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and it serves as the foundation of all | vanced the monstrous position, that his deductions, whatever may have space is a vacuum! And all this was been, or whatever may be, supposed done, to identify his theory with the to be its source. Geometrical analy-law of the solar connection with the sis, and all its wonders, prove nothing, planetary motions, with which law therefore, exclusively, in regard to the alone his geometrical analysis had any pretended powers ascribed to gravi- relation. The eccentricity of the platation or attraction; while they provenetary orbits, on which Newton rested exactly as much in regard to the the- his detailed proofs, arises from causes ory of TRANSFERRED MOTION, of which within, or upon, the planets themtheory, the law above stated is a direct selves; such as the unequal disposition and necessary deduction. Substitute of the oscillating fluids at the polar the rational and palpable powers of extremities, which, by varying the transferred motion, in place of the oc- planet's impetus as the line of operacult hocus-pocus of attraction or gravi- tion varies, increases or diminishes tation, in geometrical disquisitions on the local effect of the solar impulse on physics, and the very same mathema- the medium of space which moves the tical inferences will follow; but they planet. Newton, as a geometrician, will be attended with more metaphy- argues as though the planets were insical reason, and less logical improba- fluenced in every increment of motion bility.
by some relation to their subsequent The sacred name of Geometry is motions, and that the forces exist for commonly abused, when men attempt the sake of elliptical orbits: but this to represent hypotheses by relations of is fanciful; for the impulse or moving quantity, and then draw. inferences, power in the sun, in the same plane, in regard to the hypothesis, from the being absolute and invariable, the ornecessary geometrical relations of the bicular variations arise from causes quantities. In this way, every absur-|(as the action of fluids,) existing withdity in metaphysics and theology has in, or upon, the planet, and being been attempted to be demonstrated. therefore liable to change, the force Kepler availed himself of the same and the resistance are always exactly tools, when he proved the influences equal to the motion produced, which of the sextile, quartile, and trine as- motions determine the form of the pects of the planets on the occurren- orbit. ces of human life; and a still more It has, thirdly, been triumphantly whimsical misapplication, was New- urged, that my theory of motion will ton's attempt to connect the motions not account for the phenomena of of the moon with the quantity ex- comets. To this I reply, that it bepressed by the versed sine of the first hoves the followers of Newton to prove second of the quadrant! In general, that the system which they embrace in these cases, the thing to be proved accounts for any phenomena, except is assumed as known, and then geo- by the easy mode of applying names. metrical quantities are clothed with it, They ought to exhibit some more phiand the comparison of the quantities losophical cause than their ever-varyis considered as a mathematical inves- ing and accommodating projectile tigation of that which never existed, force, to explain every variety of pheexcept in the mind of the inquirer. nomena, before they are warranted in It is precisely thus with Newton, in calling on others to explain nature in a his harmonious accommodation of his better way than by their own arbitrary centripetal and centrifugal forces; the nomenclature. I admit the difficulty truth being, that he had no previous of explaining every thing; but the proof of the co-existence of such Newtonian physics do not explain forces; but he found a law, which law any thing. In comets, we have pheindicated some kind of connection be- nomena different from planets; and, tween the sun and the planets; and, on slight consideration, it will appear having ascribed the fall of a stone to that the operative causes are also difattraction, instead of local motion, he ferent. Thus, comets do not move in then ascribed the obscure connection the plane of the planets, nor in the of the sun and planets to attraction plane of the sun's circular motion round also; but, as the planets do not fall to the centre of his planetary system. the sun, he then invented his centrifu- Hence the different phenomena. Difgal force; and, to give it effect, ad-1 ferent directions of MOTION necessa
rily produce different results, and the The fifth appeal to vulgar faith, made whole is still the simple
effect of cor- by advocates of the universal nonsense responding motions. The maxima of about universal gravitation, is to the the forces of the sun's impulse lie in exactness of astronomical calculations. the plane in which he moves, and the “ There,” say they, “ that eclipse, or forces diminish in a law of the angle occultation, takes place, as foretold, extending on each side the plane. A to a second of time; and what better comet moving then within the vortex proof can we have of the truth of the of the solar system, but not in the Newtonian philosophy ? planetary plane, becomes the patient thing, therefore, be more futile and of the varying forces of the medium presumptuous than any attempts to of space,
and hence its eccentric orbit. overturn it.” Regularly-inducted NewIts motions may, therefore, be some- tonians will, however, be ashamed what assimilated to a spiral, till it that their system should be upheld by reaches the sun, and the plane of the such an argument as this ; but it has sun's action, when also the melting been printed in various forms, and exand liquefaction of the mass combines hibited as unanswerable, since this to create a re-action or centrifugal theory of transferred motion was pubforce within the body, and hence the lished. One need, however, in reply, expansion of the orbit, and the retreat merely observe, to persons not conof the comet into space, where the versant with the history of the science, causes and effects being in due time that astronomical calculations are not reversed, the comet again returns to-founded on any theory, but on longwards the sun.
