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partially decayed bodies taken from It will be readily admitted, that in their graves, but in some mysterious many large towns, the burial grounds manner they soon disappear.

are so encircled with buildings, that The charnel-houses, in many places, they cannot be enlarged.

But as bear a striking resemblance to the there can be no necessity that cemecemeteries. Bones, united together by teries should be surrounded with the their natural ligaments, are frequently habitations of the living, the purchase taken to these unwholesome reposi- of a field in the vicinity may be accomtories, where they remain, to undergo plished without much difficulty: and a separation in the air, and to have if some heavy tax were levied on every their putrid moisture exhaled. I could grave, that, within a given time, should easily mention specific instances, to be opened in the old ground, as but confirm all I have advanced; but few only would be able to pay it, the the detail would be too nauseous to evil would gradually diminish, and in meet the public eye.

time wholly subside; while the money The interment of dead bodies in thus paid by those who could submit churches, and in many other places of to the impost, would finally amount public worship, how congenial soever nearly to the sum required to purchase it may be to the feelings of pious sym- the field. pathy, I cannot but consider in the As the manners in which the bodies light of a serious evil. In vaults which of the dead have been interred, or are deeply sunk below the floor, the otherwise consumed, have been reunwholesome effluvia are impercepti- markably diversified in different ages, ble: but even this is no proof that nox- and among distinct nations, I shall be ious vapours are not emitted ; and in highly gratified if some one of your proportion as these multiply in num- ingenious correspondents will favour ber, they will in the aggregate be more your numerous readers with a short frequently opened; and, consequently, analysis of prevailing customs on this will pollute that air which the living interesting subject. I shall also be must inevitably breathe. In some much pleased in finding that his dismodern meeting-houses, these vaults sertation gives to us an account of the are still less secure. In several, the probable time when the present manbodies of the dead are separated from ner of interment took place; and also the living by little more than the what mode prevailed in this nation in wooden floor on which the latter stand: the more early periods of its 'history, and although in these places nothing Such a dissertation would certainly offensive may sensibly affect the olfac- embrace the changes which the various tory nerves, we cannot avoid conclud- invaders of our country introduced ; ing, that the atmosphere must be im- and by these we should know, with a pregnated with putrid contaminations. tolerable degree of accuracy, at what

There was, no doubt, a period, when time interments took place in our the portion allotted for the burial of churches, and in those grounds by the dead, was sufficiently extensive to which in general they are encircled. correspond with the population of the But whatever your opinion may be district. But in many of our large respecting my latter observations, I towns, the vast increase of the inha- hope you will not neglect the principal bitants, and the consequent augmenta-object which induced me to write ; tion of deaths, have totally destroyed namely, to prevent the living from this proportion; and, by slow and im- being annoyed by the unnatural disperceptible degrees, nursed that evil, turbance of the dead. There are very of which we have too much reason to few who have not some friend, whose complain, to its present state of dread-mouldering ashes ask for protection in 'ful maturity. As our legislative powers the grave. The powerful sympathies are now disengaged from the anxieties of our nature involuntarily respond to of war, and as, in several instances, these silent solicitations; and the prothey have manifested a disposition to tection which we render to others, reform abuses and remove nuisances, may be considered as a presage of I most sincerely hope, that an object what we may hereafter expect for of such public interest as this, to which ourselves. I have presumed to call your attention I am, Mr. Editor, and that of your readers, will not

Your's most respectfully, escape their notice.

A FRIEND TO DECENCY.

457

A remarkable but well-attested Incident.

458

A REMARKABLE BUT WELL-ATTESTED

on their return to Manchester; the dog,

highly delighted, and displaying its INCIDENT.

