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place in the political condition of this to peace, be the primary cause of our nation, in the extent of its commerce, distresses, we may fairly infer, that our agriculture, and population, have not calamities and sufferings are only of a rendered some change in these laws temporary nature. Peace will direct us necessary, are points on which the to new avenues of trade, which will opinions of speculative and practical ultimately furnish new sources of emmen have of late been much divided. ployment, where industry will exert its

It is admitted by all parties, that the powers, and from which it will gather support of the Poor in this country is its reward. It is only in the arms of become a burden, the weight of which full employment, that a spirit of insuris almost intolerable. And if the alarm-. rection can be expected to find pering progression in which the demand manent repose. And it is only in this for assistance has of late years increased, region, that those who now solicit an may be taken as a fair ground for future alms from the hand of charity, wealth, calculations, the period is not remote, or fortune, will regain that indepenwhen the means of support must sink dence of character, which makes even under the accumulating pressure. poverty itself cease to be discreditable.

To give existence to this unwelcome On the demoralized condition of the change, many causes have, no doubt, Poor, much has been said, and many conspired; but it is highly probable, things have been written. It cannot be that we may find the whole, or nearly denied, that vice prevails among them the whole, concentrated in that sudden in no common degree; but whether the transition from a condition of unexam- iniquities of the lower orders have inpled warfare, to a state of unexpected creased in proportion to the demands peace, which this country, which Eu- for assistance wnich they have lately rope, and a large portion of the world, made, is a point which we have yet to have lately experienced. There is no- ascertain. thing unnatural in the supposition, that It is well known, that war is not a a considerable degree of weakness school, in which either the soldier or should immediately succeed to a dan- the sailor learns many lessons of moral gerous fever.

This dreadful disease virtue. Men accustomed to depredaafflicted our country during a period of tion, and instructed by their profession more than twenty years. It has, how- to behold plunder and murder, without ever, happily subsided; but its effects associating any degree of moral turpiare more conspicuous now than they tude with either, can hardly fail to carry were, when nothing but paroxysm and these dreadful acquirements into private delirium convulsed every member of the life. The vices are contagious. Exampolitical body.

ple and precept have conspired to spread In the multitudes of men who have this pernicious species of learning; and been discharged from the navy, and of the gaol, the transport, and the gibbet, soldiers who have been disbanded, we point us to the melancholy result. behold many thousands thrown out of The calamities of which England comall employment. These have been plains, are not unknown in other counturned among the various labouring tries. The nations of Europe have their classes of the community, to procure a share. America has noticed the growing subsistence which government no longer evils; and in one of its principal cities, an provides. The natural effect of this enlightened committee has traced them vast acquisition would have been inevi- to sources which may be found among table, even though the demand for us; and pointed out remedies, which are every article which trade and agricul- practicable in experiment, and promisture supplied during the war, had ing in their issues. As all the leading remained. But when the energies of principles of the Report are of general government were suspended, and the application, we shall make no apology consumptions of war were discontinu- for presenting it to our readers, in exed, the employment for labourers was actly the same manner in which it has diminished in the same proportion that reached us from New York, with the their numbers increased. Thus two omission of a few preliminary resoluconspiring causes met together; and the tions which led to the inquiry, of which consequence has been, that accumula- this is the result. tion of poverty which we every where Report on the subject of Pauperism. behold.

At a meeting of a respectable number But if the sudden transition from war of citizens convened at the New York

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41

Observations on Pauperism.

42

Hospital on Friday, December 16th, a catastrophe would be extensively felt 1817, a committee was formed for the in this free and happy country. Yet it purpose of inquiring into the state of is really to be feared, as we apprehend, Pauperism, and for exploring as much that it would not be long before some as possible the leading causes of its of the proximate evils of such a state of alarming increase; and also for pointing things would be perceived in our public out such means as they thought most cities, and in none, perhaps, sooner likely to meet the growing evil. The than in New York. Although these committee, thus forined, instantly en- consequences are but too apparent tered upon the investigation; and at from the numerous facts which recent a meeting of the society on Friday, investigations have brought to light, the 6th of February, 1818, the follow- particularly in Great Britain, and in ing Report was read; when it was some parts of the United States, yet we resolved, that 1000 copies of the Report are very sensible of the difficulties atand Constitution be published for distri- tendant upon every attempt to provide bution, under the direction of the same an adequate remedy for poverty, and Committee.