continued observations, which enabled As a fourth species of conclusive all the eastern nations to foretel astroarguments, the Newtonians quote the nomical phenomena with nearly modern calculation about the fall of the moon exactness, at least two thousand years in its orbit; in which the vanishing ago, and qualified the early printers to quantity of the versed sine of the first publish ephemerides at Bologna in the second in the quadrant is recognized as middle of the sixteenth century. the measure of the equable power of only modern improvement, is the docNature, which carries the moon through trine of mutual disturbances; but the the quadrant. The result aceorded principle of reciprocal motion, or of with the assumed theory, and accords necessary action and re-action upon alike with that of motion; but nothing and through the medium of space, excould be more preposterous than to plains the rationale of mutual disturassimilate the relations of the lines and bances with far greater precision, than quantities in the trigonometrical canon, the doctrine of alleged mutual attracwith the equable power which carries tion, operating somehow through a the moon through its orbit. The vers- vacuum ! ed sine of the first, or the last second, Such are the arguments by which the could have no possible connection or new theory has been opposed. But, of relation with the phenomenon; but, if the liberality or good manners of these it had, and if the forces acted in the soi-disant philosophers, it ought to be manner indicated by Newton, all the recorded, that for promulgating a theplanetary motions would then be acce- ory which confers probability and melerated motions. The circumstance, chanical precision on the causes of that the motions are not accelerated, natural phenomena, the author, (inproves, however, that no such con- stead of being formally answered by tinued innate force as that of gravity some of the thousand professors who is concerned in producing them ; but, live by teaching the errors of past on the other hand, it shews that the ages,) has merely seen such arguments motions are generated by the sun's im- as the preceding, exhibited in lanpulse on the medium of space, within guage the most arrogant and dogmatiwhich the planets swim, and are im- cal, intermingled with much insolent pelled like ships in an impelling cur- and personal abuse. Truth is, howrent of the ocean; and their variable ever, all powerful, and the disciples of periods are necessary results of their | this system are already become very several re-actions, which again are numerous; while sceptics, in regard measured by their variable distances, to the assumed principles of attraction bulks, densities, and constituent ar- and gravitation, are to be found in rangements of fixed and fluid parts. every philosophical circle. Perhaps, when the world at large has become illuminated on this subject, it may be expected that the light will penetrate into the cloisters of Universities, be reflected to the rising generation from the Chairs of the public schools, and be tolerated in those learned Societies, which unhappily constitute the citadels of popular and authoritative errors.
Ń. B. The Author of these papers would feel himself obliged to any practical mathematician, who has leisure and curiosity, to determine the space through which, by equable motion, a ball of silver ought to fall, in a second of time, in air, at the earth's surface, in consequence of the orbicular motion of the earth, and of the inclination which every body acquires of falling to such a circuit of rotation, as that its momentum, created by a common force, should be equal to that of all other parts of the mass. The orbicular motion, the earth's diameter and rate of rotation, and the specific gravities of the silver and air, are supposed to be given, to determine the effect on the silver when raised to the rotatory region of air. One of the reciprocals of this proposition would be, to determine, from the actual known fall in a second, the velocity of the earth in its orbit; and, consequently, the important problem of the distance of the earth from the sun. The solutions of these problems shall be printed in the Monthly Magazine ; and, as they will place the truth of the new system beyond the possibility of further dispute, we shall with them conclude our publications on this subject.
