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man, and the Low Dutch, which is her those can to whom they are vernacunative tongue, she has an extensive lar. She can maintain a literary comacquaintance with Hebrew, Syriac, and merce with the Jews in Hebrew, and Chaldee, and could speak them with with the Turks in Arabic. She is confacility, had she any opportunity to versant in the most difficult and abexercise herself in those languages. struse sciences: her attainments in She is so well acquainted with the geo- philosophy and scholastic divinity are graphy of every country, that she such, as strike every person with could travel through Europe as well amazement: such knowledge appears without a guide as without an inter- almost miraculous. None needs atpreter. Her knowledge of geography tempt to emulate her excellence, for rendering the one needless, and her she is beyond imitation; and none can knowledge of languages precluding envy her, for she is placed beyond the the necessity of the other."

reach of envy itself.” Thus far Le Laboreur, who was him- Balzac, who was proverbial for his self a sound scholar, and a good judge. elegant epistolary compositions, gives

Of this eminent lady, Salmasius, who her the following character, in a letter was one of her literary correspondents, to Mr. Gerard. and a man of vast erudition, gives the “I must confess, Sir, that Miss following account.

Schurman is an astonishing young “We need not refer to ancient times woman, and that her verses for examples of literary excellence among the least of her excellencies. among women; the existence of which, I do not think that Sulpitia, so highly in some cases at least, many lawfully extolled by Martial, has made finer doubt: but we may come to our own poems, nor better Latin. But among times, and to our own nation.

the charms of her verse, what modesty " In a city, about a day's journey and chastity appear! The purity of hence, there is a noble virgin, equal, her heart blends itself most pleasingly in the knowledge of numerous arts, to with the productions of her underHippias; and much more to be ad- standing. I am highly obliged to you mired than she, because such a fecun- for having procured me an acquaintdity of genius is rarely to be met with ance with this astonishing lady, and in this sex. She cultivates the whole for those epigrams.of her's, which you oircle of arts, succeeds in each, and have sent me. I have just now regraces the whole assemblage of vir- ceived a book, said to be written by tues, so that to her not one is lacking. Mr. De Saumaise, (Salmasius) and reWhat the understanding can conceive, quest that, in his second edition, he or the hand bring to effect, this person will alter that place, where, speakcan perform. In painting she is sur- | ing of this young woman, he says, passed by none; she equally excels Gallicas Epistolas tales concinnat, ut in sculpture, bronze, wax-modelling, vix meliores Balzacius:' In French and carving. In embroidery, and in epistolary writing, she is scarcely exall things which are objects of study ceeded by Balzac;' and let it run and attention to females, she sur- thus:-Gallicas Epistolas tales concinpasses the most eminent ancients and nat, multo minus bonas, & minus Gallicas moderns; and she is possessed of so Balzacius:' · Balzac's French Epistles many sciences, that it is difficult to are vastly inferior in their matter, and tell in which she excels most. Her less elegant in their composition.' knowledge of languages is also so ex- And even with this qualification of tensive, that, not content with all Euro- the sentence, I shall feel myself too pean tongues, her active mind has tra- much honoured. It is no small glory velled to the East, and acquired the to be near such a personage, even in Hebrew, Arabic, and Syriac. She any situation ; and though, in the comwrites Latin so correctly, that the most parison above, I must appear to dislearned men who have, during their advantage ; yet even that disadvanwhole lives, affected eminence in this tage, because I am compared with way, cannot write with more purity her, confers an obligation. and elegance. In French epistolary Mr. James Martin, of Paris, wrote writing, she is scarcely exceeded by a fine eulogium on this extraordinary Balzac.

woman, from which I shall at present “ The other European tongues, she borrow only the following elegant epispeaks with as much correctness, as gram:

“ Gracchorum matrem sileat Romana vetustas, , and capacity of this eminent woman,

Et taceat Sappho Græcia victa suam Mr. Bruysset (Dict. BIOGRAPH.) adCedite Romanæ, Græcæ, quoque cedite Musæ, duces her conversion to Quietism, as he Nescio quid Batavo majus in orbe micat.” terms it. But to this we might an

Of which the following, by a Lady, swer, Quietism in her assumed the is no inelegant paraphrase.

