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Trengrouse's Life Preserver.

446 “ Certificate from Falmouth, 4th Dec. | Trengrouse's invention for saving sea1817.

men from shipwrecked vessels being “ We, the undersigned, do certify, read, the Committee took into consithat we have at several times witnessed deration the utility of the apparatus, experiments made by Mr. Trengrouse, and believe it to afford a very probable of Helston, with the apparatus in- means of saving lives from vessels vented by him for the preservation of driven on shore or stranded, in situashipwrecked seamen; from the results tions, where, being within reach of of which, we are satisfied, such appa- communication with the shore, its ratus, if generally adopted, might be adoption would be practicable on board made productive of great public bene- the unfortunate vessel that may be fit; and might be particularly useful wrecked; and from the material of in the merchant-service.

communication being carried within “Pellew, Collector Customs.

the vessel itself, they think it highly C. Severland, Agent to H. M. Pac- preferable to any other mode yet prokets.

posed, as it thus must be always at W. Broad, Agent to Lloyd's.

hand, ready to be applied the moment Richard Pellowe, Capt. R. N.

when wanted; and the projected instruGeorge Bell, Capt. R. N.

ment would be easily and certainly John Manderson, Capt. R. N.

discoverable, even at night, by perJohn Bullock, Capt. H. M. Packet, sons on shore, so as to establish the Walsingham.

wished-for communication of an hawW. Tomson, late of the India service. ser; and the cost of the whole being. Robert W. Fox, jun.

but trivial, the Brethren do therefore James Edgcombe, jun. Collector of recommend, that all vessels be furnishCustoms, Penryn.

ed and provided with the apparatus Michael Williams.

of the rocket, and other articles exhiRobert Williams.


(Signed) “ Js. Court." Henry Williams, and sundry others.

Trinity House, London, 30 Sept., 1818." Ship-Owners' Society, July 14, 1818. Insignificant as this invention may

Sir,-I have received your letter of the 8th of May, and the several must be drawn from sources which its

appear, our estimate of its importance papers since placed in my hands, on simplicity does not supply. It is not the subject of your invention for pre- easy to ascertain the number of lives serving lives and property in cases of annually lost through shipwreck; but shipwreck, and having laid the same it is well known to amount to several before the Committee of this Society, thousands. Dr. Wilkinson, about the they have considered them with great year 1763, taking the average of six attention, as also the apparatus sent years, calculated that 4200 British seafor their inspection; and I have the

men were lost annually. He states, pleasure to make known to you, that that in 27 days only, in the month of the Committee do highly approve of December of that year, 1430 were your invention, as possessing all the drowned. Another gentleman has merit which is ascribed to it by the stated, that in the years 1781 and respectable Gentlemen of Falmouth, 1782, the numbers lost were upwards in their certificate, and alike creditable of 10,000. Another author has very to your ingenuity and humanity; and recently stated, that during the period the Committee will avail themselves of of his present Majesty's reign, 160,000 every opportunity of recommending persons have thus perished. the adoption of it on board of merchant These melancholy facts give a sancvessels.— I am, Sir, your respectful tion to every trial that may be made to and obedient servant,

alleviate this sum of human suffering, (Signed) “S. Cock, Secretary.” and to diminish this source of domestic "Mr. Henry Trengrouse.”

misery. And even though inventions “Report of the Committee of the Elder and discoveries should prove success

Brethren, to whom was referred the ful only in a partial manner, the ininvention of Mr. H. Trengrouse, for ventors must be ranked among the saving seamen from shipwrecked friends of the human race.

Mr. Henry vessels.

Trengrouse, we understand, is by • The several letters, certificates, trade either a cabinet-maker or a reports, and observations, on Mr. I joiner; and in circumstances not en


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tear-swoll'n cumbered with affluence. To this he


invite seems to allude in the following pas- Slumber's softly-soothing sway, sage:-“I was convinced that the Dreams my starti'd soul affright,

Restless rolls the night away. principle of my methods was good, and I adhered to my plan; but being Fancy, mimic nymph, pourtrays

Scenes of shipwreck and despair: very peculiarly circumstanced, by a train of personal and family afflictions,

Awful conflagrations blaze

Shrieks of terror rend the air ! many preventives interposed to my pursuing the subject so closely as I Oft, upon some desert coast

Fatal io her toil-worn crew, wished.” The individual who, by his genius

By the furious tempest tost,

Henry's bark I seem to view: and inventive powers, confers a bene

“Howls the blast, the ocean raves, fit on his fellow-citizens, has a right to

Deep and loud the thunders roar; claim from them a recompense that

Broken by the boist'rous waves, shall bear some correspondence to the

Fragments strew the rock-bound shore." utility of his labours. Of Mr. Tren

While she thus express'd her pain, grouse's invention we know nothing

Brisker blew the fav'ring breeze ; from any personal observations. But

Gliding o'er the lucid main, should its ultimate adoption prove as

Now the well-known ship she sees. successful as his experiments promise,

“Gracious heaven !” entranc'd, she cries, and the attestations in its favour give

"'Tis my Henry's bark appears ! us reason to expect, we hope, that nei

See, the promis’d signals rise ! ther Government nor his enlightened

Hark! the gun salutes my countrymen, will suffer him to remain

Glad, her tender babe she press'd, unrewarded.

