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the course of the day ber voice return- Tied up in nine folds of a mystical string, ed, and she distinctly exclaimed, Oh And soak’ for nine hours in cold Helicon spring, how bright, how very bright! In this is a sceptre composed for this pedagogue's frame of mind she continued till to

hand, wards evening, when her last words Like the fasces of Rome, a true badge of conwere, · My God is very good, my God The sceptre tbus finish’d, like Moses's rod, is very good to me. About ten mi- From Hints can draw tears, and give life to a nutes after five in the evening, Jan. 8th, 1805, she resigned her breath Should darkness Egyptian or ignorance spread with a gentle sigh, and only appeared Its clouds o'er the mind, and envelope the head, as if falling asleep. Her age was | Tbis rod; thrice applied, puts the darkness to about sixty."

flight, Disperses the clouds, and restores us to light.

Like the virgin divine, it will find out the vein TO THE EDITOR OF THE IMPERIAL Where lurks the rich metal, the gold of the

brain :

Should genius a captive by sloth be confin’d, If the Editor of the Magazine think proper, he | And the witching of pleasure prevail o'er the

mind, may insert the following Lines on the Birch Apply but this magical wand with a stroke, of O‘Callaghan, a Schoolmaster. I do not The spell is dissolv’d, the enchantment is broke; know that they were ever published, nor did Like Hermes's rod, these few switches inspire

Rhetorical thunder-O‘Callaghan's fire ; I ever see them in manuscript. I wrote

And if Morpheus our temples in Lethe should them some years ago, in Ireland, as the

steep, Author, the Rev. Henry Hayden, A. M. Those switches untie all the fetters of sleep: dictated, who was once a pupil of O‘Cal- Here dwells strong conviction, of logic the laghan's. I am, Sir,


When 'tis used with precision a posteriori : Yours, &c.

It promotes circulation, and thrills thro' cach Newcastle-under-Lyne,

A. D.

vein, Soth March, 1819.

The faculties quickens, enlivens the brain;

Whatever disorders remain in the blood, Thou Worthy, in trust for the school of the This birch can correct them like guaiacum church,

wood : Pray hear me descant on the virtues of Birch : So luxuriant its branches, so sweet are its twigs, Tho' the oak be the prince and the pride of That in college we call them O‘Callaghan's figs; the grove,

As the fam'd rod of Circe to brutes could The emblem of pow'r, and the fav’rite of Jove; change men, Tho' Phæbus with laurel his temples bath So OʻCallaghan's birch can unbrute them again ; bound,

Like the rod of the Sybil, that branch of pure And with chaplets of poplar Alcides be crown'd; gold, Tho'Pallas the olive biath grac'd with her choice. This birch can the gates of Elysium unfold, And mother Cybele in pine may rejoice; That Elysium of learning, wbere pleasures Tho' Bacchus delight in the ivy and vine,

abound, And Venus her garland with myrtles entwine; Those fruits that still flourish in classical Yet the Muses declare, after diligent search, ground : No tree can be found like O‘Callaghan's hirch. Then if such be its virtues, we'll bow to the This birch they aver is the true tree of know. tree, ledge,

And the birch of O‘Callaghan immortal shall be. Rever'd by his school, and rememb’red at col

lege. Tho' Virgil's fam'd tree might produce, as its fruit,

WHAT DID THE ANCIENTS REQUIRE IN A crop of vain dreams, a strange whim, from THEIR Γνωθι Σεαντον -H EAR ONE

each shoot; Yet this birch on each bough, on the top of each switch,

Το, Γνωθι Σεαυτου, τουτ' επος μεν ου μεγα, Bears the essence of grammar, the eight parts | Εργον δε οσον Ζευς μονος επιςαται Θεων.

of speech ; 'Mongst the leaves are conceal'd more than Sed tanta res quam Jupiter solus, sciebat.

Nosce Teipsum, dictio quidem est brevis; many can mention, All cases, all genders, all forms of declension; Know Thyself, said the Ancients; explain it Nine branches, when cropt by the hands of the Nine,

The Searcher of hearts knows the secrets of Each daly arrangʻd in a parallel line,


who can:



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Memoir of Wynken De Worde.

354 Cologne, he became acquainted with De Worde; and, finding him to be a man of talents, and master of the business which he was anxious to improve, he attached him to his interest, and brought him to England in his service. In this connection he remained while Caxton lived; and on his death, he succeeded him in the art, which they had endeavoured mutually to establish in this country.

