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ON A PRINTING-HOUSE.

The Levites are correctors : Heav'n revises :

ON THE WORLD.

ON PRAYING TO SAINTS.

For water! Was not Abraham a Saint !

505 Inscription on Crichton's Monument - Epigrams. 506 his writings upon Aratus, often quotes

MR. EDITOR, Eudoxus, with great praise for his Though some allowance must be made knowledge in, and great attention to, for the poetry, yet perhaps the sentiAstronomy: Vitruvius ascribes to him ment of the following Epigrams of Mr. the invention of drawing a sun-dial Francis Quarles, may amuse some of upon a plane; from whence it may be your readers. inferred, that he was tolerably well

ALPHA Beta. acquainted with the doctrine of the sphere, and the method of projecting its circles on a plane; which cannot be The world's a printing-house : our words, our thoughts, done without a considerable know- Our deeds, are characters of several sizes: ledge in geometry: and, indeed, there

Each soul is a compositor, of whose faults are many who think that the greater

Death is the common press, from whence being drivin, part of what now bears the name of We're gather'd sheet by sheet, and bound for heav'n. * Euclid's Elements of Geometry," ought to be attributed to Eudoxus.

The world's a book, writ by the eternal art
[To be continued.]

of the great Maker; printed in man's heart:
'Tis falsely printed, though divinely penn'd;

Th'errata will appear all at the end.
Inscription on Crichton's Portrait.

“Not pray to Saints !- Is not the warrant ample, TO THE EDITOR OF THE IMPERIAL

If back'd with Scripture, strengthened by example ! MAGAZINE.

Did not that swelt'ring Dives make complaint SIR,

Why should reformed churches, then, forbid it?" Having read, with pleasure, the ac- “ 'Tis true; but where, and what was he that did it!" count of my countryman, the Admirable Crichton, in the third number of the Imperial Magazine, I have sent Observations on an Article inserted in you the annexed inscription for inser- the Monthly Magazine, for May, tion in your next.

1819, entitled, Hecate, Luna, Diana, As I feel much gratified in the suc- who met in a fork-way." From the cess of your publication, I will occa- German of Wieland. sionally send you an article or two.

ALTHOUGH there may be nothing omiYours, &c.

nous in the characters introduced to June 21, 1819. J. SOMERVILLE.

our notice in this doubtful dialogue, The following inscription is copied yet we can scarcely suppose, that the from a portrait of the Admiral Crich- writer had no object in view; even ton, in the old house of Frendraught,* though he has had either the ingenuity in Aberdeenshire. It is written on the or misfortune to express his sentiments back ground, half on each side of the in language, that is far from being dishead.

tinctly intelligible. To a merely superJacobus Critonius Clunius

ficial reader, nothing is visible but an Musarum pariter ac Martis

unmeaning jargon; while to those who Alumnus, omnibus in studiis,

reflect on what they peruse,

certain Ipsis etiam Italis, admirabilis,

prognostics appear of some design Mantuæ a Ducis Mantuani

which the Author has partially conFilio, ex nocturnis insidiis,

cealed. Occisus est, anno Christi 1581.

The region into which we are introEt genus et censum dat Scotia, Gallia pectus, duced, seems to abound with absurdiExcolit admirans Italia terra virum :

ties, which bewilder the understandAmbit et esse suum, vellet gens æmula vitam Abstulit sin satis hoc, dicat ut illa suum,

ing; and with forms, that are frightful Mantua habet cineres scelus execrata nefandum, bear a strange but striking resem

and confounding to the senses. These At tumuli tanto gaudet honore tamen.

blance to each other; but when we [A. translation of the above inscrip- attempt to seize the former, and to tion is solicited.]

ascertain the tangibility of the latter, * Sir James Crichton was, by Charles I. the phantoms elude our grasp, the faAugust 20, 1642, created Viscount Fren-bric dissolves, and we are compelled to draught, and the title expired in Lewis, the infer, from those fleeting images which fifth Viscount, who was altainted in July, indistinctly hover round us, that ap1690, temp. Will. III.

plication of the dialogue which the the place, that it was some moments were instantly in arms against an opinafter our entrance ere the pupils of ion so hostile to their prejudices; and our eyes became sufficiently dilated to Philolaus was obliged to fly from Italy penetrate the obscurity.

for that protection which the laws of We found the family indolently re- his country denied him. The most disclining round the fire; a frugal meal of tinguishing tenet of the Pythagorean potatoes was preparing, which, with school, was the diurnal revolution of milk, and sometimes the diversity of the Earth, and its annual motion round limpits, whose shells were heaped the Sun; which they supposed to ocround the entrance, seems to form their cupy the centre of the planetary system. chief food. In short, every thing borc Astronomy owes but little to the phithe aspect of poverty in the extreme, losophers of the Academic sect, and but it was pleasingly blended with yet less to the Peripatetics. Plato, looks of cheerfulness, and a dispo- the founder of the former, is said, by sition to give, even of the little they Theon, of Smyrna, to have been the possessed.

