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much land and water, it frequently he will have the goodness to answer in cools hy the way; and the good people a future number. of Dublin are often seen to adopt a From his description of the machine new fashion, at the very time that it is it appears, that the two hindmost wheels receiving its dismission at Paris; and are fixed upon the same axle; consethe gentry in the country towns and quently, as they must always revolve villages of the kingdom, are frequently at the same time and with the same enjoying a mode, which is several de- velocity, they will always pass over an grees removed back from the one then equal distance in the same time. Now, reigning at the source.

it is a well known fact to any person of They have always several dresses, observation, that the outer wheel of fashionable for the same period; and any carriage, in turning a corner, must in these they make hourly changes. necessarily pass over a greater space If a lady were seen in the morning and of ground in the same time than the evening with the same dress, she would inner one; and in some cases they will be looked upon as a mad-woman. I move in contrary directions. How will don't know with what severity she Mr. S. effect this ?— In my opinion, would be treated, if she sat down to whenever the traveller has occasion to two meals in habits of the same make; deviate from a direct line, he will be but to loll in a carriage in the same obliged to alight, and forcibly drag dress that is worn in the house, would his vehicle round, in order to continue be deemed the most decisive symptom his route. of degradation in taste, or of relapse

Your's, &c. SCRUTATOR. into barbarism.

Rochdale, June 22, 1819. The ladies, however, are not universally changeable. I shall treat them

REPLY TO THE ABOVE. with candour: for I am not of that envious and malignant nature, which has B. Smythe has been favoured with only learnt to reproach, and cannot the letter sent by Scrutator, of Rochbear to applaud, even where merit is dale, to the Editor of the Imperial obvious and eminent. There is at Magazine, respecting the means of least one instance of constancy for guiding his “ British Facilitator, or which I must give them credit; and Travelling Car;” and he takes this there is one fashion, to which they method of informing Scrutator, that have been most attached and faithful: the original drawing, previous to being the promise, I hope, and the dawn, of sent to the engraver, had a nut on one returning sense and wisdom.

end of the axle, and a linchpin on the

other, to shew that one of the hind(To be continued.)

wheels was to remain fixed, and the

other loose, so as to turn on the axle On Smythe's British Fucilitator.similar to any of the gig-wheels in pre

sent use. By this means, the car will

turn a corner with the same facility as SIR,

any other vehicle. Since publishing a In perusing the pages of your highly plan of the car, and description of it in interesting and useful Miscellany, my the Imperial Magazine, B. S. has attention was particularly arrested made a considerable improvement in by the plan and description of Mr. the simplicity of guiding his car, which Smythe's “ British Facilitator, or Tra- he has no objection whatever to comvelling Car.” This machine seems to municate to any person who may wish be well calculated to answer the pur- to try the utility of his vehicle ; propose intended, as long as it moves in vided such communication is not atà direct line ; but we are all well aware tended with any expense to himself. that the British roads are never rectilinear for any considerable distance. The ingenious inventor having anti

False Reasoning detected. cipated and answered two objections, “ which, according to his view, are all that can possibly be made against the

SIR, practical utility of the machine," I beg It is remarkable, that the effrontery of leave to lay before hini a third objec- Deistical writers is not more glaring tion, which I shall esteem a favour if | than their defective reasoning ; but

4

IMPERIAL

TO THE EDITOR OF THE

MAGAZINE,

TO THE EDITOR OF THE IMPERIAL

MAGAZINE.

437 False Reasoning detected.--Trengrouse's Life Preserver. 438 since they profess to support their own put in opposition ; and in the last, we theory by reason, and attack every other find no contradiction, for their reason with the same weapon, it appears sur- and faith are alike delusive. The conprising that they have not learned to clusion is inevitable. — I have the house it with more dexterity. A tractate nour to be, Sir, of Diderot's fell into my hands the

Your obedient servant, other day, published by Carlile, Lon

PUDICUS. don, 1819, entitled, “ Thoughts on Etruria, June 9th, 1819. Religion," which abounds with examples of this kind, many of which are profane, and others blasphemous. I

TRENGROUSE'S LIFE PRESERVER. have selected a specimen of the profane, and beg leave to present it to | Although there is no department of your readers, with its refutation. life which can exempt mankind from

“If reason be a gift of heaven, and danger, it is exceedingly obvious, that we can say as much of faith, heaven some occupations are far more hazardhas certainly made us two presents, ous than others. We can, indeed, not only incompatible, but in direct easily conceive, that under the supercontradiction to each other. In order intending providence of God, there is to solve the difficulty, we are compel- no situation into which our fellowled to say, either that faith is a chi- creatures can be brought, that will mera, or that reason is useless.”- place them beyond the reach of the Diderot, p. 4.

