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our censures.

of the works, and the characters of knew no bounds, that could call up their authors. The following extracts images from every part of the creation, are given, as specimens of his judg- and give permanency to the most deliment, and also of the manner in which cate sensations, he fell a prey to the he expressed his opinion.

most destructive vices, a lamentable 1815, August 10th. instance of human depravity. Curiosities of Literature.

“ When we consider the native “The plan of this compilation is greatness of Burns's soul, the brilextremely desultory. It contains, how- liancy of his wit, and the exuberance ever, a variety of entertaining things. of his imagination; that awfal defcD’Israeli seems to be a person of much rence which super-eminence never reading, particularly in French, Ita- fails to excite, commands us to tread lian, and English. Religion he ap- lightly on his ashes, and to throw the pears to have none; and his moral cloak of charity over those frailties, principles, I fear, are very loose: some which we ourselves with difficulty of his sentiments are directly opposed avoid. If we have but right views of to Christianity.”

ourselves, and of human nature, it “ 1816, 4th Month. will greatly weaken the malignancy of The Life of Arthur Wellesley.

The triumph of critiNotwithstanding the incense of cism will give way to tears of humiliadulation, which is plentifully offered ation; and before we exult over the in this work, it is evident that Lord weakness of a fellow-creature, we shall Wellington must possess a great mili- try and prove our own ways, that they tary genius. Were I to look at hero- be right in the presence of the Most ism in that light in which it is com- High.” p. 88. monly surveyed, I should join my In another letter, which was written voice with the exulting millions. But, July Sth, 1815, the following sentifeeling a strong conviction of the un- wents occur.lawfulness of warring with 'carnal “I lately read a small volume of weapons,' I dare not follow in the tri- Essays on the Nature of the Passions, umphal procession, nor use the lan- &c. by David Hume. I found them guage of applause to the desolaters of very alluring, by their exceeding elefamilies and kingdoms. The volume gance of diction, and highly-polished contains some very mournful passages style; and they also contain many perfrom the private journals of officers, tinent classical allusions, and correct who were in some of the severest ac- sentiments: yet their general tendency tions.” p. 96.

verges rapidly towards complete scepThe epistolary correspondence of ticism; and, after having insidiously Mr. Thompson with his friends, seems undermined the fair fabric of Christo have begun at an early age.' From tianity, they leave no other asylum for the date of one letter in this collec- the wretched and tried among the tion, he could scarcely have exceeded sons and daughters of mortality. As fourteen when it was written. To other far as I have seen of the philosophical kinds of composition he occasionally works of Hume, I do not know a more turned his attention, but it was in this dangerous writer ; he was well acdepartment that he principally ex- quainted with the principal labyrinths celled.

of the human heart, and had narrowly In a letter to a friend, dated Janu- watched the development and connecary 8th, 1814, he has expressed his opi- tion of the passions: yet it was his nion of Burns, the Scottish Bard, in misfortune to get entangled in attemptthe following sentences.

ing to solve the mysteries of religion “ In Burns, we have another melan- by the same process of reasoning with choly proof, that virtue is not neces- which we examine things belonging to sarily concomitant with great genius ; the material world; and all his refinethat the most splendid talents can by ment of manner is not sufficient to exno means ensure happiness to their piate for the perplexity and doubt in possessors; and that, on the other which he leaves the minds of his readhand, when degraded by criminal in- ers. In every species of knowledge, dulgence, they add to the weight of it is much easier to puzzle than inguilt and misery. It is with the great struct,--to start a controversy, than est concern I contemplate his exit off to conduct it with ability. This methe stage of life. With a mind that thod, so unfavourable to the common stock of intellect, has been much prac- 1st. During the four next years, in tised by writers on theology, particu- which the Bank is not required to pay larly since the French revolution; cash at the old Mint price of gold coin, which event has not less influenced the £3. 178. 10d. per oz. If the price of opinions and creeds, than the political gold be less than the price at which state, of Europe. Thus, we have had the Bank is required to issue ingots, ephemeral productions without num- this is, in effect, a further restriction, ber, on the most sacred doctrines of for no one will ask for its gold; but if Christianity; and writings of various the price of gold be higher, the Bank construetions, calculated to mislead, should come to Parliament to raise from the universal pyrrhonism of Bayle, the price of its issues, to prevent so to the scurrility and abuse of Paine, great a calamity as a run on the Bank, and the Abbé Barruel." p. 101. forcing a depreciation of their notes