inventor of epicycles, and to have At six in the evening we arrived at embraced that system which is now Loch Indaal, and found our vessel at usually ascribed to Ptolemy. Arisanchor. This harbour is formed by the .totle followed him in this respect. isle of Ornsey and the coast of Skye, Aristotle, possessed of a treasure and is immediately opposite to Loch in practical Astronomy, which was Hourne.

probably inestimable, was neither ac[To be continued.]

quainted with the use of it himself, nor knew so much of its value as to

induce him to use the necessary means HISTORY OF ASTRONOMY.

for its preservation to those who [Continued from col. 418.]

might. How much is it to be lamentThe brightness of the milky-way, he ed, that the Babylonic observations (Pythagoras) ascribed to the effect of did not fall into the hands of his cona great number of small stars, which temporary Eudoxus, instead of his ! are situated in that part of the heavens; Eudoxus, a Cnidian, was a scholar and he supposed the distances of the of Plato, and contemporary with ArisMoon and Planets from the Earth, to totle, though considerably older: he is be in certain harmonic proportions to called by Cicero, “ the Prince of Asone another. He is said to have ex- tronomers.” He was the first who hibited the oblique course of the Sun applied geometry to the heavens. He in the ecliptic, and the position of the flourished about 360 years before the tropical circles, by means of an arti- birth of Christ. ficial sphere. He was the first who In the earlier part of his life he tratanght, that the planet Venus is both velled into Egypt, being recommended the evening and morning star; which to Nectanebo, king of Egypt, by Argesometimes rises before, and at others silaus, and by him to the priests, with sets after, the Sun; as we are informed whom he conversed for a considerable by Pliny, Nat. Hist. b. i. c. 8. where he time, and learned from them many writes thus :-“ Below the Sun there is things relating to Astronomy. After a beautiful star, called Venus, who he returned from Egypt, he taught performs her period, wandering some- Astronomy in Asia, in Italy, and other times this way, and sometimes that : parts; and had many scholars. He while she precedes the morning, and particularly insisted on the necessity rises before the Sun, she takes the of making astronomical observations ; name of Lucifer; on the other hand, and taught the manner of making them. when she shines in the West, prolong- He corrected the Grecian year, according, as it were, the day-light, she is ing to the precepts which he had recalled Vesper. These particulars re- ceived from the Egyptian priests, addlating to this star were first found out ing, as Pliny informs us, six hours to by Pythagoras, of Samos, about the the solar year of 365 days. According 420 Olympiad.”

to Seneca, he brought the hypotheses The true system of the universe, of the motions of the five Planets, out which Pythagoras had taught in pri- of Egypt into Greece. Archimides vate, was publicly maintained by his observes, that Eudoxus believed the disciple Philolaus, who flourished Sun's diameter to be nine times as about the year 450, A. C. The people much as the Moon's. Hipparchus, in

The Levites are correctors : Heav'n revises :

66

ON THE WORLD.

505 Inscription on Crichton's Monument - Epigrams. 506 his writings upon Aratus, often quotes

MR. EDITOR, Eudoxus, with great praise for his Though some allowance must be made knowledge in, and great attention to, for the poetry, yet perhaps the sentiAstronomy: Vitruvius ascribes to him ment of the following Epigrams of Mr. the invention of drawing a sun-dial Francis Quarles, may amuse some of upon a plane ; from whence it may be your readers. inferred, that he was tolerably well

ALPHA Beta. acquainted with the doctrine of the sphere, and the method of projecting

ON A PRINTING-HOUSE. its circles on a plane ; which cannot be The world's a printing-house : our words, our thoughts, done without a considerable know- Our deeds, are characters of several sizes: ledge in geometry: and, indeed, there

Each soul is a compositor, of whose faults are many who think that the greater

Death is the common press, from whence being driv'n, part of what now bears the name of We're gatherd sheet by sheet, and bound for heav'n.

Euclid's Elements of Geometry,” ought to be attributed to Eudoxus.

The world's a book, writ by the eternal art
[To be continued.]

of the great Maker; printed in man's heart;
'Tis falsely printed, though divinely penn'd;

Th'errata will appear all at the end.
Inscription on Crichton's Portrait.

ON PRAYING TO SAINTS.

Not pray to Saints !- Is not the warrant ample, TO THE EDITOR OF THE IMPERIAL

If back'd with Scripture, strengthened by example ! MAGAZINE.