Divine protection. We ought not, The sophistry of this passage ap- however, when we make these calcupears obvious, by the author's being lations, to lose sight of the general compelled to offer a solution in the course of the divine economy. God choice of two absurdities. Thus, if rarely acts towards his intelligent reason and faith be gifts of heaven, creatures, but through the instrumenone must be a chimera, or the other tality of means. These he has conuseless, because it is assumed that nected with the end; and the powers they are incompatible. The postulate with which he has endued the human must therefore be absurd in argument: mind, may be considered as that interlet us see if it be not so in fact. Rea-mediate link, through which, means son is a faculty of the mind; but faith can be rendered efficient in the producis an act of the mind. There is, there- tion of those ends, which, thus apfore, this distinction: the faculty is plied, they are calculated to secure. power; but the act is the result of He, therefore, who neglects to use power. Now, the faculty, which is appropriate means, can never reasonpower, is the gift of God; and the ably hope for the attainment of those grace of faith also is the gift of God, ends which he has in view; and unless that is, the power to believe: but the we exercise those powers with which act is a man's own, resulting from the the Almighty has been pleased to power which God gives. Inasmuch, favour us, we can neither use the forthen, as reason is a faculty of the mer, nor secure the latter. mind, and faith an act of the mind, Among the departments of danger they cannot be incompatible; for the in which human beings are engaged, mind cannot act independently of its there is scarcely one more perilous faculties; and because what is con- than that which the ocean presents to trary to reason a man cannot believe, our view. The occupation of a marino act of faith incompatible with rea- ner is almost inevitably connected son can ever take place. Wherefore, with a waste of human life. Scarcely to say, “ that reason and faith are not a week elapses, in which we do not only incompatible, but in direct con-hear of individuals having been brought tradiction to each other,” is absurd, to an untimely grave, through the turboth in argument and fact.

bulence of this boisterous element; I am aware, Sir, it might be object- and too frequently we read of shiped, notwithstanding, that we read of wrecks, in various parts, in which hun-. persons under delusion that believe a dreds of our fellow-creatures, and even lie, which might seem to contradict of our country men, are in a moment my argument; but these either cannot precipitated into eternity, accompareason, or they reason falsely. In the nied with circumstances of honor first instance, reason and faith are not on which the feeling mind ca.

reflect without heaving a sigh of com- faction in reflecting on the success that miseration.

has at last attended my labours, in To prevent shipwrecks is not in the devising the means to open the compower of mortals; but if, through the munication; my methods being such Divine assistance, any means can be as induce me to believe, they are not devised to lessen their calamities, by to be equalled by any other which is averting those consequences which not on the same principle. I have not must otherwise inevitably follow, the tried how far I can project a line, but man, who, by his inventive powers, shall I have no doubt of being able to do it provide these means, may be justly with all necessary precision upwards considered as a public benefactor to of half a mile. With the other parts mankind. In agriculture, architec- of the apparatus I am also fully satisture, mining, and manufactures, vari-fied. With their simplicity and portous machines have been invented to ability are combined accommodation lessen manual labour: but in the same and security, and the whole may be proportion as “life is dearer than the used with all possible expedition.” golden ore,” that man who can rescue Mr. Trengrouse, it seems, was led it from impending destruction, and into a train of reflections which have soften its rigours when preserved, is terminated in this happy result, by the fairly entitled to the gratitude of the loss of the Anson frigate, which was human race.

wrecked near the Loe Bar, not far Under these circumstances, every from Helston, the place of his resiidea that presents even a feeble pro- dence; in which ship about a hundred mise of some future invention, should individuals, including the commander, be carefully cherished; while every perished. His first attempt was siminvention of plausible utility, should ply to fasten the end of a line to a piece be examined with the utmost attention of lead, and then to throw it on shore; that candour and justice can unite to but this he soon found could only be exercise ; especially when the lives of serviceable when the vessel lay contithousands are involved in the issue, guous to the land. His second scheme and depend upon the result of the was, that of hoisting a kite, and perexamination.

mitting it to hang over the land, and We have been led into these reflec- then causing it to fall where the people tions by the perusal of a pamphlet on the beach or rocks might seize it, which has accidentally fallen into our and draw a line on shore. In this, he hands, written by a Mr. Henry Tren- at first placed much confidence; but grouse, of Helston, in the county of after some time he saw reason to abanCornwall.

don it, as being too uncertain to justify In this pamphlet, which is rendered dependence. His third method was mournfully interesting by the various that of a Rocket, which, he says, has accounts given of vessels wrecked, answered his most sanguine expectaand multitudes of lives lost, because tion. A line being thus thrown on no means had been devised for getting shore by means of the rocket, and the unhappy sufferers on shore, Mr. drawn by the people on the land, can Trengrouse has exhibited to public no- soon bring from the wreck a rope, tice an apparatus which he has invent- which, being made fast and drawn as ed, which promises to be of much im- tensely as possible, will enable those portance, under such disastrous circum- on board to put his Life Preserver stances, to all who navigate the deep, into immediate use.

