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TO THE EDITOR OF THE IMPERIAL
a stile from the top of King-street, | prey to myriads of animalculæ ; putting down to the bottom of Church-street, every art at defiance to rescue them over the field which then occupied from total destruction. In this state I the back ground of Pool-lane, King- have seen many of the most splendid street, Lord-street, and to Common and rare specimens, and even in the Shore, (now Paradise-street) which it best collections. From numerous obwas then before the Dock was built at servations, which I have from time to the bottom of Pool-lane.
time been enabled to make, together Reference for various particulars with the interest I have felt, I have may be made to the Fragments, folio, been induced to make every possible 2* Note 53. Grants to Earl Ferrars, effort to find a remedy for the evil. 54, 63, 168, 172, 225, 231, 244, &c. &c. After many experiments, having sucand Appendix, lxiv.
ceeded to the full extent of my wishes, I am yours,
I now desire to communicate my me
Q. thod to the Public, through the mediApril 29, 1819, Liverpool.
um of your useful and intelligent Several interesting facts and cir- the ingenious naturalist, that, if my
Magazine: at the same time assuring cumstances, connected with these anti- method be prosecuted with care, the quities of Liverpool, will appear in
native elegance and symmetry of every our next.)
species, will be preserved, and their
plumage also, from the ravages of Method of Preserving Birds.
destructive animalculæ for ages to I am, Sir, your obedient servant,
My method is as follows:- It will I have had several opportunities of ex- be necessary to have in readiness a amining many of the most splendid and few ounces of good sulphuric æther, valuable collections of Foreign and and also a few ounces of a saturated British Birds in London and else- solution of arsenic, in water; a small where; but particularly that in the syringe; a piece of thin wire, bent British Museum, some of which are like hook at one end ; and a block beautiful beyond the power of de- of wood, about four inches square, at scription. But, at the same time, I the bottom, and bevelled off on cach am sorry to remark, that there are too side, leaving about an inch and a quarmany, not only in this, but in every ter broad at the top; on which a cirother collection that I have seen, going cular groove must be made, about an rapidly to decay, either from the ef- inch deep, and the same in width. fects of time, or, what may be more This groove must be enlarged accordprobable, the ignorance of those who ing to the size of the bird. Having have attempted to embalm or other every thing ready, the bird is to be wise preserve them. Nothing can give placed in it on its back, underneath more pleasure to the studious natural- which, a little fine cotton wool should be ist, than to behold those inimitable spread, to prevent the plumage being gems in the feathered creation, the injured during the operation; the rump Humming bird, the Colibri, the Brazil- is to be placed at the end of the groove, lian Creeper, &c. sparkling with all the so as to allow the tail to be bent down lustre and fire of the ruby, and the daz- to the block, and secured by a piece of zling splendour of the emerald, the sap- paper or fine cloth, from water, blood, phire, the amethyst, and the topaz, in- and other impurities; the body is to sensibly changing, mixing, and melting to be bound with a ribbon, sufficiently into each other, in every position and tight; then, with the hooked wire, accident of light, with inexpressible draw the intestines out at the rectum, beauty. Such is the profusion in and, with your syringe, force the cawhich the Author of Nature has been vity of its body full of warm water, pleased to decorate those little bril- which will run out at its mouth or bill. liants of his creation. But with what Much care must be taken to prevent regret have I too often beheld them either blood or other matter from comexposed to view, dried and shrivelled ing in contact with the plumage, up; their native elegance and symme- will be almost impossible to remove try entirely lost, and their plumage a the slightest stain, without material
333 Method of preserving Birds.- Epitaphs.
334 injury. The block may now be set up by the blow-pipe. When the glass is on its end, with the head of the bird in fusion, draw the hands out rather hanging down, suffering it to remain quickly; then bring them closer togetill the water has entirely run off, and ther, and a globule will be formed. it is almost free from moisture. The Globules of any colour may be formed, bill must now be stuck into a piece of by using glass of various colours, by soft wax, so as to render it water- the same means. tight. The saturated solution of Insects may be preserved, by drownarsenic is then to be thrown into the ing them in æther, and placing them cavity, and it should remain for at between two concave glasses. least two hours; during which time,
[To be continued.] the whole muscular fibre will be impregnated with the arsenic: the wax may then be removed from the bill,
TO THE EDITOR OF THE IMPERIAL and the arsenious solution allowed to
MAGAZINE. drain off. When dry, the body must be stuffed with fine cotton wool, and Sir,-On a grave-stone, in the parish removed from the block; its bill must church-yard of Bolton, is the follownow be secured, by wrapping it close ing singular Epitaph, which, if you with a fine silk thread, till it is per- deem it sufficiently interesting for a fectly tight; taking much care at the place in your valuable Miscellany, is same time not to injure its texture or at your service.