TOWER OF ST. NICHOLAS' CHURCH, MR. EDITOR, REFLECTING, a few days ago, on the
LIVERPOOL. impropriety and dangerous tendency This elegant structure presents itself of theatrical amusements, the follow- as an object of interesting contemplaing Query presented itself to my mind, tion, whether viewed as a beautiful which, if you think worthy of a place specimen of architecture, or considerin your novel and interesting publica- ed as a memorial of the melancholy tion, is much at your service.
catastrophe which occasioned its erec
ADIEL. tion. On the latter account, it may Do not those - Actors and Actresses perhaps lay claim to something more who take the name of God within their than local attention; as such tremenlips, either in invocation, adoration, dous visitations as these, that suddenly astonishment, or any other manner, burst the ties of kindred, and break during the time they are personifying the hopes and blast the consolations the character of others, most fully and of those whose humble path through completely break the third command-life needs no such withering events to ment, by“ taking the name of God mark it with deeper sorrow, must in vain ?" And do not those persons touch, with strength, the chords of who publicly attend such places, par- sympathy in every feeling mind. take of their sin by countenancing, ap- It may be looked upon, too, as an proving, and even applauding, the per- enduring caution to other parts of the formance?
kingdom, where, like the old tower of St. Nicholas', many a fabric stands | persons were in the church at the time, trembling to its base, waiting only and of these the greater part were unsome more than ordinary moment of hurt; but the children of the charityconcussion, to hurl destruction on those school, who are marched in procession within its fall.
somewhat earlier than the time of serIt will be perceived, by the accom- vice, had partly entered : the boys, panying representation, that this build- following last, all escaped ; but a numing is a composition of the mixed ber of the girls, who were either within Gothic styles, possessing a chaste and the porch, or proceeding up the aisle, lively character, and forming, to the were overwhelmed in an instant benorth end of the town, a very pleasing neath the pile of ruin. The crash of coup-d'-ail; especially when viewed the steeple, and the piercing shrieks from the opposite shore of the Mersey. of terror which instantly issued from The square tower, which rises to the persons in the church, and the spectaheight of 107 feet from the ground, is tors in the church-yard, immediately surmounted by an octagonal lantern, 75 | brought a large concourse of people to feet high, of open workmanship, giving the spot, who did not cease their efforts a rich and aërial lightness to the whole to rescue the unfortunate victims, till edifice; and making the total height all the bodies were removed, notwithto the summit 182 feet. Its erection standing the tottering appearance of was begun in September, 1811, and the remaining part of the tower and completed by March, 1814, at an ex- roof of the church, which momentarily pense of nearly £22,000, including menaced a second fall. Many instanthe peal of twelve bells, clock, &c. ces of hair-breadth deliverance occur
The several parts are bound together red: all the ringers escaped except by bars of copper, so as to constitute one, who was caught in the ruins, and altogether one solid mass of masonry, yet was extricated alive. The alarm, which, it is koped, will long withstand it is said, first was given to the ringthe depredations of time. It is built ers by a stone falling upon the fifth of durable freestone, from the quar- bell, which prevented its swing; the ries of Runcorn, in Cheshire.
men ran out, and immediately the We are indebted to the architectural bells, beams, &c. fell to the bottom taste and skill of Mr. Harrison, of of the tower, and their preservation Chester, for the design of this ornament would have been impossible, had not to the town; and to Messrs. Hether- the belfry been on the ground floor. ington and Grindrod for its execution. The Rev. R. Roughsedge, the rector,
Of the calamitous event—the falling owes his safety to the circumstance of of the ancient tower—which will be his entering the church at an unaccuslong remembered by the inhabitants of tomed door: the Rev. E. Pughe, the Liverpool, and particularly so by the officiating minister, was prevented surviving friends and relations of those from going in by the children of the who perished in the awful accident, the school, who were pressing forward. following account has been recorded The teacher, who was killed, had just in the Antiquarian and Topographical separated the children to afford him a Cabinet, vol. ii.
