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Remarks on Sir Richard Phillips's Essay.
equal resistance; also the same change fold motion of the earth, the annual happens, whatever was the previous and the diurnal, or the orbicular and state of the given quantity of matter. rotary. But first we are required to Did not matter possess any, the least admit, that “ in the established rotaportion, of this power, the largest tion of this heterogeneous mass, the mass would be as easily moved as opposite sides balance, or must conthe smallest; and the least force would stantly be endeavouring to balance, stop entirely any moving mass of mat- each other. This is an unquestionter. Hence, to bodies belong a power able law of nature and of mechanics;' or force, fixed and invariable, tending p. 20. But how it can be a law of to preserve them in the state in which nature, or of mechanics, consistently they are, and from which they never with this theory, requires explanation: change, but by an extraneous force; we wish to know, from what“ hocus this alone, not motion, produces the pocus, or conjuration,” this endeavour new state of a body, which it tends to to balance arises ? not from any innate keep just with the same force it before force, by which matter tends to matpossessed: to the body, then, belongs ter, that would destroy the system; a power which it cannot increase or not from matter impelling equally diminish; nor can this power, we con- from opposite parts, since matter is ceive, be increased or diminished by said to be “ essentially inert”; not any power in created nature.
from the established two-fold motion Thus, the very foundation of the of the earth, for these motions are not new physical theory is swept away by of the parts towards each other, but the force of constant experience: but round certain centres or axes. This should we allow the foundation, in endeavour of the opposite sides to order to proceed, still the superstruc- balance, which is a natural conseture will be found incoherent, and quence of the Newtonian doctrines, is encumbered with hypotheses which altogether at variance with the procan never be verified.
posed hypothesis. But, how are the To maintain this theory, space is questions resolved by the double mosupposed to be perfectly full of matter: tion? It is supposed, that, “ if, in hence, if motion, wonder-performing this state of equilibrio, a stone be motion, can take place at all, some of projected by any force, (mechanical, the parts of matter must be annihi- muscular, or explosive,') in a novel lated, and in the same instant re- direction, from any inferior circle into created on the other side of the mov- any enlarged circle of rotation, the ing body; or the parts must contract pre-existing balance of the two sides and dilate; or else they must mutually of the earth is destroyed, during the penetrate each other. Hence this ab- | time in which such. novel force is exsolute plenum must be rejected, and erted, and will be restored by the the whole fabric vanishes. Besides, governing motions;" p. 20. In the all nature every where indicates vacu- explanation, the author allows that ities in given portions of space. the stone keeps its former motions,
Should this absurdity be admitted, orbicular and rotary; and also the we ask, hoy are bodies of different motion communicated by the “ novel densities to exist? and are told, that force,” until this last is gradually demotion, as it affects atoms, produces stroyed by the revolving matter; which various densities," and therefore, as also, having destroyed this new moa necessary consequence, causes gold tion, deflects the stone once more toor platinum to be more dense than wards the place on the earth from cork; or, that either body has its pe- which it was projected. Thus it is culiar density, is owing to motion! granted, that the stone retains its new But who can prove it? This suppo- state produced by the impressed force, sition has not the shadow of proba- tenaciously returning to its former bility.
state by very slow degrees, through We come now to the grand ques- the constant operation of the deflecting tions, —“ By what law or laws the force; which also is required to bring heterogeneous particulars are kept to it back to its place again. Now, the gether? How, if any disturbance revolving matter must be admitted take place, is the original position to be of the same nature with that of restored ?" p. 17. These questions, it the stone: what, then, prevents it seems, are to be resolved by the two- | from keeping its own course, and No. 4.-- VOL. I.