Smiling in her arms that lay:
O’er the beach she flies in haste,

To the port directs her way.

Soon, to greet her spouse, she steers

Lightly o'er the buoyant tide;
On her glowing bosom bears

Henry's heir, her infant pride.
Far across the swelling tide

Scarce the barge had left the shore
Faintly peer'd the distant sail ;

Ere the winds, with hurried sweep, Glow'd the west in crimson pride,

Bade the rising billows roar,
Softly breath'd the ev'ning gale.

Wake to storms the passive deep.
On the beach as Myra stood,

Sudden glooms involve the skies,
From the noisy town remote,

Clouds on clouds tumultuous roll, Gazing o'er the azure flood,

High the foaming surges rise,
Soon her eye the vessel caught.

Loud the distant thunders howl! Now, within her anxious breast,

Hard the boatmen ply the oar,
Hope's expiring flames revive:

Urging o'er the heaving main ; “ Shall I yet,” she cried, “ be bless'd ? Soon recedes the less'ning shore, Is my Henry still alive?

Soon the destin'd bark they gain.
Does yon bark, whose ample sails

Who can paint the rapt'rous glow,
Wide expanded court the breeze,

Who conceive the fond delight,
Wafted by the southern gale,

Myra felt, when, on the prow,
Bear my love from Indian seas?

Henry first appear’d in sight? “ Two long tedious years are gone

Gazing on the approaching barge,
Since he left Britannia's shore;

Soon as Myra caught his view,
Left me, hopeless and alone,

Fondling o'er her infant charge,
Java's distant isle t' explore.

Swift along the deck he flew :
“ Oft I've sought the sounding beach ; Eager o'er the lofty side,
Often o'er the boundless main,

Fearless of the storm, he pass’d ;
Far as human sight could reach,

Dreadful rollid the foaming tide,
Gaz’d, with anxious eyes, in vain.

Loudly roar'd the ruthless blast. “ Though his bark has long defy’d

Prompt his tender spouse to aid,
Angry Neptune's ruthless power,

Stretching forth his willing hand; Proudly stemm'd the foaming tide,

Fierce the rising waves invade,
Sail'd from port to port secure;

Hurl him from the fatal stand.
“ Sure this long-protracted stay

Consternation seiz'd the fair ;
Must disasters dire portend.

Breathless at the sight she falls :
Why, O why this long delay ?

Terror strikes, and mute despair
Heav'n th' advent'rous youth defend !

Ev'ry fecling heart appals.

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Astronomical Misrepresentations corrected.



Quick their sinking chief to save

the Sun and Planets bear to each other, Strove the gen'rous tars in vain; in respect to size and distance. Plung'd beneath the whelming wave, “At first sight, this is easily done. Prone he sunk, nor rose again.

Draw some concentric circles on Long the fainting fair one lies,

sheet of paper, make the Sun the cenMotion, speech, and reason gone: tre, and place the Planets round in Pale that face and dim those eyes, their order: or, if you would have an Once resistless Beauty's throne.

idea of their motion also, look at an Slowly o'er her nerveless frame

orrery. But a little examination will Latent life at length revives;

convince you that this is doing nothing Faintly glows the languid flame: Lo! she breathes, she moves, she lives ! tance in proportion to each other, which

towards conceiving their size and disAnxious o'er the naval train,

is the point sought. Nay, it is worse Round her fainting form that wait,

than nothing; for it imposes a falsity Casts her eyes, and asks in vain,

for a reality. Imagination by itself Faltring, asks her Henry's fate.

can do a great deal; if assisted, it can Mute in grief the seamen stand,

do more; but if perverted, nothing. Each in tears the scene bebolds;

Let us try, then, to assist the imaginaPity moves the gen'rous band,

tion. None the fatal tale unfolds.