form of the true religion, and pro"When heaven-born Wisdom beam'd from duced its effects ; viz. abstraction from pole to pole,

the world, and devotedness to God. Her choicest rays illum'd the female soul. Nor can this be fairly resorted to as a Brave Şcipio's daughter taught her sons to proof of mental bility; for the most know

elevated geniuses have been often To govern Rome, and lay her tyrants low. The Grecian Sappho charm’d the listning warmest religious affections; nor will

found susceptible of the finest and thiong

this be contested, while we can shew With potent numbers and harmonious song. The beauteous Nine their sex's greatness prove; Phineas Fletcher and Cowper, among

such men as Origen among the ancients; And charm the warring world to peace and love:

the poets; and Boyle and Fenelon, But when e'en these contend for deathless among the philosophers. The latter praise,

of whom, the amiable Bishop of CamThey yield to Schurman's brow the verdant bray, nulli secundus, gave way to, and bays."

wrote in defence of, that very system Her works were collected by Span- of Quietism, alias Devotedness to God, heim, and printed by the Elzevirs, by which the delicate feelings and reat Leyden, in 1648, 12mo. with the fined soul of A. M. Schurman were following title: “ Nobilissimæ Vir- won away from the public walks of ginis Annæ Mariæ à Schurman Opus- polite literature, into the less frequentcula ; Hebrea, Græca, Latina, Gallica, ed, but not less noble, private paths of Prosaica & Metrica." To this is pre

self-renunciation, and piety to God. fixed a likeness of this eminent woman, Besides, it should ever be remembered, engraven, if not painted, by herself, that polite literature had its full share taken in the 33d year of her age; from (forty years) of Schurman's life; and which the likeness prefixed to this that there is a time when literary Number has been correctly copied. ladies and scientific gentlemen, as well

In these Opuscula is a famous dis- as the vulgar herd, must be converted, sertation on the question,“ Num fe- and become as little children, before minæ Christianæ conveniat studium they can enter into the kingdom of Literarum ?Is it consistent with God. the character of a Christian woman to Many additional particulars respectstudy Literature ?”—This piece, which ing this extraordinary Lady, may be has never been translated, casts much found in the following works. light on the long-controverted subject,

Schurmannia, Eurangice. —“ Was woman created inferior to Croesii Hist. Quaker. lib. iii. man ?”—Besides tbis dissertation, and Jacob. Bibliothec. illustr. Foemin. another, De Vitæ termino, concerning quæ Scriptis claruerunt. the bounds of buman life, the rest of G. Arnold's History of the Churches the volume consists chiefly of Epistles: and Heretics, in Dutch, two vol. 17th many of these are written in Latin ; book, 21st chap. several in French; three in Hebrew, with points; and five in elegant Greek.

TORTURE IN HANOVER. Her Poems are in Latin and French, and are principally of the Epistolary The practice of torturing offenders, kind; with a few Epigrams. There which exists in his Majesty's domiwas a second edition of this eminent nions in Germany, would scarcely be Lady's Opuscula printed in 1650, credited by an English reader, if the which contains a French Ode, to Ma- authenticity of the fact did not rest on dame Ulricia Ogle; and a Letter, in the unquestionable authority of that the same language, to Mr. Spanheim, celebrated philanthropist, the late Mr. concerning his edition of the Opus- Howard. This gentleman has recordcula: of this letter, it is not speaking ed the following account of the dreadtoo highly to say, it is a model of epis- ful place, in which the torture is admitolary elegance.

nistered in Brunswick. To detract from the mental energy “ The descent into this subterrane

room.

dungeon, where the torture is inflicted, principle which confers on masses of is by a flight of fifteen steps. Here all matter the power of acting on other is total darkness, except when candles masses. In regard to matter, which are introduced, by the light of which is essentially inert, it is the source many instruments of misery are dis- of momentum or potentiality, and is covered. From this room we pass the animating soul of the material into another, which seems to be a kind universe. Space is the stage, Matof cellar, arched over. Its dimensions ter is the subject, and Motion is the are, eighteen feet by fifteen, and all agent, producing all phenomena. As around is very black and dark. At it affects atoms, it produces various one end is a bench, for the judge, densities; as it affects aggregates, it lawyers, secretary, and surgeon, under creates varied organizations ; and as it whose direction this work of dark- affects different aggregates, it deveness is carried on. Opposite to this lops the relative properties of matter." bench, is a table for candlesticks and Here motion appears to be representbooks. The prisoner, the executioner, ed as some principle, operating on and his assistant, stand by the table, matter, and giving it certain powers ; before the judge. The season when and matter is set forth as something tortures are inflicted, is midnight; perfectly and essentially destitute of although the thickness of the walls, any power: to motion is attributed an which is three feet, four doors through arbitrary force, and to matter an arbiwhich I passed, together with the trary inertia. But are these things dirty floor, and the depth under ground, true in fact? No; there is something must prevent the most agonizing cries more in matter than simple inertness ; from being heard any where but in the and motion confers on it no new abso

