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377 Important Questions.- Observations on Primeval Light. 378 themselves in a country where their , tribute of admiration,—“ Let there be means supply a support which it can- light, and there was light.” not obtain at home. To abate such

It appears to me extremely probataxes, will reduce the poor rates, fill ble, that this Light was an emanation the treasury by increased industry, and from the same Sun which now enlightsave from exile the king's most valu- ens the world; and which, though it able subjects.

did not appear in its full glory, yet produced sufficient Light to render the

surface of the terraqueous globe visiImportant Questions.

ble. The objection to this theory,

which arises from the 14th and 16th Quest. Ist. How am I to distinguish verses, is, in my opinion, of no weight the evil propensities of my heart, from whatever ; although “ the greater” and the temptations of Satan?

“the lesser light,” and “the stars,” Quest. 2d. How am I to distinguish are then first mentioned, it is not necesthe operations of the Spirit of God, sary to suppose, that they were then from what is called Conscience? first created. The text does not say An answer to these questions, by any

so; and there are strong reasons for of your Correspondents, would oblige believing to the contrary. Origen

A CONSTANT READER. says, that “no man of a sound mind Helston, June 8, 1819.

can imagine, that there was an even[We most heartily join in the re- ing and a morning, during the three quest of " A Constant Reader,” and first days, without a Sun ;” and St. shall be glad to receive a satisfactory Basil ascribes the darkness that coverreply to each of the above queries.- ed the earth, before the appearance of EDITOR.]

light, to the interposition of an obscure body between it and the heavens. To

make, is often synonymous with, to Observations on Primeval Light. appoint to a certain use. The Sun and

the Planets might have existed, and most probably they did exist, before

this period, although it was not till the The apparent contradiction in the fourth day of the Creation that the Mosaic account of the Creation, which veil which obscured them was withoccasions the question of “ Omega,

drawn, and the constellated canopy of in your second number, has been con- heaven appeared, for the first time, in sidered by Commentators in a variety full unclouded splendour. of ways; and has given birth to nu- Allowing this hypothesis to be cormerous theories, some extremely fan- rect, the whole Hebrew Cosmogony ciful, and not a few perfectly absurd. appears clear and consistent. If this Some persons have supposed, that the primeval Light emanated from the incipient primeval Light was elemental Sun, it could not, even imperfectly, fire; others, that it was a lucid cloud, illuminate more than one half of the like that which directed the children of world at one time; and, while that half Israel; and some have asserted it to was. illuminated, the other must rebe an infant sun, not yet grown to main in darkness: and by this we may maturity! Without attempting to re- properly understand,“ separating the concile or refute these contradictory light from the darkness;" namely, by opinions, I shall merely state what I the ideal boundary of the horizon. consider the most rational and the most But, in order to convey alternate light satisfactory view of this interesting and darkness to every part of the subject.

globe, it was either necessary that the The first step in the formation of the Sun should gradually revolve round earth, and the commencement of the the Earth, or the Earth turn gradually six days' creation, was the production round its supposed axis towards the of Light. The command of the Al- Sun; and this latter motion we now mighty was issued in that concise and know to be the fact. Light and darkenergetie sentence, which has retained ness being thus separated by the horiits sublimity in almost every transla-zon, they would follow one another tion of the sacred volume; and to without interruption, and produce, which an eminent Heathen author successively, the vicissitudes of“ day” (Longinus de Sublimitate) pays the land“ night;" two other terms 1





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“light” and “ darkness;" and the for- the London Female Penitentiary, was mer being justly considered as the numerously attended. The Right Hon. principal and most valuable portion Lord Carrington, president of the of time, an entire revolution of light society, in the chair. On this occaand darkness was denominated “one sion, the principal speakers were, the

evening” being the term Rev. S. Burn, the Rev. Legh Richof " light,” and the “ morning" the mond, W. Wilberforce, Esq. M. P., term of “ darkness.”

the Rev. Dr. Winter, the Rev. Dr.

OMICRON. Waugh, Mr. Hankey, the Rev. Mr. Liverpool, May 20th, 1819.