“ If the Sun be a million times big“Whence,” she cries, “ this silent woe?

ger than the Earth, it is plain that I Why, across each pallid cheek,

cannot make two circles on a sheet of Glide the tears in ceaseless flow?Ah! they Henry's death bespeak.”

paper (without considering any thing

about distance) that will bear this proDown she sinks, bereft, forlorn, Reason yields her wonted sway;

portion to each other; and if this can

not be done for the Earth, much less Lcvely as the blush of morn, By her side her infant lay.

will it serve for other planets and

moons where the disproportion is Frantic, o'er the babe she gaz'd, Clasp'd it to her breast, and sigh’d,

greater. Wild in grief her eyes she rais’d,

“ Let us take the floor of a large Press’d its tender lips, and died?

room: on this make a circle of two Balmanno-street, Glasgow.

feet diameter for the Sun; the size of the Earth will be about the size of a large pin's head. The distance of the

Sun from the Earth, is about eighty of Astronomical Misrepresentations cor

the Sun's diameters; if so, there must rected.

be a circle of three hundred and twenty

feet diameter for the Earth's orbit; TO THE EDITOR OF THE IMPERIAL

which no room, nor indeed any other MAGAZINE.

building, will contain. Sir,

Liverpool, June 1st, 1819. “ Let us try a field : here we may put Believing that many

wrong repre- our Sun, and draw the Earth's orbit sentations of the solar systemare now

round. If we stand in the centre, in circulation, I send you the following | (which we should do) the Earth is too extract from a work published in the small to be seen. These difficulties year 1795, and entitled, “ Letters on occurring so soon, how will they invarious subjects,” by W. Jackson. It crease when we take in the superior is calculated to correct such notions as planets ? are entertained in consequence of “ The ingenious Ferguson endeawrong representations. If you ap-voured to assist our imagination, by prove of it, by inserting it in your supposing St. Paul's dome, in diameMagazine, you will oblige your's, &c. ter one hundred and forty-five feet, to

ALPHEUS. be the Sun: upon this scale, Mercury “The solar system is one of those is between nine and ten inches, and sublime subjects, in the consideration placed at the Tower;

Venus, near eighof which I have frequently been lost. teen, at St. James's Palace; the Earth, I never attempted to onceive the eighteen, at Marybone; Mars, ten, size of the Sun, or the distance of at Kensington; Jupiter, fifteen feet, at Saturn; the impossibility repels the Hampton Court; and Saturn, eleven most daring imagination. No; all feet and a half, at Cliffdon. Let us be that I have attempted is, to judge of on the top of the dome, and look for the proportion (upon any scale) that the planets where he has placed ther No.5.-VOL. I.


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Do you think we could see any thing turned round once in twenty-four of Jupiter and Saturn? to say nothing hours; imagine an animal as much inof their moons; or that we could see ferior to it in size as we are to the properly the difference between four Earth, placed, as I conceived the miles and twenty, when on a line? human spectator placed to view the The four may be two, or one mile; and Earth;- would the apprehension of the twenty may be ten, or thirty, for this being induce you to call a sinaught we can judge by the appear- gle revolution in twenty-four hours,

All that we gain by this is, the whirling? Would not you say, that knowing that a sheet of paper, or an though the surface passed swiftly in orrery, gives us wrong ideas; and that review before him, yet that the absowe cannot, by any contrivance, put the lute motion of the whole was exceedsize and distance of the planets upon ingly slow? Perhaps it is our measura proportionable scale, so as to take in ing the planetary progress by miles, the whole with our eye or understand that makes us conceive it to be quick; ing. (These difficulties are increased which is much like taking the height of very considerably by the discovery of a mountain in hair-breadths. When the Georgium Sidus.)

we are told that Saturn moves in his “ We are much at a loss to compre- erbit more than twenty-two thousand hend the slowņess of their motion. I miles in an hour, we fancy the motion have not mistaken: I mean slowNESS. is swift; but when we find that he is The performance of a circle in six or more than three hours in moving the twelve months, or twice as many years, space of his own diameter, we must gives no idea of swiftness; and yet then think it, as it really is, slow. this motion is called whirling! as if “ There is another circumstance the planets went round their orbit like which prevents the solar system, as a top! Though quick and slow are commonly delineated, from bearing a comparative terms, we have ideas of true resemblance to the apparent posieach, arising from the medium of the tion and motion of the planets. It is two, from observation and common always drawn in plan, instead of secapplication, that do not stand in need tion; whereas the appearance of the of any comparison to be understood. orbits of the heavenly bodies is always The motion of a flea is quick; of a in section, and never can be in plan. snail, slow: and the common walk of This difference is not, as far as I know, a man is neither quick nor slow. Let noticed in any account of the solar us imagine an elephant to walk, and a system ; and yet, if it be not attended flea to hop, the same distance in the to, it is impossible to prove the truth same time: would you hesitate to say, of the system by the apparent paths of. that the motion of the one was slow, the planets. and the other quick ? Swiftness or “This will be best understood by slowness does not depend upon the considering the inferior ones. Merabsolute quantity of ground the ani- cury and Venus remove to a certain mal passes in a certain time, but upon distance from the Sun; and then, after the relative quantity of its own size. seeming at rest, they return in nearly