To afford assistance on such melan- “ A model of the Preserver,” he choly occasions, the first thing to be observes, “and a written description effected, says Mr. Trengrouse, is, to of it, I shewed to a gentleman in this open a communication with the shore, neighbourhood, who, consulting with by means of a rope; and to accomplish a friend of his that had formerly bethis with promptitude and precision, is longed to the Admiralty, was led with of the utmost importance. To ren- his friend to conclude, that the invender any contrivance for the saving of tion was entitled to consideration. The lives, in case of a wreck, extensively former gentleman then caused it to be or generally useful, both reason and transmitted to Government, after which experience,” he says, “have convinced I heard no more about it. Probably, me that the apparatus must be kept the bustle created by the war, in the on board. I therefore feel great satis- I naval department, and my not having

441
Trengrouse's Life Preserver.

442 made a single experiment with any | fectly secure for the infirm, the sick, or part of the apparatus, to ascertain its wounded, and also for women and practicability, as a recommendation children. It is so portable, that a for its adoption, might have been two child of three years of age may carry reasons why it was not attended to. it under his arm.

“ Several months had now elapsed, “ With these parts of the apparatus, without my hearing any thing about it, I made my first experiments at Porthor making any experiments. But my leaven in 1816. This was the first feelings were as much alive as ever to time that the Float was ever in the the object I had in view; and although water, and that the Chaise Rolante was I did not succeed in my first efforts, I ever suspended to a rope. A great proceeded under the unaltered convic- number of spectators was present; tion that the principle was good, and among whom were several respectable that if the apparatus should become a gentlemen; to whom general satisfacportable part of the ship's equipment, tion was given.”—Of this experiment in case of a wreck many lives might the following account was afterwards be preserved. To ascertain the most published by a Mr. Russell, who was effectual means for accomplishing this a spectator of what he has related. desirable object, I tried many experi- « On Friday last, Mr. Trengrouse ments, but though in some cases the publicly exhibited the use of his appause of a musket might answer every ratus at Porthleaven. From the westpurpose, I finally gave the preference ern shore he threw several lines across to the rocket. With these, after mak- the harbour, which went over the pier ing numerous attempts, I have so far to some distance on the outer side. succeeded, as to believe, that there is the length of line projected was about not another man in the United King- 200 yards. He has so perfected this dom who can project a line to an equal part of his plan, as certainly to render distance, and with equal precision and it superior to every other method. A promptitude, with any description of FLOAT, made of cork, was applied to apparatus equal in portability, which the body of a man with his clothes on, is not on the same principle.

who volunteered his services, though “ The line which I project is ade- the wind blew hard. He was soon quate to draw a rope on shore suffi- hauled across the harbour in a buoyciently large to be used as a hauling- ant state. The advantages of this rope to draw persons through the float must be obvious to any one, who water, or above the water on a hawser. has ever witnessed the manner in If through the water, then, a FLOAT is which shipwrecked mariners are dragto be affixed on the rope, which may ged through the foaming surf, from be done in a minute, and wrapped their perishing vessel, to the shore. round the body of the person to be They are almost killed, that their lives floated to land; when, committing him- may be saved. The same man who self to the water, he will be instantly had thus been drawn across the hardrawn to the shore. On being thus bour in the float, soon made a signal saved, the FLOAT must again be hauled to return by the same route. He acto the wreck, for the next person; and cordingly took his seat in the CHAISE thus continue to pass and repass until ROLANTE, suspended to a large rope, all are secured.