Did not that swelt'ring Dives make complaint

For water! Was not Abraham a Saint ! SIR,

Why should reformed churches, then, forbid it!” Having read, with pleasure, the ac- “ 'Tis true; but where, and what was he that did it!" count of my countryman, the Admirable Crichton, in the third number of the Imperial Magazine, I have sent Observations on an Article inserted in you the annexed inscription for inser- the Monthly Magazine, for May, tion in your next.

1819, entitled," Hecate, Luna, Diana, As I feel much gratified in the suc- who met in a fork-way.From the cess of your publication, I will occa- German of Wieland. sionally send you an article or two.

Although there may be nothing omi. Yours, &c.

nous in the characters introduced to June 21, 1819. J. SOMERVILLE.

our notice in this doubtful dialogue, The following inscription is copied yet we can scarcely suppose, that the from a portrait of the Admiral Crich- writer had no object in view; even ton, in the old house of Frendraught,* though he has had either the ingenuity in Aberdeenshire. It is written on the or misfortune to express his sentiments back ground, balf on each side of the in language, that is far from being dishead.

tinctly intelligible. To a merely superJacobus Critonius Clunius

ficial reader, nothing is visible but an Musarum pariter ac Martis

unmeaning jargon; while to those who Alumnus, omnibus in studiis,

reflect on what they peruse, certain Ipsis etiam Italis, admirabilis,

prognostics appear of some design Mantuæ a Ducis Miantuani

which the Author has partially conFilio, ex nocturnis insidiis,

cealed. Occisus est, anno Christi 1581.

The region into which we are introEt genus et censum dat Scotia, Gallia pectus, duced, seems to abound with absurdiExcolit admirans Italia terra virum :

ties, which bewilder the understandAmbit et esse suum, vellet gens æmula vitam Abstulit sin satis hoc, dicat ut illa suum,

ing; and with forms, that are frightful

These Mantua habet cineres scelus execrata nefanduin, and confounding to the senses. At tumuli tanto gaudet honore tamen.

bear a strange but striking resem

blance to each other; but when we [A translation of the above inscrip-attempt to seize the former, and to tion is solicited.]

ascertain the tangibility of the latter, * Sir James Crichton was, by Charles I. the phantoms elude our grasp, the faAugust 20, 1642, created Viscount Fren- | bric dissolves, and we are compelled to draught, and the title expired in Lewis, the infer, from those fleeting images which fifth Viscount, who was altainted in July, indistinctly hover round us, that ap1690, temp. Will. III.

plication of the dialogue which the Author has so cautiously omitted to are also fully assured, that wherever express.

absolute perfection exists, it must be It was a favourite maxim with Vol- founded in a unity of essence; and, taire, to “Strike, but conceal the consequently, no modes of existence hand.” With this principle, the wri- can be predicated of God, that are ter of this dialogue seems to have inconsistent with this unity of essence; been well acquainted. He has adopt- nor can any modes of existence be ed its essence, without appealing to denied of this great and incomprehenthe precept. His views are carried sible Being, which are not perceived beyond the maxims of his preceptor; to be inconsistent with this unity. and, by a peculiar species of well- Here, then, we perceive our limits: contrived accident, he has taught the God cannot include in his nature any javelin to fly beyond its mark. The thing that is hostile to the unity of his arm, however, by which it has been essence; nor be destitute of any modes thrown, has proved too feeble for the of being, which, in accordance with undertaking. And although in this this unity, are essential to absolute attempt, the Author has summoned perfection. Hence, the former exDiana, Luna, and Hecate, to his aid, cludes all separation; and the latter instead of deriving any advantage includes whatever our abstract idea of from their presence, they have taught distinction, without separation, or an his readers, that, in assailing the Tri- hostility to simple unity, can be prenity through earthly analogies, even sumed to imply. In this unity and infernal illumination can render him distinction, therefore, while we beno assistance.

hold all that is possible, we also perThe doctrine of the Trinity is an ceive all that is necessary to the existarticle of belief among the genuine ence of a triad of persons in one professors of Christianity. They ad- common essence; and these are premit it to be inexplicable in its nature; cisely the modes of existence included but, that it involves contradictory in the Trinity. ideas, is a position they have yet to How these distinct subsistences can learn. With the modes of existence inhere in one essence, we do not that are possible even to finite intelli- know; but our inability to compregences, the powers of man are but im- hend the manner, can never be urged perfectly acquainted.

as an argument against the fact. these there may be varieties, which We cannot comprehend the existhave not yet reached the human intel-ence of an unoriginated Being; and lect: and if we may presume, that admitting him to exist, we can no there is no arrogance so daring, as to more conceive how he can exist in assert, “ I have reached the summit unity, than how a trinity of persons of all knowledge ; and the vast empire can exist in a unity of essence. of all possibilities lies within the grasp could comprehend the manner in which of my comprehension;" there may be, God exists, reason directs us to reject in some distant region, even finite it, since we are fully assured, that beings, whose manner of existence what we can comprehend, cannot be involves difficulties which we can no God. Finite can no more comprehend more comprehend, than we can those infinite, than a part can contain a which are connected with the doctrine whole, of which it is itself a part. of the Trinity.