J. W. form. Æther must now be dropped
John Okey the servant of God was borne in at the rectum, till the cotton is satu
in London 1608 Came into this Towne 1629 rated; the rectum may then be closed
Maried Mary the daughter of James and secured by a small piece of court Crompton of Breightmet 1635 with whom plaster. -(Wax might be used as be- he lived comfortably 20 years & begot fore, were not a degree of heat requir- 4 sonns & 6 daughters since then he lived ed, at the end of the process, that sole till the day of bis death in his time would melt it.) — The bird must now were many Great Changes & terrible be put into the most elegant and na
alterations 18 yeares civill wars in tural position, and placed in a warm
England besides many dreadful sea stove, or any other situation which
fights The Crown or Command of does not exceed 150 degrees. By this
England changed 8 times episcopacy
laid aside 14 yeares London burnt by means, the æther will rapidly transude
papists & more stately built againe through every pore, and carry with it
Germany wasted 3010 miles 200000 its native moisture, which is the true
protestants murdered in Ireland by cause of putrefaction; and at the same the papists This towne thrice stormed time minutely distribute and leave once taken & plundered He went the arsenious acid in the crystallized thorow many troubles & divers state, not only in the muscular com- conditions Found rest joy & happines pound, but in the cutis and epidermis only in holines the faith feare & love also, which will effectually prevent
of God in Jesus Christ those devastations occasioned by va- He dyed the 29 Ap & lieth rious animalculæ.
1684 When the bird is sufficiently dried,
Come Lord Jesus O come quickly take it from the stove, and remove the
Holines is Mans Happines thread from the bill, and varnish it slightly, and the legs and claws also.
The above, Sir, is the orthographiNothing remains now to be done, but cal form of the Epitaph. to place the artificial eyes in their sockets. N. B. Artificial eyes, for birds and
A REMARKABLE EPITAPH. quadrupeds, may be had from several
Passans ! vous qui passez, people in Birmingham, who make a En passant vous passerez trade of manufacturing them, and Par ou, ceux ci en passant ont passés. other glass toys.
This is very nervous, but scarcely A tolerable shift may be made by the capable of an English version. The blow-pipe.
Provide long slips of following gives the sense. glass, about one-tenth of an inch
Passengers ! ye who pass by ! broad; hold them between the hands In passing along, ye shall pass away ; in the flame of an alcohol lamp, urged | As those who, in passing by, have passed away.
Now, he who knows what is in the REVIEW, &c.-PRESCIENCE OF GOD.
power of men, and what is not; who [Concluded from our last.]
knows the make of their bodies, and Having extended this critique much all the mechanism and propension of beyond our original intention, we them; who knows the nature and exshould have terminated our remarks tent of their understandings, and what in the preceding number, but for a will determine them this way or that ; wish, which we were unwilling to sup- who knows all the process of natural press, to lay before our readers the causes, and consequently how these reasonings of an acute writer, on this may work upon them ;-he, I say, who momentous subject. Should any apo- knows all this, may know what men logy be necessary for the length of our will do, if he can but know this one observations, we hope it will be found thing more, viz. whether they will use in the occasion of this discussion, their rational faculties, or not. And that has placed before us an object, since even we ourselves, mean and which, though abstruse in its investi- defective as we are, can, in some meagation, is of serious importance in its sure, conceive how so much as this nature, and deeply interesting to man- may be done, and seem to want but kind. The writer proceeds as fol- one step more to finish the account, lows:
can we, with any shew of reason, deny It seems to me not impossible, that to a Perfect Being this one article God should know what is to come: on more, or think that he cannot do that the contrary, it is highly reasonable to too; especially if we call to mind, that think, that he does and must know this very power of using our faculties things future. Whatever happens in is held of him? the world, which does not come im- Observe, what a sagacity there is in mediately from him, must either be some men, not only in respect of phythe effect of mechanical causes, or of sical causes and effects, but also of the the motions of living beings and free future actings of mankind; and how agents. Now, as to the former, it very easy it is, many times, if the percannot be impossible for him, upon sons concerned, and their characters whom the being and nature of every and circumstances, are given, to forething depend, and who, therefore, see what they will do; as also to foremust intimately know all their powers, tel many general events, though the and what effects they will have; to see intermediate transactions, upon which through the whole train of causes and they depend, are not known. Consieffects, and whatever will come to pass der how much more remarkable this in that way; nay, it is impossible that penetration is in some men than in he should not do it.