innocent gambols as they walked Some years since, a Lady who lived in along. Proceeding on their journey, Manchester, had an occasion to pay a they had to pass through a long narvisit to some friends who resided at row lane, which, on each side, was Blackley, a village about three miles secured with a thorn fence, the bushes distant. It was during the summer of which were closely interwoven with season; and she began her journey one another. They had not gone far alone, early in the afternoon, intend- in this lane, before the dog gave over ing to return again in the cool of the its friskings, and walked, in haughty evening. She had, however, not pro- silence, a few steps before her. Shortly ceeded far, before a very large dog, afterwards it grew furious, its hair which was a perfect stranger, found stood erect, and its march was accommeans to introduce itself to her notice. panied with sullen growlings. As no Being rather dissatisfied with her new cause of this change in its conduct companion, she endeavoured to drive appeared, the Lady became quite it off; but of these efforts it seemed to alarmed, and endeavoured to pacify take so very little notice, that she the animal by throwing to it some found all her attempts rendered inef- gingerbread, or other article of a simifectual. And as it exhibited no ap- lar nature, which she had in her pocpearance of hostility, but seemed ket. But of this it could not be induplayful, the Lady's fears gradually sub-ced to take the least notice. In this sided; she very naturally concluding, state things remained until they reachthat after the dog had travelled for some ed the extremity of the narrow lane, time, a new object would attract its the dog generally marching a few steps attention, and draw it from her. No- before her. At this extremity, there thing, however, of this kind happened. was an opening into an adjoining field The dog accompanied her through all through the thorn fence, whence a the roads in which she had to walk, strange man suddenly sprang, holding and finally escorted her to the house of in his hand a naked knife. her friend. Arriving hither, she con- Scarcely had the Lady time to shriek trived on entering, to shut out her com- at so terrifying an object, before the panion ; but this circumstance, instead dog seized him with the most savage of causing it to retire, induced it to lie ferocity, and brought him to the ground. at the door, waiting her return. The man, finding himself in this situ

Some person belonging to the family, ation, earnestly solicited the Lady to on opening the door, and finding this call off the animal, that he might not large dog, inquired of the Lady if it be torn in pieces: but as she knew not belonged to her? To this question she its name, this was scarcely practicable; could give no other reply, than that and having in vain used some efforts which the preceding part of the narra- to divert its attention, she hastened on tive has already furnished. She was her journey, leaving the dog holding then told, that as the dog had been her the man on the ground. After she had companion during the journey, it should advanced a few yards, the dog quitted also be a partaker in the accommoda- its hold; again overtook her; and, retions; and it was accordingly invited suming its former playfulness and good in. On entering the house, the Lady humour, seemed to demand, as a reward was the great object of its attention. for its services, the gingerbread which It fawned and played, and manifested, it had previously refused. This was by many significant gesticulations, that given with readiness, and eaten with it was highly gratified. Some manu- much apparent satisfaction. Thus factures being carried on at this place, they proceeded, until they reached the the Lady was invited to survey them; spot where they had met in the afterand into every room which she enter- noon, when the dog took its leave, and ed, her “ faithful dog bore her com- the Lady returned home in safety. To pany,” lying down near her feet when her, both the dog and the man were ever she tarried a few minutes, to look alike strangers; and she never saw or at the objects with which she was sur- heard of either afterwards. rounded.

On a train of circumstances so sinAt length evening arrived, when the gular, it would be easy to make a variLady and her canine associate set off ety of remarks. The fact itself appears to be well attested; nor has any doubt “ It is the fate,” says Dr. Johnson, been entertained of its authenticity by “of those who toil at the lower employthe Lady's friends.

ments of life, to be rather driven by There can scarcely be any question, the fear of evil, than attracted by the that the man, who had concealed him- prospect of good; to be exposed to self behind the thorn fence, had a censure, without hope of praise; to be design to terrify the lady, and perhaps disgraced by miscarriage, or punished to rob, if not to murder, her. The for neglect, where success would have place was well adapted for his pur- been without applause, and diligence pose, as no dwelling was near the without reward. spot. It is also more than probable, “ Among these unhappy mortals is that the dog first began to grow sullen the writer of dictionaries; whom manwhen the man was perceived to be on kind have considered, not as the pupil, the other side of the fence, and that but as the slave of science, the pioneer they walked side by side until they of literature, doomed only to remove reached the aperture, where, with a rubbish and clear obstructions from knife in his hand, he was seized by the the paths through which Learning and courageous animal.

Genius press forward to conquest and Can the friendly interposition of this glory, without bestowing a smile on dog be accounted for on thosc princi- the humble drudge that facilitates their ples which we generally denominate progress. Every other author may instinctive? This is hard to be con- aspire to praise; the lexicographer ceived. The Lady, it seems, had no can only hope to escape reproach, and knowledge of the animal before. It even this negative recompense has came unsolicited, and accompanied been yet granted to very few.” – Preher in direct opposition to her efforts face to Dictionary. to drive it away: and after having as- In the prefatory parts of this work, sociated with her during the day, and we have the sounds and accents of letguarded her from danger when return- ters distinctly marked, as they stand ing in the evening, disappeared, to be in their varied combinations in the seen by her no more. These pheno- formation of words. A compendium mena must have arisen either from of Grammar is also introduced, accominstinct, or a particular providence; panied with a table, showing the faand we shall find more difficulty in mily compact between verbs, nouns, resolving all into the former, than in adnouns, and adverbs, and also the allowing the latter to be a branch of manner in which they have been dethe moral economy of God.