its concomitant wretchedness. To the New York Society for the Pre

The evil lies deep in the foundation of vention of Pauperism.

our social and moral institutions; and

we cannot but consider it as one of the The committee appointed to prepare a most obscure and perplexing, and, at the constitution for the government of the same time, interesting and imposing desociety, and a statement of the prevail-partments of political economy. ing causes of pauperism, with sugges- While their exists so great a disparity tions relative to the most suitable and in the physical and intellectual capaciefficient remedies - Report,

ties of men, there must be in every goThat we entered upon the duties as-vernment, where a division of property signed us, under a strong conviction of is recognized by law and usage, a wide the great importance of the subject difference in the means of support. of Pauperism. We were persuaded Such, too, is the complication of human that on the judicious management of affairs, the numerous connexions and this subject, depend, in a high degree, close dependencies of one part upon the comfort, the tranquillity, and the another, it is scarcely to be presumed, freedom, of communities. We were and it would be extravagant to expect, not insensible of the serious and alarm- that under the most moral, and the ing evils that have resulted, in various wisest civil regulation to which human places, from misguided benevolence, society is susceptible of attaining, parand imprudent systems of relief. We tial indigence and distress will not be knew that in Europe and America, experienced to an amount that will ever where the greatest efforts have been demand the exercise of Christian benemade to provide for the sufferings of volence. the poor, by high and even enormous The great and leading principles, taxation, those sufferings were increas- therefore, of every system of charity, ing in a ratio much greater than the ought to be, First, amply to relieve the population, and were evidently aug- unavoidable necessities of the poor; mented by the very means taken to and, Secondly, to lay the powerful hand subdue them.

of moral and legal restriction upon We were fully prepared to believe, every thing that contributes, directly that without a radical change in the and necessarily, to introduce an artifiprinciples upon which public alms have cial extent of suffering, and to dimibeen usually distributed, helplessness nish, in any class of the community, a and poverty would continue to multi-reliance upon its own powers of body ply-demands for relief would become and mind for an independent and virmore and more importunate-the nume- tuous support. That to the influence of rical difference between those who are those extraneous, debilitating causes, able to bestow.charity, and those who may be ascribed nine-tenths of the posue for it, would gradually diminish, verty which actually prevails, we trust until the present system must fall under none will doubt who are extensively acits own irresistible pressure, prostrating, quainted with facts in relation to this perhaps, in its ruin, some of the pillars subject. of social order.

The indirect causes of poverty are It might be long, indeed, before such as numerous as the frailties and 'vices

seasons.

of men. They vary with constitution, when labour is plentiful, which may go with character, and with national and to meet the privations of unfavourable local habits. Some of them lie so deeply entrenched in the weakness and 5th. Imprudent and Hasty Mardepravity of human nature, as to be riages.- This, it is believed, is a fertile altogether unassailable by mere political source of trial and poverty. regulation. They can be reached in 5th. Lotteries.-The depraving nano other way, than by awakening the ture and tendency of these allurements dormant and secret energies of moral to hazard money, is generally admitted foeling

by those who have been most attentive But, with a view to bring the subject to their effects. The time spent in inquicommitted to our charge more definitely ries relative to lotteries, in frequent atbefore the Society, we have thought it tendance on lottery.offices, the fever. right distinctly to enumerate the more ish anxiety which prevails relative to the prominent of those causes of poverty success of tickets, the association to which prevail in this city; subjoining which it leads, all contribute to divert such remarks as may appear needful.

the labourer from his employment, to 1st. Ignorance, arising either from in- weaken the tone of his morals, to conherent dulness, or from want of oppor- sume his earnings, and consequently tunities for improvement. This ope- to increase his poverty. But objectionrates as a restraint upon the physical able and injurious to society as we bepowers, preventing that exercise and lieve lotteries to be, we regard as more cultivation of the bodily faculties by destructive to morals, and ruinous to which skill is obtained, and the means all character and comfort, the numeof support increased. The influence rous self-erected lottery insurances, at of this cause, it is believed, is particu- which the young and old are invited to larly great among the foreign poor that spend their money, in such small pitannually accumulate in this city. tances as the poorest labourer is fre