When the management of the business fell entirely into his hands, he continued for some time to use the types of Caxton, and also his cipher; but, frequently, the books which he printed were without any printer's

At other times, as he lived in the house which his predecessor had long occupied, he occasionally inserted, “In Caxton's house;" and, in some instances, added his own name.

His natural genius, his long con

nection with Caxton, and the dignity wpukpunt

pore. which was then attached to printing,

introduced him to an acquaintance BRIEF MEMOIR OF WYNKYN, OR with men of learning and influence, WYNKEN DE WORDE.

who occasionally visited his office, and If no honours but those which arise by whose interest he was, after some from birth or fortune, could entitle an time, appointed printer to Margaret, individual to the notice of the Bio- the mother of Henry VII. This hographer, Wynken de Worde would nour was conferred on him in the year have been consigned in silence to tke 1509. shades of oblivion, and his name to His skill in printing has always been us would have been unknown.

considered of the superior kind ; and In the preceding number, we have in his day his workmanship was much given a biographical sketch of Caxton's admired: for although he was the life; and, in that memoir, we have immediate successor of Caxton, yet introduced the name of Wynken de he improved the art in such a degree, Worde, as being immediately con- that he may be said to have brought nected with him, and as the person some of its branches very nearly to a through whose instrumentality the art state of perfection. Among other of Printing was established in Eng- things, he cut a new set of punches,

which he sunk into matrices, and cast This man, who rendered himself the several sorts of printing letters, famous in his day, by his acquaintance which he made use of himself, and of with this art, was born in the dukedom which some continue even to the preof Lorrain, as appears by the patent- sent time. These, being cast with so roll in the Chapel of the Rolls. Of his much correctness, and standing so early life and family connections, no- truly, have never been excelled by any. thing is known.

He also gave a greater variety to the When the art of Printing was dis- sorts and sizes of letter than had ever covered on the Continent, he found been in use prior to his days. By means to connect himself in such a some it has been said, that he was the manner with its celebrated inventor, first who brought the Roman letter into that, by his genius and talents, he England; but this has been much dissoon became master of the various puted. There seems to be a greater secrets with which the world was at certainty in the fact, that he first introthat time so justly astonished. On duced musical notes, the account of what account he separated from his which he has accompanied with the first employers, we have no means of following anecdote of Pythagoras, the knowing ; but while Caxton resided at | philosopher. This we shall give in his No. 4.-VOL. I.

2 A



own language, as a specimen of the | ing this my last will, with James Gaorthography, and manner of pointing, ner, and that they, with the consent which prevailed in his day.

of the wardens of the parish

St. “ Here wyse men J telle that Picta- Bride's, purchase at least xx s. a year, goras passed sometyme by a smythes in or near the city for to pray for my hous and herde a swete sowne and soul, and say masse.” In the Survey acordynge in the smytyng of four of Colleges, a record of this last artihamers upon an anueli and therefore cle is preserved in the following words. he lette weye the hamers, and founde “The paroche of St. Brid's in Fleetthat one of the hamers weyed — six street. Wynken de Worde, deceased poūder the seconde of twelve, the xii yeres past, willed and gave to the thyrde of eight the fourth of ix.” sayde churche in money to buy landes

The following is a specimen of cor- with the same, and with the proffites responding versification.

thereof, to kepe an obit for his soul “Whiche Roger Thornye Mercer hath ex

for euer xxxvj £.” horted

It does not appear, from the distriWynken de Wordel of vertuous entent

bution which he made of his property Well to correctel and greatly hym conforted in his will, that he had either wife, This specyall boke i to make and sette in children, or relations, living in this prente

country, as no one of his name is menThis is the grounder of all that he hath ment tioned; and the persons to whom he Reders be gladel and voyde all ydelnesse made his bequests, are described as Trystynge to please, both god and man Jhis servants, apprentices, or dealers gesse.

w the way of trade. As a printer, Wynken de Worde Whether he had ever been married, has been represented as indefatigable or whether any of his relations came in his business, curious in his inven-over with him to England, is rather tions and improvements, and perse- uncertain. The probabilities, howvering in his undertakings. In the ever, are rather in favour of the fact general history of Printing, he is men-than otherwise, although he seems to tioned as a man of great accomplish- have survived all his kindred. In an ments in learning, and of strict moral entry made in the accounts for St. virtue; although Sir Henry Saville Margaret's, Westminster, 1498, the speaks rather disrespectfully of his following particulars are inserted.character, in his Notes upon Tacitus ; “ Item, for the knelle of Elizabeth de buton what account is not known. Worde vi pence. Item, for iii torches,

Being originally a stranger to this with the grete belle for her v. iii.” country, the time of his birth is un- Again, in the year 1500, we have the known; and that of his death is not name once more occurring, Item, distinctly recorded. His Will, how- for the knelle of Julian de Worde, ever, which is dated January 19th, with the grete belle, vi pence.” 1534, will enable us to know, that he In these registers of mortality,

the was, even then, far advanced in years. similarity of name, and the correIt appears that he became acquainted sponding dates, furnish the only occawith Caxton in 1471, at which time, if sion for believing, that the deceased we suppose him to be no more than were branches of the same common 15 years of age, he must have been 78 family, of which Wynken was the last. when he made his will.

