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Galvanic Experiments.


The word itself, like most arbitrary, in their degrees of influence in the order terms, is in the abstract nearly destitute in which they are here placed. 1. Zinc ; of meaning; and all the ideas with which 2. Tin; 3. Lead: in conjunction with, it is now associated, have been derived 1. Gold; 2. Silver; 3. Molybdena; 4. from those particular effects which this Steel ; 5. Copper: but as the science is influence has produced by repeated still in a state of infancy, on the degrees experiments. By Galvani, and others, of influence, philosophers are not yet this strange influence was denominated agreed ; and nothing but time and exanimal electricity; but time and obser- periment can fully ascertain the fact. vation have long since shewn, that these Among the numerous experiments terms could not properly express the which have lately been made, very few ideas which were occasionally excited have been more singular in their effects, by the various phænomena of this myste- than those which were produced on the rious property in nature. By some, 4th of November last, in Glasgow, by who have made this subject their par- Dr. Ure, on the body of a man named ticular study, the electric fluid, without Clydesdale, who had been executed for any distinguishing epithet, has been murder. These effects were produced considered as its primary cause ; but by a Voltaic battery of 270 pair of fourthe doubtful circumstances under which inch plates, of which the results were the Galvanic phenomena sometimes ap- terrible. In the first experiment, on pear, have rendered this assumption moving the rod from the thigh to the rather questionable. Of this uncertainty heel, the leg was thrown forward with another department of science has taken so much violence, as nearly to overturn the advantage; and several contend, one of the assistants. In the second that what has been ascribed to Galvan- experiment, the rod was applied to the ism, is nothing more than the effect of phrenic nerve in the neck, when labochemical oxidation. From these con- rious breathing commenced; the chest flicting opinions, one point, however, heaved and fell; the belly was protrudseems to be obvious; namely, that ex-ed and collapsed with the relaxing and periment has not hitherto been able to retiring diaphragm; and it was thought trace this principle, with precision, to a that nothing but the loss of blood prespecific source in the classifications of vented pulsation from being restored. science. We must therefore be con- In the third experiment, the supra

orbitent to wait, until time, and a combina- tal nerve was touched, when the mus. tion of incidents, shall discover those cles of the face were thrown into frightboundaries, beyond which it ceases to ful action and contortions.

The scene operate, to learn its cause with indubit- was hideous; and many spectators left able assurance.

the room; and one gentleman nearly The experiments which have hitherto fainted, either from terror, or from the been made by philosophers upon animal momentary sickness which the scene bodies, may be reduced nearly to a sin- occasioned. In the fourth experiment, gle point; the statement of which will from meeting the electric power from suffice to give the reader a general idea the spinal marrow to the elbow, the of the subject. Lay bare any principal fingers were put in motion, and the arm nerve, which leads immediately to some was agitated in such a manner, that it great limb or muscle. When this is seemed to point to some spectators, who done, let that part of the nerve which is were dreadfully terrified, from an apexposed, and which is farthest from the prehension that the body was actually limb or muscle, be brought into contact coming to life. From these experiwith a piece of zinc. While in this ments, Dr. Ure seemed to be of opinion, state, let the zinc be touched by a piece that had not incisions been made in the of silver, while another part of the blood vessels of the neck, and the spinal silver touches the naked nerve, if not marrow been lacerated, the body of the dry; or the muscle to which it leads, criminal might have been restored to whether dry or not. In this state, vio- life. Jent contractions will be produced in To what extent these experiments the limb or muscle, but not in any mus- may hereafter be carried, and to what cle on the other side of the zinc. Als beneficial purposes they may be applied, most any two metals, which are suscep-, it is impossible to say. The principle tible of different degrees of oxidation, which has been discovered, is confesswill produce a movement; but the most edly powerful; but the laws by which it powerful are the following, descending is guided are yet, in a great meas: No. I.--VOL. I.



unknown. From the various observa. In most other respects, besides those
tions which have been made on the which relate to manure, it would be
experiments thus far tried, it appears folly to hold up the Chinese as exam-
to be a principle which is closely con- ples; but in these their farmers are
nected with animal life. It seems to be worthy of imitation. They keep their
capable of reaching all the vital func- dung in vats, or in deep trenches,
tions; and we may possibly learn here- which are securely lined, and always
after, from the increasing light which it preserve it in a liquid state; constantly
is constantly imparting, something of recruiting the mass with urine, when it
animation which has hitherto eluded can be procured; but when this fails,
our researches.

they substitute water. They also steep
their seed-corn in liquid manure, a short
time before they deposit it in the earth;
sometimes adding

a given quantity of

nitrate of potash. This they have found, Few maxims are more evident than by long experience, tends considerably this, that