rived, and how, by their varied terminations, they constitute these distinct parts of speech. Nothing, however,

is contained in this analysis, that apReview.The Youth's Spelling, Pronouncing, and Explanatory

T'heologi- mand either reprehension or praise.

pears of sufficient importance to decal Dictionary of the New Testament, 8c. 8c. 8vo. pp. 409. price 78. Long- of one syllable, arranged in alphabeti

The work itself begins with Verbs man, 8c. London, 1818.

cal order, accompanied with their reThere is scarcely any department of spective definitions, and occasionally Literature, in which an author can with a short dissertation on the sense, employ his pen, where the hazard of which, in various parts of the sacred disgrace so far outweighs the proba- writings, they are intended to convey. bility of applause, as in the writing or From these, the author passes to verbs the compilation of a Dictionary. His of two, of three, and finally to those orthography, his accentuation, his of four syllables, defining and explaindefinitions, and, on some occasions, his ing each in a similar manner, and classification of terms, are destined to giving to some words, as he proceeds, undergo the rigours of critical exami- such an additional orthography, as nation. Should he escape censure on accords with the actual pronunciation one occasion, he can scarcely hope to of them. be equally successful on all; and it Having finished verbs, he next inrarely happens, that the errors of a troduces Nouns, preserving the same lexicographer can be so concealed as alphabetical arrangement and manner, to elude detection, or, when discover and comprising, in distinct classes, all ed, that they are treated with mercy, words from one to six syllables.

461 Review.--Dictionary of the New Testament. 462

Adnouns or Adjectives follow nouns. ments of learning, every facility should These proceed in the same order, be- be afforded; but we have our fears, ginning with words of one syllable, that the repetition of the alphabet and ending with those of five.

twenty-four times, independently of the Adverbs are treated in a similar Index, which must compel the learner way; but of the other parts of speech, to turn to a distinct department of the no notice is taken in this arrange- book for every word of which he wishes ment.

to know the meaning, merely that he The preceding list is followed by may find how many syllables it consome few nouns, which terminate in tains, will not greatly accelerate his er, or, and ess.

These are accompa- | progress. nied with about forty active participles, As a school Dictionary, however, in which are occasionally used as nouns. places where Religion and Morality After these, we have some additional are prominent branches of the learning verbs, which precede some additional that is taught, this book will not be nouns, that seem to have been pre- without its use. Many words are acviously forgotten; and, finally, the companied with their religious import, whole is accompanied with a very as well as their philological definitions ; copious index, referring to all the and no man who is pleased with the words which had been classified ac- judicious observations of the celebratcording to their parts of speech. These ed Cruden, will be offended at seeing are now arranged in a general alpha- his sentiments transcribed. The varibetical order. Such is the general ous senses in which the same word is outline of the work before us.

used in the sacred Scriptures, will be It is obvious, from these classifica- insensibly impressed upon the reader's tions and arrangements, that the author mind; and his acquaintance with the has spared no pains in preparing his inspired writings will increase by his work for publication; but whether the being so constantly referred to pasbenefit which his readers will probably sages in which these varied senses of derive from this branch of his labours, the same word distinctly occur. The may correspond with his industrious following examples will illustrate the application, may perhaps admit of truth of these remarks. some considerable doubts. We should “ Bless, (v.) to prosper, or make be exceedingly sorry to throw any happy; which, properly, is the act of obstacle in the way of an author, who God alone, the author and giver of has for his object the welfare of the ris- every temporal and spiritual blessing. ing generation; and particularly those God blesses, especially, by the who are indebted for their instruction rich provision which he has made in to the bounties of benevolence. We his glorious plan of redemption, to cannot, however, perceive the advan- recover man from the effects of the fall; tages which a Dictionary is likely to in the supplies of his grace, and by derive from this singular classification. the gifts of his Holy Spirit, whereby

“ The following Dictionary,” says man is enabled to serve him acceptably the author,

being chiefly designed in this world, and to receive a meetfor the use of young persons, the ords

ness foi

hat eternal inheritance in are arranged under their respective heaven, where he will be perfectly parts of speech, and classed in alpha- happy in the enjoyment of God for betical order, according to the number ever. of syllables, for the purpose of exer