which had been drawn across the har“ But if the stranded vessel should bour. In this he was conveyed over, not go immediately to pieces, a haw- and back again, in little more than two ser may be carried from the wreck and minutes.” made fast on shore. This being drawn Having thus given the progressive tight, all on board may be landed com- history of this invention, as stated by fortably and quickly, by means of a Mr. Trengrouse; and noticed his first CHAISE ROLANTE, suspended on wheels experiment, as published by a spectathat are curiously contrived to run tor; we now proceed to mention the upon the hawser. They are so con- opinions of several distinguished chastructed, that they may be worked with racters, before whom various experithe utmost rapidity, without producing ments were afterwards made. These any observable friction. The Chaise gentlemen, being conversant with subRolante is a safe, easy, and comfort-jects of this kind, cannot be supposed able conveyance: it affords the accom- incompetent to judge of the real merits modation of an arm-chair, and is per- / of this invention. Their testimony of 66 Sir,

approbation is therefore, to the inven- “ On receiving the foregoing report, tor, of considerable importance, as it (says Mr. T.) I was officially made acstrongly recommends his apparatus to quainted, that a further Committee of the patronage and support of every Naval and Artillery Officers was about seaman, and every seaman's friend. to be convened at Woolwich, for more

Important Official Testimony. particularly investigating my inven“ Lieutenant-General Ramsey; Ma- tion, and to witness a new experiment. jor-General Borthwick; Colonels Sir Sir Wm. Congreve was not present at H. Framingham, Millar, Sir W. Robe, the former, and as he is so conversant and Salmon ; Licutenant-Colonels Har- with the nature of rockets, probably ris, Pritchard, Beevor, Griffiths, and this second experiment might have Fyers ; Majors Fraser and Payne. been chiefly for him to have an oppor“ Woolwich, 2d March, 1818. tunity of judging on the utility of my

plan. While making my experiment, “ In reference to your communica- the wind was blowing a gale ; and I tions, dated on the 6th and 25th ulti- projected two lines, by the use of only mo, I have the honour to acquaint you 8-oz. rockets, to the distance of 215 for the Honourable Board's informa- yards; exceeding my former experition, that the Committee of Colonels ment (with the same-sized rocket,) by and Field Officers above-named, in 30 or 40 yards. conjunction with Rear- Admiral Sir “A deep-sea line was also projected Charles Rowley, and Captains Gower by one of my larger rockets, (as No. 3, and Ross, of the Royal Navy, as first report,) 107 yards; which was a sembled on the 28th ultimo, for the highly satisfactory experiment to all purpose of inspecting an apparatus, the spectators, and far exceeded my invented by Mr. Trengrouse, for pre-own most sanguine expectations, as I serving lives and property in cases of never before attempted an experiment shipwreck, by means of a rocket; with a line near so large, it being sufwhen Mr. Trengrouse exhibited his ficiently strong to haul six men through apparatus, and made the following the water at a time.” experiment.

“Mr. Trengrouse afterwards produ* 1st, A small rocket of 8 oz., with a ced his apparatus for conveying perline attached to its stick, was fired sons on shore, after gaining a commufrom a musket, to the distance of 180 nication with a rope. It consists of a yards.

hawser, roller, and hook, which can be “ 2nd, A pound rocket was fired in fixed on after the rope is made fast, by the same manner, which ranged 450 means of a thumb-screw detaching one yards; the line broke at 150 yards, half of the shank, so that the traveller owing to a knot in it.

may be placed on the upper part of the “ 3rd, A pound rocket was fired rope ; thereby obviating the inconvefrom a wooden frame at an elevation of nience and danger of reeving the rope 50°, and ranged 212 yards.

through the traveller. “The line used with the above three An experiment being made with a rounds was a mackarel line.

three-inch rope, stretched between two " 4th, A 4-oz, rocket was then fired trees, it was found to answer the infrom the musket to the distance of 112 tended purpose. * yards, with a line called a macharel snood. “ Lieut.-General Ramsey; Colonels

“ I have the honour to report, that Sir H. Framingham, Harris, and the Committee are of opinion, that Fisher; Lieut. - Colonels Pritchard, Mr. Trengrouse's appears to them to Beevor, Griffiths, Bingham, Phillott, be the best mode of gaining a commu- and Fyers; Majors Fraser, Payne, and nication with the shore, for the pur- Forster. pose of saving lives from shipwreck, In conjunction with Rear-Admiral that has been suggested; as well as to Sir Charles Rowley, Captains Gower communicate between ships in heavy and Ross, of the Royal Navy, and Sir gales of wind; and that the experi- William Congreve, Comptroller of the ment they have witnessed has fully Royal Laboratory. succeeded.

(Signed) “JOHN RAMSEY," “ I have the honour to be, &c. &c.

* In making the experiment with the travel(Signed) “ John RAMSEY,

ler, Col. Phillott and iwo others were severally « Col. and Lieut.-Gen. Commandant.” conveyed from one tree to the other, in the “ P. A. Ouvry, Esq. &c. &c."

Chaise Rolante.

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