others: consider further, that if there We ourselves, if we are satisfied of be any minds more perfect than the the goodness of the materials of which buman, (and who can be so conceited a machine is made, and understand of himself as to question this ?) they the force and determination of those must have it in a still more eminent powers by which it is moved, can tell degree, proportionable to the excellence what it will do, or what will be the of their natures. If, therefore, even effect of it. And as to those things on this ground of analogy, we only which depend upon the voluntary mo- allow this power of discerning in God, tions of free agents, it is well known, to be proportionable to his nature, as that men can only be free with respect in lower beings it is proportionable to to such things as are within their theirs, it then becomes infinite ; and sphere, and this we are assured is not then again the future actions of free very extensive: and their freedom agents are at once all unlocked, and with respect to these, can only consist exposed to his view. For that knowin a liberty either to act without any ledge is not infinite, which is limited to incumbent necessity, as their own rea- things past, or present, or which come son and judgment shall determine to pass necessarily. them; or to neglect their rational facul- But after all that has been said, and ties, and not to use them at all; but all that can be advanced, on this myssuffer themselves to be carried away terious, but interesting subject, our by the tendencies and inclinations of best attempts to shew how far we can the body, which, left thus to itself, acts go, towards an adequate conception of in a manner mechanically.
the manner in which future things may
338 be known, can only be considered asceiving these. As they want a fifth feeble, mean, and grovelling. Of an sense to perceive sounds and colours, infinite and all-perfect Being, we can of which they have no notion; so we, have no adequate conception; and perhaps, want a sixth sense, or some therefore we cannot justly reason from faculty, of which future events may ourselves to him. His powers, and be the proper objects.
Nor have we among them his power of knowing, any more reason to deny that there is must infinitely surpass our under- such a sense or faculty, than the deaf standing. It must be something dif- or blind have to deny, that there is ferent from, and infinitely transcend- such a sense as that of hearing or seeing, all the modes of apprehending ing: things, of which we have any know- We can never conclude, that it is imledge.
possible for an infinitely-perfect Being We know matter of fact, by the to know what a free agent will choose help of our senses, the strength of me- to do, until we can comprehend all mory, impressions upon the fancy, or the powers of such a Being; and that the report of others; and all these me- is, till we ourselves are infinite and diums or ways suppose the things perfect. So far are we from being known either to be present, or once to able to pronounce, with any shew of have been so. But is it therefore reason, that it is impossible there should impossible, that there should be any be such knowledge in God. other ways of knowing? This is so far In the last place, this knowledge is from being true, that, since God has not only not impossible, but that which no organ of sensation, nor such mean has been already proved concerning faculties as the best of ours are, and, the Deity and his perfection, doth consequently, cannot know things in necessarily infer, that nothing can be the way
in which we know them, if he hidden from him. For, if ignorance does not know them by some other be an imperfection, the ignorance of way, he cannot know them at all, future acts and events must be so; even though they were present. There and then, if all imperfections are to must, therefore, be other ways, or at be denied of him, this must. least another way of knowing even
There is, indeed, a common prejumatters of fact. And since the diffi- dice against the Prescience (as it is culty we find in determining whether usually called) of God; which sugfuture matters of fact may be known, gests, that, if God foreknows things, arises chiefly from this, that we in he foreknows them infallibly or cera reality consider, without minding it, tainly; and if so, then they are cerwhether they may be known in our tain; and if certain, then they are no way of knowing; it vanishes, when we longer matters of freedom. And, thus, recollect, that they are and must be prescience and freedom are thought to known to God by some other way; and be inconsistent. But, surely, the napot only so, but this must be some ture of a thing is not changed by its way that is perfect, and worthy of him. being known, or known beforehand.