But whether this conclusion be true or In this will he describes himself as false, is of little consequence to this a citizen and stationer of London; and, memoir.—To the talents of Wynken, after commending his soul to God and the art of printing was much indebted the blessed Virgin, he directs his body in its infancy, for his fostering care ; to be buried in the parochial church of and it is but gratitude, now it is grown St. Bride's, in Fleet-street, before the to maturity, that it should preserve high altar of St. Katherine. Among his name, and faithfully transmit it to the numerous legacies which he be posterity. queathed, appear the following.“ Item, for tythes forgotten, vi s. viiid. Item, to the fraternity of our Lady, of

A WITTY PARADOX, which I am a brother, x s. to pray formy A GENTLEMAN possessing much husoul. I forgive John Bedel stationer mour, who resides in a sea-port, that all money he owes me, &c. for execut- flourishes in seasons of national hos

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357 Historical Fragment.-Celestial Phænomena. 358 tility, but languishes when the sword, we take into consideration the immense is sheathed, was asked some time distances of the fixed stars, (the nearsince this interesting question: “Sir, est of which our best glasses cannot do you think we shall have a war?” sensibly magnify,) is, to ascertain the To this he replied, “I believe not; | period of these variations, with all yet I am afraid we shall have no peace their visibly attending circumstances. until we have a War.

These, in the case of Algol, a star usually of the second magnitude, in the constellation of Perseus, marked

by Bayer B, have been ascertained to The church of St. Peter's, at Rome, a great degree of exactness. The has generally been considered as one period of this star's changes of splenof the most magnificent edifices in the dour is now almost as accurately deterworld. It was begun by Pope Julian; mined as the time of the periodic and but left unfinished at the time of his synodic revolutions of Jupiter's first death. His successor, Pope Leo the satellite, the frequent eclipses of which Tenth, was desirous to complete this have been so useful in determining the superb fabric; but being involved in longitude. The period of Algol's debt, and finding the Apostolic cham- variation of light is 2 days, 20 hours, ber exhausted, he had recourse to the 48 minutes, 58 seconds, 18 thirds, and disgraceful, though gainful, traffic of | 25 fourths. For about 61 hours of this selling indulgences, to raise the sum period, Algol is at its greatest splenthat was required. In 1517, he ac- dour, i. e. appears as a star of the cordingly gave publicity to his resolu- second magnitude. From the comtion, by offering indulgences through- mencement of its diminution of lustre, out Europe, to all who would contri- till its light is a minimum, is about four bute to the building of St. Peter's. hours; and in the succeeding four The price of sin was stipulated. The hours, it recovers its splendour in the sum of ten shillings was sufficient to same gradual manner in which it had procure pardon for every offence, and lost it, in an equal space of time, to release a soul from purgatory. It which preceded. The splendour of was against this abominable merchan- this star when a minimum, is equal to dise that Luther, though strongly at- one of about the fourth magnitude, the tached to the church of Rome, lifted variation of light being from the second his voice; and the contest terminated to the fourth magnitude, and vice versâ. in the establishment of the Reforma- The following are all the times of Algol's tion.

least splendour in July, August, and September, of the present year.--N. B. Those marked with an asterisk,

will occur when the sun is below the For the following paper we are in-horizon of London ; and as Algol is debted to a correspondent in London. situated some degrees to the north of -June 3, 1819.

the circle of perpetual apparition, they Observations on the Variations of Light will of course be visible in Great Bri

in Algol, with a computation of all its tain. When the whole phænomenon times of least splendour in this and the of variation will be visible, this cirtwo following months.

cumstance is pointed out by two asterOf all the celestial phænomena known isks. to have regular periodical returns, there