“ truth cannot be impaired to promote the fecundity of their grain. by age;" though it must be confessed, there is a strange propensity in human nature, to be more captivated

THE ARCHBISHOP OF JERUSALEM. with the recommendations of novelty, The Syrian archbishop, Gregorio Pietro than to be instructed by the result of Giarve, has lately paid a visit to this repeated experiments. This is an error country, and he now resides in Frith. which many will be ready to acknow- street, Soho, where his singular appearledge, but which few only will be for- ance excites the notice of numerous ward to rectify.

spectators. His person is highly venerIn a letter of Mr. Dinsdale to the able, and his costume tends to render editor of the “ Annals of Philosophy,” him dignified. He appears in the blue he complains much of the improper dress of the Apostle James. His beard manner in which a majority of our is long, and white; he has a blue turfarmers manage their manure. Their ban; and a splendid robe covers his general method is, either to suffer the inner garments. His business to this dung to lie scattered over the yard, country is to make himself acquainted while the more valuable particles are with the machinery of the Printing continually exhaling; or, if they collect Press, as he intends establishing one at it together, they form a promiscuous Mount Lebanon, for printing a correct heap in some corner, where they let it edition of the sacred Scriptures in the remain uncovered, and carelessly per- Syriac language. Although Mount Lemit the liquid and most important parts banon is under a Christian prince, to be drained away; while they suffer nearly all Syria is governed and inhaannoyances from thc exhalations, which, bited by Turks. Many of these have though they would prove beneficial to embraced Christianity; and he gives it the soil, are insalubrious to themselves, as his opinion, that multitudes more their families, and their cattle. At would follow their example, if Bibles other times, they carry the dung, in were to be procured in their language. a raw and unfermented state, into their But this has hitherto been rendered fields, and deposit it in small heaps, impracticable. Bibles printed in the exposed to the action of the sun and East, and sent to the Syrian Turks, are wind, until all its goodness is nearly said to have been found incorrect. None exhausted.

but a Syrian can correct a Syriac press. The remedy which he proposes is, A single error in the placing of a point that they pay strict attention to the fer- inverts the order of the sentence, and mentative state of their dunghills, to frequently makes it becoine ridiculous. stir and turn them frequently, and to The Archbishop undertakes to become keep them covered with sods or sward, the corrector of the edition which he is that the juices may not suffer exhaus- meditating, and having heard much of tion by the air. Dung managed in this the liberality of the English Christians, manner, Mr. Dinsdale asserts, will he is come hither to solicit that assistprove more beneficial to vegetation, ance, which we hope he will not ask in than all the boasted powers of common

vain. salt, though dignified with the name of As the account which is here given of muriate of soda.

the professed occasion of this patriarchal

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visit, seems to cast a reflection on the was known to exist, but of which no correctness of all the translations which satisfactory accounts have been obtained have been made of the Holy Scriptures for many ages. into the Syriac language, we have been at some pains to ascertain the truth of the charge. In reply to our inquiries, we have been informed, by the most A work of considerable magnitude, respectable authority, that the state- and of much importance to an extenment, by whomsoever made, is wholly sive: neighbourhood, generally known unfounded. The Syriac, we have been by the name of the “ Surry Sewers,” assured, bas very few points; and these was undertaken by the Commissioners are so distinct, that one can hardly be of the Surry Districts. This laborious substituted for another, by any person | task, which is now nearly brought to who has a tolerable acquaintance with a termination, has led, in the course of the language; and, consequently, such its progress, to a discovery of no small mistakes as those mentioned are scarcely consequence to those who view every probable. The Bibles which have been specimen of antiquity with eyes of veneprinted in the East, and transmitted ration. to the Syriac Christians, are stated to In driving the tunnel along Kingbe correct in their translation, and in street, towards the Borough end, many their printing; more so, it is presumed, articles of Roman antiquity have been than any will be which may pass under brought to light. Among these are the inspection of a native, wholly unac- several fragments of cinerary urns, quainted with the art of printing, al- some of which, if entire, would have though they receive their corrections measured nearly two feet in diameter; from his hand.

thence varying downward in diminution We shall be exceedingly glad, if some of magnitude to those which are not one of our learned correspondents, ac- more than two inches. Roman pateræ quainted with the Syriac tongue, will or dishes have also been taken up, furnish us with a dissertation on this which, being filled with odorous oil and subject for our next Number, that the fragrant combustibles, were probably charge of inaccuracy, with which the used in feeding the fires of the funeral Oriental learning of Europe is reproach- piles; and, what is singnlarly remarkcd, may he repelled.