Hamilton, the Rev. Mr. Morrison, the
Rev. Christopher Anderson, the Rev.
Mr. Orme, the Rev. Lewis Way, the

Rev. Mr. Piggot, and S. Smith, Esq. Some years ago, a French frigate The meeting was highly interesting; being at Boodroom, the commander and the various observations that were expressed a great desire to see the made, both respecting the victims who marbles in the fortress; but the then had been reclaimed, and the prevagovernor absolutely refused to admit lence of depravity which still remainhim, without direct orders from the ed to pollute the community, strongly Porte. The commander had interest; evinced the necessity of continued the ambassador was set to work; and exertions. in a short time the frigate returned, Alluding to incidents which had parbearing the necessary firman. The ticularly fallen under his own observagovernor put it to his forehead, in tion, Mr. Richmond, in the course of acknowledgment of its authority, and his speech, introduced the following declared his readiness to proceed. remarks.—“ Where is the parent who Arrived at the outer gate, “ Effendi,” | can say, amidst the uncertainties of said the governor,

“ the orders of my life, and the casualties of circumImperial master must be implicitly stances, in what situations his own obeyed.”

“ Let me in, then," ex- children may be placed? Myself, my claimed the impatient captain. Un

sons, and my daughters, are all intedoubtedly,” replied the Turk, “ for so rested in the principle of this instituI am enjoined to do by the firman: tion. I have sat by the death-bed of but as it contains no directions about parents, who have mourned the seducyour coming out again, you will per- tion of their daughters; and once my haps forgive this momentary pause, duty called me to visit a house, at the before we pass the drawbridge.”. The desire of the alllicted mother, under French commandant, not chusing to the hope that her daughter was returnput such hazardous irony to the test, ing home to throw herself at her feet. departed.

While I was in the house, the daugh

ter returned: but how shall I describe Benevolent Institutions.

the scene? An angry father-a weep

ing mother-and a child of seventeen LONDON FEMALE PENITENTIARY.

on her knees before them: and I heard In many parts of England, the un- from her own lips her affecting tale, fortunate objects of this benevolent which would have reached the heart of institution, have, for several years, so any man. Before I left the room, I attracted the attention of the charita- had the pleasure of seeing the father ble and humane, that habitations have embrace his child, and exclaim, My been established for the reception of child, which was lost, is found again. such as have shewn a desire to aban

In the same spirit of pious commidon their profligate courses; and pro-seration, the Rev. Dr. Waugh observvision has been made for their support, ed as follows. “I have daughters of under such regulations as the exigen- my own, and I never yet had occasion cies of their case seemed to require. to weep over their aberrations from But although in several places much the paths of virtue. They are every good has been done, the success of thing that is good; and they are inpious benevolence has not been equal debted for it all to the grace of God. to the expectations which humanity But I will suppose a case, that one of and compassion had excited.

them had fallen a victim to depravity; On the 10th of May last a Meeting forsaken by her friends, and her father held at Freemasons' Hall, in behalf of ashamed to hear her name, (and there


Benevolent Institutions.




are fathers whose hearts are as tender establishment of religious worship as mine :) and if I am called upon to among them. And, according to the love my neighbour as myself, ought I statement given in the. Report pronot to exert myself to assuage such duced at this meeting, these expectawounded hearts as these?”—It is with tions had not been entertained in vain. much pleasure we can state, that the Of the distribution of the Bible sentiments thus expressed are very among them, which this society from generally felt throughout the nation; its commencement had in view, they and we most sincerely wish, that the have never lost sight. And although success of this branch of benevolence not many striking incidents were remay be equal to its merit.

lated by the speakers, of the effects resulting from this free circulation of God's most holy Word, yet the gene

ral tendency of the speeches evinced a Among the benevolent institutions conviction, that the seanien surveyed, which at once characterize our age with much gratitude, the pious exerand nation, there is one which has tions which had been made in their been recently established for the in- behalf. In a political point of view, struction of British seamen. It has it was argued, that these institutions existed little more than one year; were of a most beneficial tendency. but it has met with considerable sup- This was inferred from the exemplary port, and has been attended with much conduct of such sailors as had been in success. Its first anniversary was held the habit of reading their Bibles, when on the 10th of May last, in the even the mutiny at the Nore threatened this ing, at the City of London Tavern, country with one of the most portentwhen Sir John Jackson, Bart. was ous disasters to which it had ever been called to the chair. The principal exposed. speakers on this occasion, in addition The Rev. Mr. Evans related a cirto the Chairman, were the following.--cumstance, which lately occurred at a The Rev. Mr. Lacy, Rev. Mr. Towns- prayer-meeting of British end, Rev. J. A. Coombs, Rev. Mr. One of them, in the most earnest manMorrison, Rev. Mr. Moore, Rev. Mr. ner, gave thanks to God for having Vowles, Rev. Mr. Thomas, Rev. Mr. put it into the hearts of British ChrisEdwards, Rev. Charles Hyett, Rev. lians to establish this society, and to Mr. Cox, Rev. G. Evans, Rev. Henry prepare an ark for the saving of Lacy, Rev. Mr. Crisp, Rev. Thomas sailors.” In his prayer, he said, Harper, and the Rev. Thomas James. Lord, the time, the set time, to fa