I saw all the remaining en- lute force. There belongs essentially gines of torture at the executioner's to matter, whether at rest or in mohouse. He seemed with pleasure to tion, a force tending to preserve it in shew them, and their mode of appli- its present state. Experience is against cation, and most readily answered all the position, that matter is totally demy inquiries. To do this he was very void of all force, except such as is competent, having been several years communicated by motion : and, in in that occupation at Hanover. He, fact, mo on gives no new absolute however, observed, that during his force to matter; for whatever it reemployment in this house of woe, he ceives in one direction, it loses exhad only beheaded four or five persons. actly, by return or reaction, in the On asking him, if nothing was put opposite : it is neither gainer nor into the tortured person's mouth, as I loser; if it have received, iť has given had seen in some places, he replied, back precisely as much, and the effect “ No; the, Osnaburgh executioners of the conflict is, a change of state, think they suffer less.” And on de- always proportional to the impressed scribing some of the modes of torture or the re-acting force ; because a which the wit of devils and men had change of state in matter is the effect invented, he said, Sir, the Osna- of force, and effects are burgh torture is still ruder."-Anec- causes; and when a body is by any dotes of the Life of the Right Hon. Wil- force put into motion, and thus made liam Pitt, vol. 1, p. 440.

to act on another body at rest, by impinging on it, the body at rest is al

ways found to produce exactly the REMARKS ON SIR RICHARD PHILLIPS's same change on the impinging body,

as this does on the other, but in an (Concluded from col. 234.]

opposite direction: now, if the body

at rest be essentially inert, how comes But there is still a question of import- it to produce a change of state in the ance: Has Sir Richard really disco- striking body? There is, then, an invered the cause of gravitation? Let us variable force in bodies, tending to attend to his principles and reason- preserve them in the state in which ing. “ He is desirous of proving, they are; and hence, a given power that all phenomena of matter are the cannot produce more or less than a effects of Motion:” a desire, this, given change of state in a given porsufficiently large! We are informed, tion of matter; and, in effecting this p. 15, that “ Motion is that universal determinate change, suffers itself an

as their

ESSAY.

equal resistance; also the same change fold motion of the earth, the annual happens, whatever was the previous and the diurnal, or the orbicular and state of the given quantity of matter. rotary. But first we are required to Did not matter possess any, the least admit, that “ in the established rotaportion, of this power, the largest tion of this heterogeneous mass, the mass would be as easily moved as opposite sides balance, or must conthe smallest; and the least force would stantly be endeavouring to balance, stop entirely any moving mass of mat- each other. This is an unquestionter. Hence, to bodies belong a power able law of nature and of mechanics ;" or force, fixed and invariable, tending p. 20. But how it can be a law of to preserve them in the state in which nature, or of mechanics, consistently they are, and from which they never with this theory, requires explanation: change, but by an extraneous force; we wish to know, from what “ hocus this alone, not motion, produces the pocus, or conjuration,” this endeavour new state of a body, which it tends to to balance arises ? not from any innate keep just with the same force it before force, by which matter tends to matpossessed: to the body, then, belongs ter, that would destroy the system; a power which it cannot increase or not from matter impelling equally diminish; nor can this power, we con- from opposite parts, since matter is ceive, be inereased or diminished by said to be “ essentially inert”; not any power in created nature.

from the established two-fold motion Thus, the very foundation of the of the earth, for these motions are not new physical theory is swept away by of the parts towards each other, but the force of constant experience: but round certain centres or axes. This should we allow the foundation, in endeavour of the opposite sides to order to proceed, still the superstruc- balance, which is a natural conseture will be found incoherent, and quence of the Newtonian doctrines, is encumbered with hypotheses which altogether at variance with the procan never be verified.

posed hypothesis. But, how are the To maintain this theory, space is questions resolved by the double mosupposed to be perfectly full of matter: tion? It is supposed, that, “if, in hence, if motion, wonder-performing this state of equilibrio, a stone be motion, can take place at all, some of projected by any force, (mechanical, the parts of matter must be annihi- muscular, or explosive,') in a novel lated, and in the same instant re- direction, from any inferior circle into created on the other side of the mov- any enlarged circle of rotation, the ing body; or the parts must contract pre-existing balance of the two sides and dilate; or else they must mutually of the earth is destroyed, during the penetrate each other. Hence this ab- | time in which such. novel force is exsolute plenum must be rejected, and erted, and will be restored by the the whole fabric vanishes. Besides, governing motions ;” p. 20. In the all nature every where indicates vacu- explanation, the author allows that ities in given portions of space. the stone keeps its former motions,