able, in many instances these combustible materials still adlıere to the frag

ments, in a concrete sorm. Of lachryANTIQUITIES.

matories, and glass vessels of various A French Traveller, who is now in kinds, several fragments have likewise Egypt, is said to have discovered an been discovered; but very few have ancient city between some unfrequented been preserved entire, except the sepulmountains, not more than about nine chral terra cotta lamps, of which great hours from the Red Sea. He describes numbers have been secured; but in the situation as between 24 and 25 general these are of a very plain chadegrees of N. latitude; but omits to racter. Some few among them have mention the longitude. According to been stamped on the bottom thus — his account, nearly 800 houses are still

FORTIS; visible; among which are several tem- | FORTIS ; while others, so far as the letples, which appear to have been dedi- V cated to different divinities. There are ters can be distinguished, have the name also eleven statues, and the ruins of AVGVSTVS; others of CLAVDIVS, many others.

Some ancient stations &c. A few human bones have also have also been discovered by the same been taken up; but these, in point of Traveller, in the route leading from the number, have been far exceeded by the Red Sea to the Nile. These seem to tusks of boars, the bones of birds, and have been placed at the regular distance of various animals. of about nine hours from one another ;

this assemblage of scpulchral and, no doubt, in ancient times they remains, it seems evident, that part of were constantly visited by the caravans the Borough was formerly a Roman' which traversed these now unfrequented burial ground. It is, however, someterritories. The same Traveller is also what remarkable, that it has never been said to have ascertained the situation noticed as such by any writers проп

the of an ancient Emerald mine, which history of those periods; not even by

those who have recorded many minute would, during the remainder of the circumstances respecting the Metropolis term, stand possessed of the chapel or and its vicinity. These discoveries meeting-house, upon trust, for the use may hereafter lead to others of a similar and benefit of the society or congreganature, which may, on some future tion then assembling at the chapel or occasion, give a new feature to the meeting-house, maintaining certain dochistory of Southwark.

trines therein particularly described. But that in case the society or con

gregation of Protestants, holding the IMPORTANT LEGAL DECISION RESPECT- doctrines aforesaid, should be totally

dissolved or dispersed, and the public ING A MEETING-HOUSE.

worship at the chapel discontinued by EJECTMENT for a chapel or meeting-them for the space of twelve calendar house, situate in Dartford, in the county months together, then, upon further of Kent. Plea, not guilty.- The cause trust, to assign the premises to such was tried at the Maidstone Summer person, and for such civil purposes, as Assizes, 1817, before Lord Ellenbo- to the lessees should seem meet, or the rough C. J., when the Jury found a survivors of them- should unanimously verilict for the plaintiff, subject to the agree. The chapel has always been opinion of the Court of King's Bench, used as a place of public worship for the upon the following case:

congregation in the declaration of trust On the 30th September, 1795, the mentioned. The defendant, Sampson lessor of the plaintiff, Jolin Wellard, Hawthorn, was the minister, and had was possessed of a piece of land at possession of the chapel. On the 24th Dartford, for the residue of a term of day of March last, Wellard demanded years; and being so possessed, he in possession of the defendant, which was the year 1796 erected and completed at refused. The question for the opinion his own expense the chapel or meeting- of the court was, whether the indenture house in question, on a part of that of lease of the 29th day of September, land; and in the year 1806, 4001. was 1806, was void. subscribed by the congregation there In this action, Chitty was counsel for assembled for public worship, for enlarg. the plaintiff, and Comyn for the defending and improving the same; and in con- ant. But as nothing that materially sideration of the money being so sub- affected the question, which may not be scribed, and that it should be expended found in the observations of the learned for the aforesaid purposes, Wellard judge, was advanced by either, we agreed to grant an underlease of the omit saying their pleadings before our chapel for a term of years, by way of readers, and hasten to the remarks and security to the congregation for laying decision of his lordship. out so large á sum of money upon the The question in this case depends premises; and accordingly a lease for upon the construction of the 9 G. 2. twenty-three years, in the common c. 36. 8. 1., which enacts, form, was executed by Wellard, to man's lands, &c. shall be given, granted, twelve persons as lessees “ of all that aliened, limited, released, transferred, messuage, tenement, chapel, or meet- assigned or appointed, or anyways coning-house, situate in Dartford, and veyed or settled to or upon any person or which then was, and for many years persons, bodies politic or corporate, for past had been, used as a place for the any estate or interest whatsoever, in trust worship of Almighty God, by a society or for the benefit of any charitable uses or congregation of Protestants, assem- whatsoever, unless such conveyance be bling under the patronage of the trus- made by deed, sealed and delivered, in tces of the late Countess of Hunting- the presence of two or more credible don's college,” rendering a pepper-corn witnesses, twelve months before the rent during the life of the lessor, and death of the donor or grantor, and be after his decease a rent of 10l. per an- enrolled in the Court of Chancery, within num for the remainder of the term six calendar months after the execution And on the 13th day of October, 1806, thereof." It is admitted, that if this upon the back of the said lease was lease come within the former part of the indorsed a declaration of trust, purport- clause, it is void, inasmuch as the proing to be by all the lessees, but which visions of the act have not been complieri was, in fact, only executed by four; with, and the question therefore is, by which it was declared, that they whether it was conveyed for the benefit