July. are none more difficult to account for First day, at 31 minutes past 8, evening. * than the changes of lustre which have Fourth day, at 20 minutes past 5, evening. been observed in several of the fixed Seventh day, at 9 minutes past 2, afternoon. stars. Indeed, so very obscure is this Tenth day, at 58 minutes past 10, forenoon. branch of Astronomy, that even the Thirteenth day, at 47 minutes past 7, morning. most laboured hypotheses yet invented, Sixteenth day, at 36 minutes past 4, morning. are allowed to be totally inadequate to Nineteenth day, at 25 minutes past 1, morn

ing.* account satisfactorily for many

of the extraordinary circumstances with Twenty-first day, at 14 minutes past 10, night*

Twenty-fourth day, at 3 minutes past 7, evenwhich these variations of light are ing. attended. All that the moderns have Twenty-seventh day, at 52 minutes past 3, hitherto done in this respect, and per- afternoon. haps all that ever will be done, when Thirtieth day, at 41 minutes past 12, noon.




ing. *



him with meat and drink for three days; Second day, at 30 minutes past 9, morning. then gave him a recommendation to Fifth day, at 19 minutes past 6, morning. some of the Society, and, adding three Eighth day, at 8 minutes past 5, morning. *

pounds to the two he had collected for Tenth day, at 57 minutes past 11, night.** him, bade him depart in peace. Thirteenth day, at 46 minutes past 8, evening.*

We may learn from the above anecSixteenth day, at 35 minutes past 5, after

dote, that, however distressed we may Nineteenth day, at 24 minutes past 2, after- be, the Lord is able to deliver us.

He says, Thy bread shall be given thee, Twenty-second day, at 13 minutes past 11, and thy water shall be sure. Let us, forenoon.

then, give over repining at the dispenTwenty-fifth day, at 2 minutes past 8, morn- sations of Providence, for the Lord ing.

loveth whom he chasteneth: let us Twenty-eighth day, at 51 minutes past 4, trust in Him, and we shall do well morning. *

here, and gain an heavenly mansion Thirty-first day, at 40 minutes past 1, morn- hereafter. ing.**

September. Second day, at 29 minutes past 10, night. ON CHRISTIAN PRAYER AND PRAISE. Fifth day, at 18 minutes past 7, evening.* Eighıb day, at 7 minutes past 4, afternoon. PRAYER, says a writer of some emiEleventh day, at 50 minutes past 12, noon. nence, is the going forth of the mind, Fourteenth day, at 45 minutes past 9, morning. in the desire after some good not in its Seventeenth day, at 34 minutes past 6, morn- possession. Praise is the overflowing ing.

of gratitude in the soul, from the sensaTwentieth day, at 22 minutes past 3, morn- tion of present enjoyment, and the

hope of its continuance. It is a duty Twenty-second day, at 11 minutes past 12, arising from the creature to the Crea

tor, for blessings enjoyed. Prayer is Twenty-fifth day, at 9 o'clock, night.* Twenty-eighth day, at 49 minutes past 5, for the continuance of present, or the

likewise a duty proper to be exercised evening.

addition of future good. The end of its institution is to keep the mind in a state of humble dependence on the

source of its mercies, and to teach it MR. Editor,

stedfastly to look up to God for an If you deem the following anecdote uninterrupted communication of his worthy of a place in your Imperial Ma

favours. gazine, you are at liberty to insert it.

E, S. Lytham, 5th June, 1819.

A young man, about three years ago, On the high roads in Japan, every being reduced to great distress, had mountain, every hill, every cliff

, is given himself up to despair; when a consecrated to some divinity; at all venerable looking old man, (belonging these places, travellers are compelled to the Society of Friends) accosted to repeat prayers, and frequently sevehim as he was walking the street, in ral times over. But the customary the following words, Young man, fulfilment of this duty detaining the art thou in want?” He replied in the pious traveller too long on the road, affirmative. Well,” says he, “ the the Japanese have contrived a curious Lord has sent me to help thee. I piece of machinery to obviate this indreamed last night I should meet thee convenience. Upon such elevations in the place I now find thee. Come as are consecrated to these divinities, along with me, and I will give thee they set up posts to distinguish the relief.” The young man, overjoyed distances between them. In these at the invitation, fell down upon his posts a long vertical hole is cut, at a knees, and cried aloud, “ O God, I certain height above the ground, where thank thee!” A crowd immediately a circular iron plate turns round, someassembled around him, and the old what like a sheave in a block. Upon man acquainting them with his dis- this plate, the prayer is engraven, tressed situation, collected upwards of which is dedicated to the divinity of two pounds. He then took the young the place. To turn it round, is deemed man to his own house, and entertained equivalent to the reciting of the



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