causes it to perform its continual gy- By such elegant and commodions rations? It is easily answered; by the theorems, the laws of gravitation disaction of some superior or paramount covered by Newton are exhibited with motion! This philosophy easily sur- all imaginable facility; and “Kepler's mounts every obstacle. But, still, we famous law, if applicable, is also are required to suppose, that the den- easily established on this doctrine;" sities of the parts of the earth, in their p. 26. natural situations, are such, that, We are also furnished with diamultiplied by the distances, the pro- grams to illustrate the decreasing denducts are equal,” p. 21; and it is as- sity from the centre, upward; and to sumed, that the earth consists of shew the effect of the annual and rostrata, all carried in the rotation, so tary motions. “These combined moas to produce equal momenta in all tions,” here is the grand charm! If the strata among themselves. But we can pass the absurdities in every where is the proof of this density in- former step, let us examine“ these creasing thus towards the centre? We combined motions and forces.” And, may as well believe the earth is less first, what is the effect of the annual dense near the central regions : also, motion on different terrestrial bodies? the hypothesis would make the earth Granting that some power or motion infinitely dense (if the expression may has given, and is ever exerting its be allowed) near the centre of the energies to preserve, the orbicular moearth. Every step is dark and doubt- tion, it is evident there is nothing in ful; but, however disagreeable, we are it tending to bring any mass of matrequired to advance; and are inform- ter nearer to the centre, whatever may ed, that “ the density of an equal be its density, or its situation in the quantity of matter, in a sphere, is as earth ; because, since the revolving the cube of the sphere;” P. 25. We matter at the place of the mass has will
pass this over as an inadvertency. itself no tendency to approach the It is then concluded, that the density earth’s centre, it cannot possibly impel of the strata is inversely as the cubes a foreign body that way. A similar of the radii : but this can only happen, method of reasoning will hold for the on the gratuitous supposition, that the diurnal motion, considered apart. indefinitely thin strata are of equal Since, then, neither of these motions, thickness: also, in opposition to this, if pre-established separately, could in we were just before told, that the pro- any measure, or in the least degree, ducts of the distance and density are cause a projected body to come nearer equal; and, therefore, the density is the centre than the place it may hapinversely as the radii.
pen to reach ; how can it be supposed, After these luminous views, our that these motions combined are capaAuthor presents the whole in a mathe- ble of producing this effect, of performmatical dress, in five articles; following the work toward which neither of ed by learned analytical investigations: them contributed the smallest part? the whole of which, to say the best of Again, since our Author asserts
, it, is ridiculous, nonsensical, and that the opposite sides of the earth utterly unworthy of regard; only it balance,' or endeavour to balance, may be amusingas to observe, that each other, it follows, that whatever having put the symbols, m, for combinations of motions there may be, momentum, d, for density, 1, for imaginary or real, the several parts of radius, t, for time,” we are informed, the earth, being arranged according
to the supposed natural order, as to ; that is, dm=dm; their fancied decreasing densities, d
d or, m is to m, as d to d; i. e. the rela- will, while undisturbed, perform their tive momenta are directly as the densi-motions regularly, and have no tenties;” p. 26. In addition, we may now dency towards the centre of the earth,
or from it: now, things being in this put s, for softness, then m=- x $; state, if a body be projected in a or, sm=sm; i. e. the relative momenta effect the medium might have, by re
direction from the centre, whatever are directly as the softness! In the same sistance, to retard the new motion of manner we may indubitably prove, the body, it can have no force to bring these momenta are directly as the it nearer to, or remove it farther from, hardness, or as the elasticity, or as any thing else.
the centre, since this matter does not
т m =
SAGACITY IN A HORSE.
325 Singular Instance of Instinctive Sagacity in a Horse. 326 tend to or from the central part by its | tom of the corner, where he stopped of own motion.
his own accord, and began to neigh A variety of illustrations and expli- before a very deep crevice, or rather cations follow, exactly agreeing with a cut through the granite rock, quite the preceding part, as it respects in- perpendicularly from the top to the congruity; the whole forming one mass bottom of the mountain. He wished of inconsistencies, requiring no fur- to rush in; but I could not get on with ther notice; and which we can recom- him, on account of the passage being mend to the attention of those persons full of large blocks of granite. only who are at a loss for employment. “At last my guide reached me, and
appeared very angry, thinking that I
had gallopped his horse on purpose, SINGULAR INSTANCE OF INSTINCTive | However I left the horse with him, and
wished to go into the cut to satisfy my
curiosity, and to see what was the [From Salame's Travels in the Deserts.]