“ This word is often used in an infecising the mind of the learner. After rior sense; and man is said to bless a little practice in ascertaining the God, when, with a grateful heart, he parts of speech, and distinguishing the praises him for benefits received, and number of syllables contained in any lives to his glory. He may be said to word, of which the explanation may bless his fellow-creatures, when he be required, the reference to the Dic- wishes them every good, and uses his tionary will become pleasant and easy. best endeavours to promote their hapTo such as may not be disposed to take piness.” that trouble, the Index at the end of “ Blow, (v.) blo, to move forcibly, the book will be found useful.”-Intro. or to be put in quick motion, as the

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wind in a brisk gale, which moves To children, and adults like chil- freely and acts powerfully; its force dren, who are acquiring the first rudi- | being felt, and iis cifects evident, but

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the manner cannot be fully under-| by observing his providences, and by stood: to which our Saviour has com- praying for his Spirit, to enlighten, pared that spiritual charge which is instruct, and guide the soul.” wrought in the soul of the believer by The specimens thus given can hardly the operation of God's Holy Spirit.” fail to serve two occasions; namely, to

“ Burn, (v.) to consume or destroy exhibit the author's manner of proby fire; to scorch with heat; to be in- ceeding in his work, and the pious disflamed with unlawful desires, 1 Cor. position by which he has been actuvii. 9; to be filled with a holy zeal for ated. Those who are not disposed to the glory of God, and the good of question his sincerity in the preceding others.

examples, will not hesitate to give him FAITH, (n.) fàth, a dependence on credit for his motives, which, in the the credit of another for the truth of concluding paragraph of his Introducan assertion, or the performance of a tion, he thus states :promise. Hence a person is said to “ As it is the intention of the author keep his faith inviolate, when he per- to submit this work to the inspection forms the promise which another relied of the public, he hopes that it will be

Divine faith, is a firm assent of found useful to those well-disposed the mind to things, upon the authority persons, who are every where maniof Divine revelation. It is thus we festing a pious zeal to remove ignoare persuaded to believe all those rance, the parent of vice, from the truths relating to God, which he has minds of young persons, to impart revealed to us in the Scriptures. Jus- religious instruction, and to inculcate tifying or saving faith, is a saving good moral habits. And he trusts grace wrought in the soul by the Spirit that it will, in some measure, prove an of God, whereby we receive Christ as instrument in the hand of God to prohe is revealed in the Gospel, to be a mote his glory; by directing the attenProphet, Priest, and King ; trust in tion of youth to a more serious perusal him, and rely upon him and his righ- of the oracles of divine truth, and teousness alone, for justification and thereby diffuse more extensively relisalvation. This faith begets a sincere gious knowledge, make the principles obedience in life and conversation. of the Christian religion better underFaith which worketh by love, Gal. v. 6. stood, and its precepts more carefully is not an idle, inactive, inoperative practised. With this end in view, and grace; but shews itself by producing in to add a mite to that stock of knowus, love to God, and to our neighbour. ledge which forms the only sure basis It is put for the belief and profession of national virtue and individual hapof the Gospel; Rom. i. 8.”

piness, he offers up his ardent wishes, “ GRACE, (n.) favour, or mercy. and most fervent prayers, for a blessDivine grace, is the free and unde- ing upon his labours, to the Father of served love and favour of God, which Lights, from whom proceedeth every is the spring and source of all the be- good and perfect gift; to whom, the ncfits which we receive from him, only wise God, our Saviour, be glory especially redemption through Jesus and majesty, dominion and power, Christ; Rom. xi. 6. Grace is taken for both now and ever. Amen.' a lively sense of this favour, or the Egleston.

“ E. D.” love and fear of God dwelling in the Who the author of this compilation heart; 2 Cor. i. 12: for the doctrine of is, we do not profess to know. It apthe Gospel, which proceeds from the pears before the world as an anonygrace of God; 1 Pet. v. 12."

mous production, and the initials, &c. Will, (n.) that faculty of the soul, with which the introduction is conor operation of the mind, whereby a cluded, are insufficient to satisfy the man freely chooses or refuses things. demands of inquiring curiosity. But Scripturally, to will any thing is of neither the concealment nor the comnature; but to will what is good, is of munication of the author's name can grace; Psal. cx. 3; John viii. 36,— either diminish the merit of his work, xv. 5; Phil. ii. 13. The will of God is or augment its excellence. It is pretaken for his absolute will, purpose, sented to the public as a Dictionary for or decree; Rom. ix. 19; Eph. i. 11 : Youth, to give directions in spelling for his laws and commandments; Matt. and pronouncing such words as frevii. 21 ; Rom. xii. 2. The will of God quently occur in the sacred writings; may be known by reading his word, and, as the specimens we have given

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