The preceding passages, which have by going into the bullion-market at not been selected with any particular disadvantage; and while the notes care, may be considered as fair speci- disappear in the Cancel-office, the mens of the author's style. His let-gold disappears by export. Either of ters, in general, display much com- these prices may occur at any time; prehensiveness of thought, and a con- for, supposing the best posture of siderable degree of acuteness; accom- Bank affairs, and that the price of panied, on most occasions, with a gold shall be 25. 2d. per oz. lower than sound and discriminating judgment. at present, during the four years, notHis diction, in some instances, rises withstanding the purchase of so many into elassic elegance, but it rarely millions gradually in that time by the descends into meanness; and, in no Bank, as will prepare their coffers for case, has he merited the charge of any reasonable demand, and, by meetaffectation. In almost every para- ing this demand till it ceases, either graph, that nervous simplicity, which to preserve or to restore the price of seems to be the distinguishing charac- bullion to the standard of £3. 17s. 10d. teristic of his style, presents itself to still there are circumstances not within our view. His language betrays nei- the dominion of this power of the ther pedantry nor embarrassment; his Bank; and these, whenever they ocperiods are full and easy; and, in cur, must produce either restriction, general, his sentences terminate where or a contraction of currency, by loss in every reader is prepared to expect a the Bank issuing gold at disadvantage;

or, on the other hand, the Bank may That his language and his letters are add to all its former profits, the profit wholly free from defect, is what we of the bullion trade, when successful. should hesitate to assert, but they con- Another mode, not adopted, is, to tain very little to call forth the asperi- commence cash payments immedities of criticism. It is no small recom-ately, at the market-price of bullion, mendation to this little volume, to say, at which a certain quantity is to be that two considerable editions have purchased. As soon as five millions been sold within one year, and that a are bought, suppose at an average of third is just published. It is pleasing £4 per oz. and Parliament being satisto add, that the profits of this work fied it cost so much at a fair purchase, are appropriated to the use of the (the average price of Europe,) orders Author's parents, and their surviving it to be coined at that rate, and issu

ed; the Mint to be shut to all other coinage. At a future time, if five or ten

millions can be bought at an average (We have been favoured with the two fol- of £3. 158. per oz., Parliament may lowing articles by a friend in Dublin, call in the former at the shortest posfrom whom we shall be glad to receive sible notice, to prevent counterfeits; further communications. ]

and may issue the other larger coin in its place. But it is only on gold

rising, and the balance of trade being RESUMPTION OF CASH PAYMENTS.

against England, that foreign exIT may

be useful to consider the cir- changes will draw off the gold. This cumstances that may arise, in the pro- mode would have prevented the necesgress of the measures proposed for sity of Bank restriction; but the na

tional debt, and the war requiring the

final pause.


this purpose.

increase of debt, would not have been the Aristocracy, that, in laying on taxes, borne out by a paper credít, limited they are sufficiently tender of themby its convertibility into bullion; and selves, to say no more.

But this corthe same may be said, for a time, of rupt feeling, which Plato has remarkthe present state of the national debt, ed, from his own knowledge Grerevenues, and expenditure.

cian legislature, (which was the purest A new problem appears: a national specimen of human liberty and equal Bank should yield its profits to the rights,) will give way in Christian Public. The Bank of England did England; and the more equitable prinlittle more of this than any private ciple, which deduced the tithe, as Bank, though enjoying superior ad- originally mulcted from the feeholder vantages. A Government Bank at- of land, in the laws of Moses, will tached to the Mint and Treasury, issu- apportion the burden of political taxes ing notes and paying in gold as above, more equally, at a time when Eng(either ingots or coin, it is all the same,) land, after an unexampled war, is to might contribute a million a year to redeem an unexampled debt. A prothe Sinking Fund, by the interest of perty tax of 10 per cent. on the rental the floating paper currency: The of all fee-simple estates, and on the Bank of England would still flourish, amount of the salaries of placemen for all commercial purposes of dis- and pensioners, for five years, would counting bills, and by connection with scarcely be felt by the contributors; all Sub-banks, by loans on mortgages, while it would extricate the Sinking extend the business of discounting, Fund from its embarrassments. This through the medium of private Banks, would partake in nothing of the inquiin every province that requires it; sitorial, arbitrary, and vexatious inwhile the Government Bank would come tax; for it would not interfere meet all the exigencies of the State, in with incomes which are not as public peace or war, famine or plenty, fa- and certain as the daily Sun. It vourable or unfavourable commerce. would also permit the Legislature to Standing on the sound basis of convert- enter into the relief of many grievances ing its notes into gold at the real cost, endured by the middle and lower and by the Mint yielding to the fluctu- classes, which could only be excused ations of bullion commerce, it saves by a state of war, in which every harmless all parties concerned, instead thing dearer than property, liberty, or of forcing; by arbitrary rules, a stand-comfort, was at stake; and if a large ard of £3. 175. 10d. ; for which there is portion of the Assessed taxes were no particular ground, unless that it abolished, especially the window, serhappened to be the market price when vants, and horse tax, light and life to the principal coins of Europe were business would follow. A good Goformerly struck; and which are now vernment is bound to protect the lower altered, though not subject to the com- classes in the easy acquirement of mercial influence, so much as those of food, raiment, fuel, and lodging. England.