reason of his bringing me thither. The “After we had rested a little, I wish- man refused to wait with the horse, ed to gratify my curiosity, by taking a and told me, that if I went in, he walk round this valley. But being would leave me alone, and return to somewhat fatigued, I gave a piaster our halting-place. After I had given (about tenpence) to one of our Arabs, him another piaster, and persuaded to lend me his horse, and to walk with him, with many stories, that perme. The distance was about six miles. haps, through this casual inspiration This valley was nearly square: the of the horse, we might find a treasure, ground was sandy, except the edges (as they in general believe, that all by the foot of the mountains, which the European travellers' object is, to were muddy, or rather lined by beds search for treasures,) I began to enter of torrents, which apparently had run this most amazing crevice, by ascendthere ; and in consequence of which, ing one block and descending the the senna shrubs have grown almost other, which were throughout the pasall around the valley. The surround-sage. They were of different shapes ing mountains are from 3 to 400 feet and sizes, from about five to ten feet in in height, or perhaps more. In some diameter; and they are of the same parts there were several square caves, kind as the green-coloured granite hewn in the granite rock at the foot of mountain, from which they were cut. the mountain, all nearly of the same The crevice is very regularly of the size. I went into a few of them, where same width, which was about three I found nothing but some broken yards; and its depth or distance into pieces of red earthenware, and some the mountain, perhaps more than one birds' bones. I discovered no inscrip- hundred yards: it was so neatly cut tion whatever in any of those which I through the rock, quite perpendicuvisited. On my coming out of these larly from the top to the bottom, that caves, I observed to my guide, that it looks as if there were two smooth
this valley, in former times, had pro- walls, standing close one by the other. bably been inhabited, as I supposed This is certainly not an accidental all these excavations to have been cleft, but a work of human labour. made for habitations; and, therefore, “On reaching the bottom of this the people who lived there could cut, I found, to my surprising joy, a not live without water.' His answer basin or reservoir of fine limpid water, to me was, (according to the common of about six yards in circumference, superstition of the present ignorant and two feet deep: its bottom was of people of Egypt,) that 'as all the an- fine white sand, and the water was cient people were magicians, they most excellent. On account of the probably might have had their water masses of granite, I could not see my brought from the Nile, by the power of guide to make him a sign to come in; magic. On hearing this, I had no- and, when I began to call out loudly thing to reply, but laughed at him, to him, I heard the report of my voice, and proceeded towards our caravan. sounding through the crevice like a
On my approaching the south-east bell. He did hear me; but would not corner of the valley, my horse began believe that I had found any water to gallop; and I could not restrain there. him, until he brought me to the bot- At last I came out, and told him
to go in; and, at the same time, I From the appearance of the old gave him the zamzamie, (i. e. a small church, (previous to any alteration but leather bag, carried always by the that of the north aisle, and the spire, side of the saddle,) to fill it with which was set upon the old church water for the horse. I took the dear tower, and which so suddenly fell,) horse from him, and began to kiss this building might be dated coeval him; and I am sure that he must have with the tower so called. been there before, or he must have Whoever looks at the plan of Liversmelled the water. The man came pool, and examines the site of the preout of the crevice quite rejoiced, and sent church-yard, and tower, and garreturned me the last piaster which I den wall, which extended to the west, to gave him before I went into the cre- the front of the shore, will find it boundvice; and he immediately ran towards ed by a wall, to prevent the water from the caravan, to apprize them of the washing the very foundations of the water-place.
tower. The more ancient state of this “ I gave some water from the zam- spot may be gathered from viewing a zamiè to the horse, and waited at the picture, (see Fragments of Lancashire, spot till the caravan came, and made folio, 168,) taken so late as 1740; their provision of that excellent water. also a more early view, from a paintThey expressed great thanks; and ing in the possession of Ralph Peters
, wished to know who I was? On giv- Esq.; which painting has been copied ing an account of our shipwreck, and by the late Mr. Eyes and others, and of the state of distress in which I said to be taken in 1680. But this was, they showed much sorrow; and statement must be incorrect, for the the chief of the caravan took out of his castle and castle-walls were taken pocket the ten piasters which I had down before 1663, as appears by an paid him for my passage, and pre- authentic MS. in my possession, writsented them to me, saying, “This is a ten from 1662 to 1667; being the mivery little reward for the treasure you nutes of Charles Earl of Derby, lordhave discovered; which is not only a lieutenant, and his deputies, Sir Rogreat relief to us on this occasion, but ger Bradshaigh, Robert Holt of Casit will be for the benefit of thousands tleton, Roger Nowel of Read, Gilb. in following time.'
Ireland, and others. “ At first, I thought this spot of wa- Whoever attentively observes the ter was a reservoir of rain; but when I ground-plan of St. Nicholas' church went into the crevice again, I found and church-yard, lineable, as it were, it was a spring, for the more water we by the old water-line, from the bottom took, the more it sprang out; and I of Water-street, (formerly Mylneobserved the ground, underneath the lane) including what is called the blocks of granite, was covered with New Ground, taken from the river, grass. I have no doubt that this spring and tracing up the same from the spreads itself, by unperceived pas- N. W. corner, in Chapel-street, to sages through the sand, at the foot of what was called the Church-Style the mountain, round the valley, where House, (a post and petrel building, the senna shrubs grow.”