“ The Earth is about eight minutes the same line, and remove to the same in moving the space of one diameter; distance on the other side, where the therefore its absolute motion is slow : same thing is repeated. This, to the it is twenty-four hours in making one eye, is not a revolution in plan, but a revolution round its axis, which gives no revolution in section; and it might be idea of velocity. It is certain, that if we explained by a draught, which should were placed very near the Earth, un- always accompany the common delineaffected by its attraction, there would ation of the planetary orbits.” appear an exceedingly quick change of surface; and so would the motion of a snail appear to an animalcule. The

Bad Effects of Contracted Burying

Grounds. quantity of space, when compared to any we can move in at the same time, to is vast, and the motion quick; but when considered as belonging to a Sir, body of the size of a world, the motion As we live in an age not more distinis slow.

guished for the benevolence which it Suppose a common globe were displays, than for the improvements





453 Bad Effects of Contracted Burying Grounds. 454 which are continually making in va- similar caverns, that will contain eighty rious departments, permit me, through or a hundred bodies, on the top of your widely-circulating Miscellany, to which, large folding doors are placed, call the attention of the Public to what to be opened and shut at each interI deem an important subject, in which ment. In these places, no earth whatpersons of all ranks are deeply inte- ever is thrown in upon the coffins, exrested; namely, to the manner in cepting that which custom demands, which the living are annoyed by the when the minister pronounces, “ earth interment of the dead. It is a melan- | to earth, ashes to ashes, and dust to choly fact, that in most large towns, dust.”. This being done, the doors are the portion of ground allotted for in- closed upon the bodies, only to be terment, bears but a very small pro- re-opened when other victims of death portion to the population. Hence, are brought to this general receptacle. many bodies are torn from their graves As the bodies thus deposited must proto make room for others, before the gressively pass through the various bones are even separated from one stages of putrefaction, it is more easy another; and, in some instances, while to conceive the noxious exhalations the flesh is in a state of putrefaction. which must constantly arise, than to

I have lately visited various places give an adequate description of the in different counties, and on almost disgusting scene. And as it sometimes every occasion in which I had an op- happens, that several days elapse beportunity of making observations, Ifore the doors of this vault are re-opencould not but notice, with sorrow, the ed, after thus being closed, no langreat indecency exhibited in the dis-guage can convey any suitable ideas posal of the mortal remains of our of the dreadful effluvia which arise to fellow - creatures; the brutal indiffe- contaminate the air. Under these cirrence with which coffins, half rotten, cumstances, we have but little reason have been broken up; and the disgust- to wonder at the numerous diseases ing manner in which their contents with which large towns are frequently have been exposed to view, and finally aftlicted. The putrid fumes cannot but mangled by the unfeeling “ trusty bro- pollute the atmosphere with noxious thers of the trade.”

qualities, which must prove highly preLoathsome as these scenes are in judicial to the health of the living, and almost every large town, they too fre- tend, in the aggregate, to generate the quently become unsufferable in the harbingers of pestilence and death. interment of paupers.

I have wit- In some burying grounds, which nessed some places, and one in par- have been glutted with bodies, I have ticular, which I could easily name, repeatedly noticed men with iron rods, where a large excavation, some yards having a screw at their extremities, wide, and fifteen or twenty feet deep, passing from grave to grave, probing has been made, as a receptacle for the ground in search of coffins that their bodies. In the bottom of this, are most decayed; and when they the coffins are deposited side by side; find any that are of a doubtful characa little earth, scarcely two feet in ter, or that appear sound, they bore thickness, being thrown on the top of a hole into the timber, in order to cach, when lodged in this gloomy man- ascertain the state of soundness or sion, while the side of the coffin last decay in which they are.

This being introduced is suffered to remain unco- done, they mark such graves as they vered until another inhabitant of the think they can conveniently open, regrave arrives. When the first tier of serving them in store for the next coffins is thus completed, and the demands which may be made. whole are covered with about two feet I have known places re-opened, of earth, another range is laid down when they had not been closed more in a similar manner upon the former, than a month; and where the last cofand thus they proceed, until the whole fin had not been deposited more than a excavation is nearly filled. The last foot and half, or two feet at the utcoffins that are deposited generally most, beneath the surface. On many reach within about two feet of the sur- of these occasions, the coffins are broface, which space is filled up with ken up; but in what manner the mutiearth; and in this manner, “ grossly lated bodies which they contain arn familiar,” they consume, side by side. disposed of, I could never satisfact

In some large towns I have observed comprehend. I have seen

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