Among the many Committees of the The equity of this latter plan is easy House of Commons, how joyfully to conceive: for if A. B. lent £1000 would the labours of those be receivto Government, twenty years ago, at ed, who were appointed to report the market-price of bullion, he cannot what commercial treaties with other complain of being paid now at the nations could be formed, on the basis market-price of bullion, although dif- of mutual benefit to the poorer classes! ferent. But if the market-price, when What popularity would that Chancelhe lent, was £3. 17s. 10d. per oz. and lor enjoy, who threw out of his Exchewas now only £3. 10s. he would justly quer the injudicious exactions that complain at being paid in guineas were accompanied by the bitter tears such as he lent.

and execrations of the poor, from whom the bounty of nature, in whole

some meat, drink, clothing, and lodgPROPERTY TAX.

ing, is intercepted; or by which the The noble example of the Marquis of domestic castle is insulted, its liberty Camden is sufficient to electrify every and peace destroyed! Overtaxing the patriotic feeling in the Nobility of inferior ranks, makes absentees of the England. It has always been charged rich, and voluntary exiles of those who against a Legislature, composed of I have yet a sufficiency left

, to establish


themselves in a country where their tribute of admiration,“ Let there be means supply a support which it can- light, and there was light.” not obtain at home. To abate such

It appears to me extremely probataxes, will reduce the poor rates, fill ble, that this Light was an emanation the treasury by increased industry, and from the sáme Sun which now enlightsave from exile the king's most valu- ) ens the world; and which, though it able subjects.

did not appear in its full glory, yet produced sufficient Light to render the

surface of the terraqueous globe visiImportant Questions.

ble. The objection to this theory,

which arises from the 14th and 16th Quest. 1st. How am I to distinguish verses, is, in my opinion, of no weight the evil propensities of my heart, from whatever ; although “ the greater” and the temptations of Satan?

“ the lesser light,” and “ the stars,” Quest. 2d. How am I to distinguish are then first mentioned, it is not necesthe operations of the Spirit of God, sary to suppose, that they were then from what is called Conscience ? first created. The text does not say

An answer to these questions, by any so; and there are strong reasons for of your Correspondents, would oblige believing to the contrary.

Origen A CONSTANT READER. says, that “ no man of a sound mind Helston, June 8, 1819.

can imagine, that there was an even[We most heartily join in the re

ing and a morning, during the three quest of “A Constant Reader," and first days, without a Sun;" and St. shall be glad to receive a satisfactory Basil ascribes the darkness that coverreply to each of the above queries.—ed

the earth, before the appearance of Editor.]

light, to the interposition of an obscure body between it and the heavens. To

make, is often synonymous with, to Observations on Primeval Light. appoint to a certain use. The Sun and OF THE IMPERIAL the Planets might have existed, and

most probably they did exist, before SIR,

this period, although it was not till the The apparent contradiction in the fourth day of the Creation that the Mosaic account of the Creation, which veil which obscured them was withoccasions the question of “ Omega,” drawn, and the constellated canopy of in your second number, has been con- heaven appeared, for the first time, in sidered by Commentators in a variety full unclouded splendour. of ways; and has given birth to nu- Allowing this hypothesis to be cormerous theories, some extremely fan- rect, the whole Hebrew Cosmogony ciful, and not a few perfectly absurd. appears clear and consistent. If this Some

persons have supposed, that the primeval Light emanated from the incipient primeval Light was elemental Sun, it could not, even imperfectly, fire; others, that it was a lucid cloud, illuminate more than one half of the like that which directed the children of world at one time; and, while that half Israel; and some have asserted it to was. illuminated, the other must rebe an infant sun, not yet grown to main in darkness: and by this we may maturity! Without attempting to re- properly understand,“ separating the concile or refute these contradictory light from the darkness;" namely, by opinions, I shall merely state what I the ideal boundary of the horizon. consider the most rational and the most But, in order to convey alternate light satisfactory view of this interesting and darkness to every part of the subject.