Should this absurdity be admitted, orbicular and rotary; and also the we ask, how are bodies of different motion communicated by the novel densities to exist? and are told, that force,” until this last is gradually demotion, as it affects atoms, produces stroyed by the revolving matter; which various densities,” and therefore, as also, having destroyed this new moa necessary consequence, causes gold tion, deflects the stone once more toor platinum to be more dense than wards the place on the earth from cork; or, that either body has its pe- which it was projected. Thus it is culiar density, is owing to motion! granted, that the stone retains its new But who can prove it? This suppo- state produced by the impressed force, sition has not the shadow of proba- tenaciously returning to its former bility.

state by very slow degrees, through We come now to the grand ques- the constant operation of the deflecting tions, —“ By what law or laws the force; which also is required to bring heterogeneous particulars are kept to- it back to its place again. Now, the gether? How, if any disturbance revolving matter must be admitted take place, is the original position to be of the same nature with that of restored ?" p. 17. These questions, it the stone: what, then, prevents it seems, are to be resolved by the two- | from keeping its own course, and No. 4.-VOL. I.

Y

causes it to perform its continual gy- By such elegant and commodions rations? It is easily answered; by the theorems, the laws of gravitation disaction of some superior or paramount covered by Newton are exhibited with motion! This philosophy easily sur- all imaginable facility; and “ Kepler's mounts every obstacle. But, still, we famous law, if applicable, is also are required to suppose, that the den- easily established on this doctrine;" sities of the parts of the earth, in their p. 26. natural situations, are such,“ that,

We are also furnished with diamultiplied by the distances, the pro- grams to illustrate the decreasing denducts are equal,” p. 21; and it is as- sity from the centre, upward; and to sumed, that the earth consists of shew the effect of the annual and rostrata, all carried in the rotation, so tary motions. “ These combined moas to produce equal momenta in all tions,” here is the grand charm! If the strata among themselves. But we can pass the absurdities in every where is the proof of this density in- former step, let us examine these creasing thus towards the centre ? We combined motions and forces.” And, may as well believe the earth is less first, what is the effect of the annual dense near the central regions : also, motion on different terrestrial bodies ? the hypothesis would make the earth Granting that some power or motion infinitely dense (if the expression may has given, and is ever exerting its be allowed) near the centre of the energies to preserve, the orbicular moearth. Every step is dark and doubt- tion, it is evident there is nothing in ful; but, however disagreeable, we are it tending to bring any mass of matrequired to advance; and are inform- ter nearer to the centre, whatever may ed, that the density of an equal be its density, or its situation in the quantity of matter, in a sphere, is as earth; because, since the revolving the cube of the sphere;" P. 25. We matter at the place of the mass has will pass this over as an inadvertency. itself no tendency to approach the It is then concluded, that the density earth’s centre, it cannot possibly impel of the strata is inversely as the cubes a foreign body that way. A similar of the radii : but this can only happen, method of reasoning will hold for the on the gratuitous supposition, that the diurnal motion, considered apart

. indefinitely thin strata are of equal Since, then, neither of these motions, thickness: also, in opposition to this, if pre-established separately, could in we were just before told, that the pro- any measure, or in the least degree, ducts of the distance and density are cause a projected body to come nearer equal; and, therefore, the density is the centre than the place it may hapinversely as the radii.

pen to reach ; how can it be supposed, After these luminous views, our that these motions combined are capaAuthor presents the whole in a mathe- ble of producing this effect, of performmatical dress, in five articles; follow-ing the work toward which neither of ed by learned analytical investigations: them contributed the smallest part? the whole of which, to say the best of Again, since our Author asserts, it, is ridiculous, nonsensical, and that the opposite sides of the earth utterly unworthy of regard; only it balance,' or endeavour to balance, may be amusinga to observe, that each other, it follows, that whatever having put the symbols, m, for combinations of motions there may be, momentum, d, for density, r, for imaginary or real, the several parts of radius, t, for time,” we are informed, the earth, being arranged according

dm x d ; that is, dm=dm; their fancied decreasing densities

, to the supposed natural order, as to d

d or, m is to m, as d to d; i. e. the rela- will, while undisturbed, perform their tive momenta are directly as the densi- motions regularly, and have no tenties;” p. 26. In addition, we may now dency towards the centre of the earth,

or from it: now, things being in this put s, for softness, then m=" X 8; state, if a body be projected in a or, sm=sm; i. e. the relative momenta effect the medium might have, by re

direction from the centre, whatever are directly as the softness! In the same sistance, to retard the new motion of manner we may indubitably prove, the body, it can have no force to bring these momenta are directly as the it nearer to, or remove it farther from, hardness, or as the elasticity, or as any thing else.

the centre, since this matter does not

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