2d. Idleness.-A tendency to this evil quently able to command, under the may be more or less inherent. It is delusive expectation of gain, the chance greatly increased by other causes, and of which is as low, perhaps, as it is POSwhen it becomes habitual, it is the oc- sible to conceive. The poor are thus casion of much suffering in families, cheated out of their money and their and augments, to a great amount, the time, and too often left a prey to the burden of the industrious portions of feelings of desperation; or they are imsociety.

pelled by those feelings to seek a refuge 3d. Intemperance in Drinking.-This in the temporary, but fatal oblivion of most prolific source of mischief and intoxication. misery, drags in its train almost every

7:h. Pawnbrokers. — The establishspecies of suffering which afflicts the ment of these offices is considered as poor. This evil, in relation to poverty very unfavourable to the independence and vice, may be emphatically styled, and welfare of the middling and inferior the Cause of Causes. The box of Pan- classes. The artifices which are often dora is realized in each of the kegs of practised to deceive the expectations of ardent spirits that stand upon the coun

those who are induced, through actual ters of the sixteen hundred licensed distress, or by positive allurement, to grocers of this city. At a moderate trust their goods at these places; not to computation, the money spent in the mention the facilities which they afford purchase of spirituous liquors would be to the commission of theft, and the more than sufficient to keep the whole encouragement they give to a depencity constantly supplied with bread. dence on stratagem and cunning, rather Viewing the enormous devastations of than on the profits of honest industry, this evil upon the minds and morals of fairly entitle them, in the opinion of the the people, we cannot but regard it as committee, to a place among the causes the crying and increasing sin of the of poverty.* nation, and as loudly demanding the solemn deliberation of our legislative the individuals who sustain the characters of

* It cannot be considered as a reflection on assemblies.

4th. Want of Economy.- Prodigality Pawnbrokers, to notice, that the very nature is comparative. Among the poor it of their employment has, in some views, a prevails to a great extent, in an inatten- demoralizing tendency. Persons, who comtion to those small but frcqnent savings I mit their nightly depredations, frequently

45

Moral Barometer of Paris.

46

8th. Houses of ill fame.-The dire- | many of them of decent families, who ful effects of those sinks of iniquity are here subjected to the most cruel upon the habits and morals of a nume- tyranny of their inhuman masters — rous class of young men, especially upon the females, who, hardened in of sailors and apprentices, are visible crime, are nightly sent from those dens throughout the city, Open abandon. of corruption to roam through the city, ment of character, vulgarity, profanity,“ seeking whom they may devour,” we &c. are among the inevitable conse- have not the inclination, nor is it our quences, as it respects our own sex, of duty to describe. Among “ the causes those places of infamous resort. Their of poverty,” those houses, where all the effects upon the several thousands of base-born passions are engendered females within this city, who are in- where the vilest profligacy receives a gulphed in those abodes of all that is forced culture—must hold an eminent vile, and all that is shocking to virtuous rank. thought, upon the miserable victims,

[To be continued.]

repair to these offices, and deposit as pledges A traffic thus carried on cannot but, in various articles which they would hardly process of time, turn to the advantage of the attempt to sell, lest the immediate effort pawnbruker. Goods that have been stolen are to dispose of them entirely, should excite rarely redeemed; and when they are sold, all suspicion. But, by carrying them to a the surplus money is real profit. A pawnbropawnbroker, an air of secrecy, which arti- ker is therefore peculiarly interested in the ficial modesty supplies, conceals the transac- issues of these bargains; and should bis attache tions which take place, so that villany finds a ment to moral principle be rather languid, retreat in the arms of delicacy.

a temptation is thrown in his way, to connive As pawnbrokers are always careful not to at deeds which he may comprehend tolerably advance a sụm that shall exceed one half the well, without bearing an active part in the value of the article deposited, the appearance transaction, or becoming an accomplice in of honesty in the person who pawns, serves to guilt. It is obvious, therefore, that in prothrow another mantle over his deeds of dark- portion as this mutual, but silent understandness; since it may be fairly inferred, that he ing becomes general, the pawnbroker is sanchas an intention to redeem his pledge. But, tioned by law to encourage the thief, who, in baving obtained a given sum, the article is for return, rewards him with a portion of his ever abandoned, lest an inquiry after it should spoils.-EDITOR. lead to detection.