globe, it was either necessary that the The first step in the formation of the Sun should gradually revolve round earth, and the commencement of the the Earth, or the Earth turn gradually six days' creation, was the production round its supposed axis towards the of Light. The command of the Al- Sun; and this latter motion we now mighty was issued in that concise and know to be the fact. Light and darkenergetie sentence, which has retained ness being thus separated by the horiits sublimity in almost every transla- zon, they would follow one another tion of the sacred volume; and to without interruption, and produce, which an eminent Heathen author successively, the vicissitudes of “day” (Longinus de Sublimitate) pays the land“ night;” two other terms f






“light” and “ darkness;" and the for- the London Female Penitentiary, was mer being justly considered as the numerously attended. The Right Hon. principal and most valuable portion Lord Carrington, president of the of time, an entire revolution of light society, in the chair. On this occaand darkness was denominated “one sion, the principal speakers were, the day;" the “evening” being the term Rev. S. Burn, the Rev. Legh Richof light,” and the “ morning" the mond, W. Wilberforce, Esq. M. P., term of “ darkness.

the Rev. Dr. Winter, the Rev. Dr.

OMICRON. Waugh, Mr. Hankey, the Rev. Mr. Liverpool, May 20th, 1819.

Hamilton, the Rev. Mr. Morrison, the
Rev. Christopher Anderson, the Rev.
Mr. Orme, the Rev. Lewis Way, the

Rev. Mr. Piggot, and S. Smith, Esq. Some years ago, a French frigate The meeting was highly interesting; being at Boodroom, the commander and the various observations that were expressed a great desire to see the made, both respecting the victims who marbles in the fortress; but the then had been reclaimed, and the prevagovernor absolutely refused to admit lence of depravity which still remainhim, without direct orders from the ed to pollute the community, strongly Porte. The commander had interest; evinced the necessity of continued the ambassador was. set to work; and exertions. in a short time the frigate returned, Alluding to incidents which had parbearing the necessary firman. The ticularly fallen under his own observagovernor put it to his forehead, in tion, Mr. Richmond, in the course of acknowledgment of its authority, and his speech, introduced the following declared his readiness to proceed. remarks.—“ Where is the parent who Arrived at the outer gate, Effendi,” can say, amidst the uncertainties of said the governor,

“ the orders of my life, and the casualties of circumImperial master must be implicitly stances, in what situations his own obeyed.” “Let me in, then,” ex- children may be placed? Myself

, my claimed the impatient captain. “Un- sons, and my daughters, are all intedoubtedly,” replied the Turk, “ for so rested in the principle of this instituI am enjoined to do by the firman: tion. I have sat by the death-bed of but as it contains no directions about parents, who have mourned the seducyour coming out again, you will per- tion of their daughters; and once my haps forgive this momentary pause, duty called me to visit a house, at the before we pass the drawbridge.”. The desire of the afflicted mother, under French commandant, not chusing to the hope that her daughter was returnput such hazardous irony to the test, ing home to throw herself at her feet. departed.

While I was in the house, the daugh

ter returned: but how shall I describe Benevolent Institutions.

the scene? An angry father-a weep

ing mother-and a child of seventeen LONDON FEMALE PENITENTIARY.

on her knees before them: and I heard In many parts of England, the un- from her own lips her affecting tale, fortunate objects of this benevolent which would have reached the heart of institution, have, for several years, so any man. Before I left the room, I attracted the attention of the charita- had the pleasure of seeing the father ble and humane, that habitations have embrace his child, and exclaim, · My been established for the reception of child, which was lost, is found again.? such as have shewn a desire to aban

In the same spirit of pious commidon their profligate courses; and pro- seration, the Rev. Dr. Waugh observvision has been made for their support, ed as follows. “I have daughters of under such regulations as the exigen- my own, and I never yet had occasion cies of their case seemed to require. to weep over their aberrations from But although in several places much the paths of virtue. They are every good has been done, the success of thing that is good; and they are inpious benevolence has not been equal debted for it all to the grace of God. to the expectations which humanity But I will suppose a case, that one of and compassion had excited.

them had fallen a victim to depravity; On the 10th of May last a Meeting forsaken by her friends, and her father held at Freemasons' Hall, in behalf of ashamed to hear her name, (and there

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