" that no 57

Some Account of Two Cingalese Priests.


of a charitable nse. Now, to ascertain trust, it puts the matter beyond all the purpose for which the lease was made, doubt; for the purposes for which the we must see, first, the situation of the lease was granted are there specifically parties at the time; then, what was the described, and clearly amount to a chathing granted; and lastly, the declara- ritable use; and although the premises tion of the lessees to whom the grant was may cease to be used for public worship, made. It appears, from the case, that yet the lease having been originally in 1795, Wellard had, at his own expense, granted for a charitable use, is void. It erected a chapel, and that 4001. had been has been argued, too, that the declara. subscribed for the making of improve- tion of trust having been executed by ments by the congregation, and that the four ouly out of the several lessees, is lease was executed as a security to the only evidence against those; but I take it congregation, for laying out so large a to be clear, that the declaration of one of sum of money upon the premises. The the lessees is evidence against all, as to motives, therefore, which induced Well- the purpose for which the lease was taken. ard to grant the lease were, that the Under these circumstances, I have no chapel might be enlarged and improved doubt, that this lease is void, within the as a place of public worship; and he 9 Geo. 2. c. 36. 8. 1.; and that being so, agreed, that the congregation should have there must be judgment for the plaintiff.” the lease, as a security for the money On the point thus at issue, Justice they were about to lay out on the pre- Abbott and Justice Holroyd spoke at mises, which were to continue to be used

some length. But although in some as a place for public worship.. The lease particulars they took distinct views of itself then describes the subject matter the same subject, the result of their of the conveyance as a chapel or meeting, reasonings was much alike, and they house, which then was and had been used

were led to the same conclusion. Unas a place of public worship, and there der this concurrence of judgment, the is then a reservation of a pepper-corn Jury had no ground for hesitation. They rent during the life of the lessor, and accordingly found a verdict for the plainupon his death, 1ol. per annum during tiff, agreeably to the direction of the the remainder of the term. It has been

Judges. argued, that this must be taken to be a full consideration for the granting of the lease, and that this case, therefore, some ACCOUNT OF MUNHI RAT HANA, comes within the exception of the act of parliament. When the plaintiff has,

AND DHERMA RAMA, TWO CINGALESE however, once established that this is a PRIESTS, NOW RESIDING WITH DR. charitable use, it lies upon the defend- ADAM CLARKE, AT MILLBROOK, ABOUT ant to bring himself within the excep

TEN MILES FROM LIVERPOOL. but it is quite impossible to say, that this was a full and valuable conside- We have been highly gratified with the ration. Wellard had, at his own expense, perusal of a letter, written by Dr. Clarke, built this chapel upon his own land, and which has lately been published in the 400l. having been subscribed for the im- Wesleyan Missionary Notices; and, from provement of that chapel, he parts with a full persuasion that its contents will the premises for twenty-three years, with prove particularly interesting and inout receiving any remuneration whatever, structive to many of our readers, we in the event of his living to the end shall make no apology for introducing a of the term, and if he die, then his considerable portion of it to their notice. executors are to receive 10l. per annum The Cingalese Priests, to whom our during the residue of the term. The extracts will be chiefly confined, have purpose, therefore, for which the lease been in England somewhat more than was to be made, is stated on the case, one year. They came to this country and if that only had been stated, without with Sir Alexander Johnston; and, soon adding the declaration of trust, I should after their arrival, were placed by the have thought that this case came within Wesleyan Missionary Committee, under the act of parliament. I take it to be the paternal care and religious instrucquite clear, that it is not necessary that tion of Dr. Clarke. Of their natural the purpose shonld appear upon the face dispositions, Oriental learning, talents, of the instrument itself, for if it were so, recent acquirements, and general chathe statute might always be evaded. racter, the following extract will furnish Then, if we look to the declaration of an interesting account.

tion ;

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