It appears, from the various obser-vour British sailors is come;" to all vations made by these gentlemen, that which his nautical brethren replied in the primary object of this institution a hearty Amen. The floating chapel was, to furnish this long-neglected is not designed exclusively for any one class of the British community, with sect or party of Christians; but as the the Word of God, and with such means institution is founded on the most libefor their moral improvement, and at- ral principles, it is adapted for all detainment of religious knowledge, as nominations. their peculiar situation and circumstances demanded. Towards its support, liberal contributions were granted NAVAL AND MILITARY BIBLE Society. by the Hon. East India Company, by On the 11th of May, 1819, the thirtythe Parliamentary Commissioners for eighth anniversary of this noble instithe better regulation of the River tution was held at the King's Concert Thames, and by the Police Magis- Room, Haymarket; his Royal Hightrates of that neighbourhood, inde- ness the Duke of Gloucester, one of the pendently of the sums obtained from vice-presidents, in the chair. private individuals. With these re- In addition to his Royal Highness, sources, a vessel was purchased, and the principal speakers were, Admiral fitted up as a floating chapel, for the Lord Gambier, W. Wilberforce, Esq. accommodation of seamen. This was M.P., the Right Hon. Lord Northesk, attended by great numbers, whose Hon. and Rev. Gerard Noel, Rev. G. orderly and serious behaviour soon Clarke, Rev. G. Hamilton, the Hon. indicated, that some beneficial effects Capt. Pakenham, Rev. Mr. Beach might be expected to result from the croft, Rev. Jabez Bunting, Rev. (

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Mudie, Rev. Mr. Burn, Lord Cal-was added by Mr. Hamilton,“ has thorpe, and the Rev. D. Wilson. been clasped by a dying soldier or

It appears from the Report which sailor. And of those who have not was read, that, during the last year, the fallen in battle, but, after the dangers subscriptions, collections, and dona- and fatigues of war, have obtained tions, in favour of this society, amount- their discharge, and returned to the ed to upwards of £ 2000. With this bosom of their families, how many sum they have liquidated a large debt, a veteran has taken the opportunity of and distributed among the military collecting his family, or his neigh6,500 copies of the Scriptures, and bours, in his humble cottage, and of 2,600 in the naval department. Of speaking to them of the Saviour whom the happy effects resulting from this the Bible had revealed to him. The distribution, many pleasing testimo- Bible has gilded the evening of his nies were given by the speakers, ac- days, and shed a lustre of hope over companied with several affecting inci- the closing scene of his mortal existdents. It appeared, also, that a ence; and on the bed of death he general disposition to read the Bible bequeaths that Bible to his grandhad been awakened; that it was still children, as perhaps his only, or, at alive and in full vigour; and that an least, his best gift." astonishing change had been effected in the moral views of our soldiers and

LONDON MISSIONARY SOCIETY. sailors. Among other proofs, it was stated, that the 92d Regiment had The twenty-fifth anniversary of this recently purchased upwards of £50. important society was held on Thursworth of Bibles, to carry with them day, May 13th, at Queen-street Chapel, on a foreign station. It was also ob- Lincoln's Inn Fields; W. A. Hankey, served, that when some agents visited Esq. in the chair. On this occasion the hospitals, soon after the battle of the principal speakers were, the Rev. Waterloo, and inquired among the G. Burder, Rev. Dr. Bogue, Rev. Dr. wounded, whether they would have Collyer, Rev. Mr. Orme, W. Wilbersome books to read ? although they at force, Esq. M. P., Rev. Mr. Broadfoot, first refused, with some apparent in- Rev. Matthew Wilks, Rev. G. Claydignity, yet, no sooner were they ton, Rev. Mr. James, and the Rev. informed that they might have Bibles, Jabez Bunting. than they changed their replies, and Although the speeches delivered at unanimously exclaimed,“ Yes, yes, this meeting produced a considerable bring us some Bibles.”

