poisonous weeds of despotism and

superstition.

The king of Spain, as if aware of the destinies which await his power, should

his efforts to re-establish his dominion There are not many questions which prove unsuccessful, seems to have recan be started on the subject of politics, sorted to a desperate measure, which on which it is more difficult to obtain at once betrays the weakness of his satisfactory information, than on those cause, and his own apprehensions of which relate to the affairs of South danger ; but which, in all probability,

ances.

CAUTION TO MILITARY ADVEN

TURERS.

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