MORAL BAROMETER OF PARIS.

Account of Births, Deaths, and Marriages, in the city of Paris, during the year

1817. Sent to the French Board of Longitude, by the Prefecture of the Department.

In wedlock.

{ Boys.... 7,395
Girls.... 7,028

14,423
Out of wedlock

Boys.... 2,216
Girls.... 2,213 S

4,429
In wedlock

S Boys...

148

989
Girls.. 141
Out of wedlock

S Boys.... 2,360
Girls.... 2,258

4,618
Boys.... 12,119

Girls.... 11,640
Total of Births

23,759

BIRTUS.

In Hos- In Houses

at Home. pitals.

Acknowledged..

$ Males.... 1,073 NATURAL

Females 1,037 3

2,110 CHILDREN.

Males.... 3,503 )
Abandoned
Fenjales.. 3,434 )

6,937

>9,047

DEATHS.

83

MARRIAGES.

In private | Males.

5,805 Houses. | Females,

6,379 In Hos- S Males..

3,911 pitals. | Females

4,072

21,124
French Soldiers

602
In Prisons
Lodged in “ La Morgue”.

272
Of these Deaths, 740 were from the Small-Pox.
Bachelors and Maids...

5,171 Bachelors and Widows ...

355

6,382 Widowers and Maids..

605 Widowers and Widows

251 We translate this list of Births, for we farther learn from this report, Deaths, and Marriages, from the “ An- that, out of the 9,047 natural children, nales de Chimie et de Physique,for no fewer than 6937, nearly seven-ninths Nov. 1818, (where it is given without a of the number, are ABANDONED by their single observation either of astonislı- criminal and unnatural parents. That ment or of apology,) for the purpose of such a horrible state of things should predrawing the attention of English readers vail in the French metropolis, and that to such singular facts as it presents. the French Board of Longitude should

Out of 23,759 births in the compass present it to the public in a dry detail, of one year, there are 9,047 natural without a single reflection, exhibits a children! There are persons, we are more striking proof of the immorality aware, who, if such an awful fact were of France, and of that bluntness of mentioned to them, would reply," True, moral perception and humane feeling “ but then you know, though the per- which immorality infallibly produces,

sons are not actually married, they than any thing else which we have yet “ live together as man and wife, and heard or read. Happy Britain ! where “ take care of their children, of course. the mere announcement of such partiThis, however, is evidently not the case; 'culars excites astonishment and pity!

66

SINGULAR EXPERIMENT ON GAL

VANISM.

which are now filled with names of illustrious characters, that posterity, as well

as ourselves, must venerate, would have When sciences of any description are presented nothing more than a dreary in their infancy, they have always a blank. host of difficulties to encounter; and The man who discovers a new power many discoveries have no doubt been or principle in nature, whether simple crushed in their birth, which, if che- in itself

, or resulting from a combinarished only for a short season, might|tion of causes, is entitled to the thanks have proved highly beneficial to man- of his country, even though his efforts kind. That genius, time, and talent to turn it to any useful purpose should have been wasted in researches which finally prove unsuccessful. Sciences, have finally proved abortive, is a truth, like men, require much time to ripen which every one will be ready to admit; them to perfection. In both cases their but why this should be urged as a rea- growth is progressive; and he who will son for laying an embargo on the vigor- not cherish an infant, never deserves to ous exertions of an active spirit, which, behold a man. We have been led into Columbus-like, explores unknown re- these reflections by the term which gions in search of undiscovered worlds, stands at the head of this article; and we have not yet been able to learn. A the account of some experiments which single discovery of importance, will have lately been made, will, we hope, amply compensate for a multitude of sanction the observations which we have disappointments. In chemistry, and in introduced. various branches of naturally philoso- The term Galvanism is derived from phy, we found our knowledge of esta- Galvani, a professor of anatomy at Boblished facts, upon the concurring logna, who, not many years since, disresults of repeated experiments. But, covered a certain influence, by which if all the arts and sciences had been animal bodies were strangely affected abandoned when experiment proved by applications of metallic substances to unsuccessful, the pages of our history, particular parts of the nervous system.

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