effect, they were much eclipsed by the In a town,” said Mr. Noel, “ with superior interest which the Report which I am connected, a young man excited. entered the army, whose conduct had The Report began with a statement nearly broken his mother's heart. The of the missions in the South Sea regiment, I believe, went to Malta. Islands; and, from the documents A short time afterwards, his mother referred to and produced, it appeared, had an opportunity of sending him a that both Otaheite and Eimeo had Bible. The next time she heard of renounced idolatry more than twelve her son was, when the regiment re- months since; and that, recently, anturned, by which she learnt that he other island, called Marua, had been had fallen in the American struggle. added to the number, the chiefs havBut the account also stated, that her ing publicly renounced idolatry, by son had received the Bible at Malta, destroying their idols, and demolishing and that it had led him to seriousness their altars, and expressing a strong and reflection. His vicious habits desire for Missionaries to be establishwere reformed, and his soul put in ed among them. In the Paumotu possession of solid and substantial islands, which lie to the east of Otapeace. But this was not all: she heite, many of the inhabitants had heard, that, at the close of the action also embraced Christianity. in which he received his mortal wound, In Otaheite no less than 66 places of he was found under a little bush, his worship have been erected, and in Bible open before him, the leaves Eimeo the number amounts to 18. In stained with blood, and his dead head both islands, the public prayer-meetlying on his mother's Bible.”

ings are well attended, and family “Many a blood-stained Bible,” it worship is in general use among the


Benevolent Institutions.


inhabitants. In the latter of these | in various districts. The native schools islands, a printing-press has been go on well. Eleven of them contain established. The king of Otaheite 500 children; but more assistance is repaired thither to behold it, and had required in their superintendence. The the honour of composing an alphabet distribution of religious tracts is confor a spelling-book, which the Mission- tinued, with great prospect of success, aries were printing, and of working especially among the soldiers ; with off some of the sheets. In these some of whom the Bible is now beislands, the Gospel of St. Luke is sup- come an inmate of the knapsack, and posed to be in actual circulation. St. it may be found under many a soldier's Matthew's is completed; and part of pillow. At Surat, the English school the Psalms, and other books of the prospers; and one of the boys, who Old Testament, are translated. On was formerly a pupil, is now become the 10th of December, a vessel called the master of it. The New Testament the Haweis was launched, which had and Pentateuch have been translated been built by the Missionaries. into the Guzerattee language, and they

In China, the labours of Dr. Morri- were waiting for a printing-press from son are still confined, by the rigour of Calcutta. At Madagascar, the misthe government, within his own family sion has had an auspicious commenceand a few others. He expected to ment, and great hopes are entertained finish the alphabetical part of his Dic- of its prosperity. tionary some time in November last. But amidst these brilliant successes At Malacca, Mr. Medhurst has been and pleasing hopes, the inroads made extremely active in distributing Chi- by death, and the interruptions occanese tracts, and in superintending the sioned by sickness, extorted many a press, at which sixteen men and two sigh. At Chinsurah, in India, Mr. boys are constantly employed. In the May, by whose labour thirty-three hope of receiving other Missionaries native schools, containing 3000 chilfrom England, Mr. Milne has sent to dren, had been established, has been Cochin China for a learned native; removed from his labour to his reward; and he expected to obtain a Siamese but God has raised up Mr. Pearson, teacher from Penang. But their fa- and qualified him to succeed the devourite project is a new seminary at ceased. The health of Mr. Knill has Malacca. In a letter from Dr. Morri- also suffered so severely from the inson, he says, “Let me beseech you, tense heat, that he has been obliged to by the tender mercies of God our Sa- leave Madras, and try a cooler air for viour, to continue your paternal care his recovery. This gentleman has trato this mission, and particularly to the velled to South Travancore, and, from infant seminary, the Anglo-Chinese the last accounts, he was much better. college. It is the offspring of your In the death of Mr. Donaldson, the society, and is devoted to the cause of cause has also apparently suffered a common Christianity.” Mr. Kam has severe loss. But the same God, that discovered, in different towns in the for wise, but inscrutable ends, perMoluccas, nearly 40,000 native Chris-mitted the death of Stephen, could ditians, who much need, and many of rect even a Saul of Tarsus to supply whom desire, instruction.

his place. From India, the intelligence is said From AFRICA, the Report states, to be of the most encouraging nature. that their accounts are of a pleasing In September, 1818, a Calcutta school nature. Messrs. Campbell and Philips was founded; and, in their inter- sailed thither in December, 1818, and course with the natives, the Mission- arrived in safety on the 23d of Februaries distribute great numbers of reli- ary last. The West Indies, and some gious tracts. In this place, a printing- parts of the continent, hold forth prosoffice is about to be established, and pects which demand a tribute of thankthey are building a large chapel. At fulness; although in Trinidad they Madras, the Missionaries are laudably have met with much opposition. Acco-operating with their brethren th counts from Siberia and the Greek Wesleyan connection, in forming a Isles were likewise read ; and these Bible association. At its commence- also present encouraging views, ment, 100 pagodas were instantly sub- In the support of this extensive scribed.

Large numbers of Bibles work, the sums received, in donations, and Testaments have been distributed collections, and subscriptions, amountNo. 4,--Vol: I.

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