passage, when a person exclaimed, “ On the 11th of February, 1810, a For God's sake, come back;" he few minutes before divine service usu- stepped back, and beheld the spire ally begins, and just as the officiating sinking, and the whole fall in. We clergyman was entering the church, shall relate another instance, almost the key-stone of the tower gave way, miraculous : a person named Martin and the north-east corner, comprising was seated in his pew; the surroundthe north and east wall, with the whole ing seats were dashed to pieces, and of the spire, came down, and, with a heaped with ruins ; but he came out tremendous crash, broke through the unhurt. Twenty-seven bodies have roof along the centre aisle, till it reach- been taken out of the ruins; and twentyed near to the communion rails, and two were either killed, or shortly after in its fall carrying with the whole expired. This number, if we consider peal of six bells, the west gallery, the the peril, may be called comparatively organ, and clergyman's reading-desk, small; but, in the eye of humanity, totally demolishing them, and such awfully great.” seats as it came in contact with. Not It is worthy of notice, that one of more than from fifteen to twenty adult | the ringers had laid down his watch on a tablet, which projected round the and their suite, and also to furnish tower; and a bell fell directly over it. them with an additional allowance Upon its removal some weeks after- during their stay, as well as submit to wards, the watch was found unda- many other exactions.
quence of this tyranny, many tribes To this statement we may add, that have fled, and taken up their abode in in 1750 a new spire was erected on the the mountains, where they continue to remains of the old tower; and to the live by plunder and systematic depreunskilful manner in which this union dations; and, whenever they find a fawas effected, is to be ascribed the vourable opportunity of assassinating memorable accident. The action of their oppressors, they rarely let it slip the strong winds, and the frequent unimproved. ringing of the bells, so disturbed the arches which supported the spire, that on one of the key-stones falling out,
QUERIES. the whole superstructure was precipi- A Correspondent of Lytham desires a tated to the ground.
reply to the following questions:
1. What language was spoken by
our first parents in Paradise? DESPOTISM OF ALGIERS.
2. Are we to consider the tree of The kingdom of Algiers is about 1600 life, and the tree of knowledge, as the miles in circumference, and more fer- same, or as different trees? tile than any other part of the Barbary coast. It has no sandy wastes, but all its ground is a rich muddy soil, produc- MR. EDITOR, ing every kind of corn, and almost all As your widely-extended Miscellany sorts of fruits and vegetables, except is open to every subject of a useful dates. The country also produces tendency, both of a theological and quantities of indigo and wool; the latter scientific nature, I take the liberty of of which the inhabitants manufacture requesting you to insert the following for their own use. They also make a Queries, as soon as you possibly can; particular kind of sashes, which, being viz.à mixture of silk and gold, are very
1. What are the real advantages of expensive. The coast furnishes quan- mathematical studies to mankind ? tities of coral. They also have cattle 2. Has mathematical science a tenin abundance.
dency to promote the cause of ChrisBut, with all these natural blessings tianity ? and advantages, the inhabitants are 3. What reasons can be given, why rendered miserable by the detestable so many mathematical scholars have system of tyranny under which they been either doubters or opposers of languish. They have no regular taxes revealed Truth? levied on their lands; but to meet the Hoping that the above questions rapacious demands of government, as will elicit satisfactory answers from soon as the promise of their future some of your able Correspondents, harvest appears about a foot high, offi- I remain, dear Sir, cers are sent to every part of the king
Yours, respectfully, dom, to inspect the cultivated lands. Cardiff, 1819.
G. B. These make an estimate, according to their pleasure, prejudice, or their
INSTINCTIVE ANIMOSITY OF ANIMALS caprice.
Under these unnatural exactions, it frequently happens, that the poor It has frequently been observed, that agriculturalist, knowing he cannot the animosity which we perceive bepossibly pay the taxes, in a paroxysm tween the different tribes of the brute of despair destroys what he had sown creation, is instinctive; and conseor planted, and retires to the moun- quently that it cannot be subdued, tains. Others, less desperate, resort Common appearances, no doubt, tend to the expedient of bribing the officers very much to confirm this theory: and to lessen the tax that he had previously if we include the human race, we need levied. To heighten their misfortunes, not borrow much from imagination, to wherever the tax-officers arrive, the infer, from the wars which have desopeople are obliged to provide for them I lated our globe, that nations have also