Whatever we allow to be infinite, When we raise our thoughts from we must admit to be incomprehensible. finite to infinite, the ocean becomes It is sufficient on such occasions for us unbounded; and nothing but pre- to perceive, that our ideas are not sumption can direct us to assert, that destructive of each other; and beyond no mode of existence is possible, but this we cannot presume to pass. We that with which we have been ac- therefore resolve the modes of the quainted. Of a Being, in the essence Divine subsistence into some first of whose nature actual existence is principles, which are utterly unknown included, we can form no adequate to us; and, taking Revelation for our conception. Admitting such a Being guide, listen to the scoffs of Infidelity to exist, we are compelled to allow, without any apprehension. that his essence must necessarily in- In the Dialogue, on which we presume clude every mode of existence that is to animadvert, the Author has resorted essential to absolute perfection. We to familiar terms, which he has abused

Even among

If we

309

Observations on an Article in the Monthly Magazine.

510

by misapplication, charging the doc- | ancients, designated one or three cetrine of the Trinity with asserting, that lestial or infernal personages. But it one is three, and that three are one. is of little consequence what names This is an absurdity he has imputed or what characters these deities bear. to Trinitarians without proof. That They are subject to human passions, one cannot be three, and that three human frailties, and human modes of cannot be one, when the terms are existence. On these principles, all identified, is a self-evident propo- their conversation is founded; earthly sition ; and if the doctrine of the Tri- analogies support all their proposinity implied such a contradiction, it tions; and nothing more can be derivmust be abandoned without defence. ed from the goddesses which appear

When those who advocate the doc- before us, than the same dialogue, if trine of the Trinity, assert, that there carried on between William, James, or are three in one, and that there is one in Peter, with three names, would on all three, the terms which they use, stand occasions supply. for distinct ideas. The word three, ap- If those, whom the writer denoplies to personality ; but the word one, minates “ the mythologists,” had is restricted to essence. The three founded their doctrine of the Trinity distinct personalities partake of one on its resemblance to their own modes common essence; while this one com- of existence, and had attempted to mon essence beams forth in three dis- infer a trinity of persons in a unity tinct personalities. Hence, three dis- of essence, from the manner in which tinct persons, subsisting in one simple three individuals of the human race essence, constitute the Divine nature, subsist, the Author of the Dialogue and comprehend the Trinity.

would have taken his stand upon As this arrangement of our ideas ground that could not have been disincludes nothing that is visibly contra- puted. In this case, all he has addictory, that man alone has a right to vanced would have been entitled to pronounce this mode of existence strict attention; and his observations impossible, who can comprehend all must either have stood or fallen by essences, all modes of subsistence, and their own inherent merit or defecť. all the varieties of being, which lie Assuming as the basis of his sinwithin the empire of reality, and the gular observations, that the modes region of possibility. But since no of the Divine subsistence are to be finite being can ever reach this awful estimated on the same principles by eminence, he knows not but there may which we reason respecting our own, be among those possibilities which he all order is inverted; the distinction cannot grasp, one which includes every between finite and infinite is abolishproperty and perfection that is com- ed; and we are led into a region, in prehended in the nature of the Trinity, which, to use the language of the We may even proceed farther, and Author, we “ hear a barking, as of a assert, that what is thus simply pos- thousand dogs; and a hissing, as of sible, may be real; and, consequently, ten thousand snakes. Hence, flashes there may now be in actual existence lighten from the ground; storm-winds a Being in whose nature all these pro- howl athwart the wood; and the crackperties and perfections are so neces-ing oak-trees are uptorn by the roots." sarily included, that no other mode of When arrogance presumes to enter existence can be possible to him. If, the arcana of Deity, and attempts to therefore, we must grant every thing define his manner of existence by nato be possible that does not involve a tural rules, it introduces a measure contradiction; if the doctrine of the which reason tacitly disowns. Eternity Trinity involves none; and if that cannot be illustrated by any analogy which is possible, may be real; it fol- which time can supply; neither can lows, that a triad of persons subsist- infinity be comprehended by any figure ing in a unity of essence, may now be or dimensions that may be derived in a state of actual existence, and if so, from limited existence, or located this Being must be God.

being. Whatever is infinite, can have To select a passage from this Dia- no analogy but in infinity; and unorilogue for animadversion, will be by no ginated existence can admit of no means an easy task. The Author has comparison. indeed introduced to our notice, three The gods and goddesses of the hoanames, which, in the mythology of the then mythology, may have names,

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