which is still standing at the N. E. corner) ranging on the East side with
Alderman Pole's house, (the Stamp Antiquities respecting Liverpool. Office,) southward to Mylne-lane, then
down that street to the west, including TO THE PROPRIETOR
the tower, tower-garden, and ancient
church-passage, about five yards wide SIR,
on the west front of the tower, along I sit down to collect a little respect the ancient garden-wall to the church ing the only remaining antique build- gates, on the south side, and where ings in Liverpool, now in their an- the garden was continued, eastwardly; cient form standing,--the old tower, towards Alderman Pole's' house; will its garden-gate, the kitchen, and the have a tolerably correct view of its site of the garden; all abutting upon extended outline. That wall on the the chapel and chapel-yard of St. west, betwixt those houses and the Nicholas: formerly under the mother church-yard, was built about 120 church, Walton; but, since 1699, one years ago, as may be seen in the of the parish churches of Liverpool, Vestry Book, vol. i. It must evidently
OR EDITOR OF
330 strike any one, who contemplates We find, then, a descendant of Rothe plan, that this piece of ground bert de Latham (tempo. Hen. IV.) must have belonged to one and the owning the Tower in Liverpool, then same person; and that he granted his occasional residence; which' tower one half to build a chapel on, and he gave the gallant knight, Sir John chapel-yard, reserving the other half Stanley, who married his only daughto erect his mansion upon, and his ter, Isabella de Latham, and they garden, which occupied about the rebuilt it. From this match sprang same quantity of land.
the noble house of Stanley, Earl of It is most likely, too, that the tower Derby ; Sir John Stanley, of Alderley and the chapel were built nearly about Edge, Cheshire ; the Stanleys of Westthe same time. Of that fact there moreland: all which, through Sir John seems little doubt. This, we may Stanley, knight, are descended from presume, was previous to the time the Stanleys of Hooton, in Cheshire. of King John; perhaps in the days of Sir John Stanley, who was lordHenry I. ; as, at the time of Dooms- lieutenant of Ireland, spent much .day, Liverpool did not go by that time here, and was greatly honoured. name: and our account of the sheriffs He had a seat erected for him in St. and governors under that king are Nicholas's church, which belongs to the very imperfect; and they continued so family to this day. He got power to until Henry the II.'s time, 1154. kernell his house, the 7th of Henry IV., Though there was no sheriff named in (see Calendar Rotulo patenti,) called the Stephen's reign, we find William de Tower, now standing, as well as the Blois made many grants in Lanca-garden-gate, and the kitchens, (the old shire to the Waltons, the Banastres, buildings adjoining the gate to the &c. After him succeeded Randle and east): but the garden is covered with Hugh, Earls of Chester. After these, buildings, and a more modern road John Lackland was Lord of Lanca- made through the garden, entering the shire, in 1189; and Theobald de Wal-church-yard nearly at the south-east ter had all Amounderness, and, little angle of this church. doubt, many parts of West Derby. So late as 1734, James Earl of It then went to the Earls of Chester Derby was mayor of Liverpool, and again; and thence to the Earl Ferrars, entertained in the Tower at the botEarl of Derby, where it continued until tom of Water-street. No building it went to Edward Crouchback, born was then opposite the west; it was 1245, and appointed about 1265; clear to the river, (see Fragments of one of whose descendants, John of Lancashire, before-mentioned, folio, Gaunt, founded a chantry on the said 168,) and so continued until about chapel.
1741, when the house (the lowest, and I can but conceive, that Henry de warehouse on the north side of WaterTorbocke was a son or descendant of street) was built by one of the BromTheobald de Walter. Henry, the fields: the warehouse has been rebuilt father, had two sons. To Robert Fitz- this last year. henry he gave Latham and Knowsley ; I count nine mayors of the family to Richard he gave Torbocke; Robert, of Stanley, from 1625 to 1734, if we being the eldest son, took the name of allow the Right Hon. Thos. Viscount Latham, and the arms of the said Colchester to be one; for he married Theobald de Walter, with this addi- Charlotte, grand-daughter of James tion,-on the chief three plates : and Earl of Derby, who suffered at Bolton. his brother, who settled and resided He was mayor in 1667, and M. P. at Torbocke, took the name of Tor- for Liverpool, 1688: he was eldest son bocke, and the arms of the Walters, of Lord Rivers, of Rock Savage. (now called Butler, being appointed There was, from the north-east corchief butler of Ireland,) or, a chief in- ner of the church-yard, a stile and dented azure, with the addition of foot-path, which came from the churchthree plates, like his brother, (perhaps house, towards the top of Watertheir father's arms); and a distin- street, crossing over the Common guishing bearing further, on the field, Garden, then common garden ground; "An Eagle's leg erased Gules.”-From but more latterly called, within these Theobald are descended the Dukes last fifty years, as a street, Covent of Ormond, and many other noble Garden. There was, in the memory families.
of an old gentleman whom I knew,