Future, or what to us is future, may For, if it is known truly, it is known be as truly the object of divine know- to be what it is, and therefore is not ledge, as present is of ours: nor.can altered by this. The truth is, God we tell, what respect past, present, and foresees, or rather sees, the actions of to come, have to the Divine mind, or free agents, because they will be; not wherein they differ. To deaf men, that they will be because he foresees there is no such thing as sound; to them. If I see an object in a certain blind men, no such thing as colour; place, the veracity of my faculties nor, when these are defined and ex- supposed, it is certain that object is plained to them in the best manner there; but yet it cannot be said, it is which their circumstances admit, are there because I see it there, or that my they capable of knowing how they seeing it there is the cause of its being are apprehended. So, here, we can- there; but because it is there, therenot tell how future things are known, fore I see it there. It is the object perhaps, any more than deaf or blind that determines my sensation: and so, people know what sounds and colours in the other case, it is the future choice are, and how they may be perceived: of free agents that determines the but yet there may be a way of know- prescience, which yet may be infalliing those, as well as there is of per- I bly true. No. 4.-Vol. I.
Let us put these two contradictory that, never been left, had the petition propositions: B, some particular man, never been preferred. The grant may will go to church next Sunday, and B be called the effect of a future act; and will not go to church next Sunday ; and it depends as much upon it, as if it let us suppose withal that B is free, had been made after the act. In all and that his going or not going de- this, there is nothing hard to be admitpends merely upon his own will. In ted, if M be allowed to foreknow the this case, he may indeed do either, case. And thus the prayers which but yet he can do but one of these two good men offer to the all-seeing God, things, either go, or not go; and one and the neglects of others, may find of these things he must do, or, in other fitting effects already forecasted in the words, he cannot avoid both. One course of nature. These possibilities of these two propositions, therefore, is may be extended to the labours of now true; but yet it is not the truth of men, and to their behaviour in genethe proposition which forces him to do ral. what is contained in it; on the con- In all this, there is no implication trary, the truth of the proposition of any contradiction or absurdity; and arises from what he shall choose to do. therefore it may fairly be supposed. And if that truth doth not now force And hence it will follow, that a partihim, the foreknowledge of that truth cular providence, as well as that which will not.
We may, surely, suppose B is general, may be accounted for, and himself to know certainly, beforehand, rendered compatible with the actions which of the two he will choose to do, of men. Such a supposition is cerwhether to go to church or not (I mean tainly not beyond the power of an so far as it depends upon his choice almighty and all-perfect Being ; neionly); and if so, then here is B's own ther does it appear to be inconsistent foreknowledge consistent with his either with his wisdom or his goodness. freedom; and if we can but further -See Wollaston's Religion of Nature, suppose God to know as much in Sc. p. 99–103. this respect as B does, there will be God's foreknowledge consistent with B's freedom.
Interesting Questions to Correspondents. In a word, it involves no contradiction to assert, that God certainly knows TO THE EDITOR OF THE IMPERIAL what any man will choose; and, therefore, that he should do this, cannot be Sir, said to be impossible.
The perusal of Number 1, of your But the prescience of God, when Imperial Magazine afforded me conviewed in connection with the actions siderable pleasure, and I sincerely of moral agents, may be placed in wish it a circulation equal, in every another light, which the following ob- respect, to its merit. My attention was servations will serve to render intelli- particularly arrested by the last paragible.
graph that appears in your review of Let us suppose M, some particular Verax, page 27. The observations on man, to foreknow, some way or other, the phrase, one eternal now,” led that, when he shall come to be upon me to examine the precise import of his death-bed, L will petition for some human language, when applied to exparticular legacy, in a manner so ear- press divine things ; and continuing to nest and humble, and with such a dis- revolve this subject over in my mind, position, as will render it proper to a number of important questions arose, grant his request: and upon this, M to which I shall be greatly obliged, if makes his last will, by which he de- you, or some of yourlearned Corresponvises to L that which was to be asked, dents, will furnish me with an answer, and then locks up his will: and all through the medium of your interesting this many years before the death of M, compendium.- Is language of human and whilst L has no expectation or or of divine origin? Have words natuthought of any such thing. When rally any signification; or is their the time comes, the petition is made meaning purely arbitrary? Was lanand granted ; not by the making of any guage regularly formed, before a writnew will, but by the old one already ten Revelation was given to man? made, and without any alteration: Were the words employed in the vowhich legacy had, notwithstanding lume of Revelation, to express invisi