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imposes duties, which are inconsist- less aversion to the English, than to ent with the Catholic claims. 6. That any others. The acquaintance, howto admit Catholics into the great coun- ever, which they appear solicitous to cils of the nation, is hostile to the cultivate, is rather founded on interest spirit of the Bill of Rights. 7. That than on real friendship. They view to comply with their demands, will be the English as having less intrigue to surround his Majesty with Catholics, than the French, and more magnaniand to endanger the Church. 8. That mity than the Spaniards; but, in their their exclusion was thought necessary, intercourse with all foreigners, they when they did not constitute a majo- have fixed certain boundaries, beyond rity in the House, “ for the safety of which they will not permit them to his Majesty's Royal Person and Go-pass. Having suffered so much from vernment." 9. That the intolerant the dominion of the French, prior to principles of the Catholics disqualify the revolution, they continue to watch those of that communion for being im- their movements with the most vigipartial judges. 10. That to grant lant circumspection; adopting every their present claims will only add to precaution that either prudence, justheir power, and increase their de- tice, or injustice, can suggest, to premands, which, in process of time, vent them from reassuming their anwill enable them to subvert the foun- cient jurisdiction. Of the English, dation of our monarchy. 11. That the contrary, they seem to entertain no it would endanger the Protestant such suspicions. Hence, the articles churches in Ireland; since, when the which they import, pay an impost of national compact is violated, the act of 5 per cent. only; while 10 per cent. is union must be insecure. 12. That oaths regularly paid on those of other nafurnish no security, while the Sove- tions. reign Pontiff has the power of dis- In that department of the island pensing with their obligation. 13. which has long been under the domiThat the Catholics being active nion of Christophe, this predilection throughout Europe,--that the dormant particularly prevails. His government energies of Popery being awakened, - is that of simple despotism; and his that the Inquisition being re-establish- will gives, in many instances, a final ed,-and its various agents being at interpretation to law. This feature in work, demand our circumspection and his character, in connection with his resistance. 14. That the cabinet being personal authority, and partiality todistracted by men, whose religious opi- wards the English, is distinctly marknions will be discordant, and who can- ed in the following anecdote. not agree respecting the fundamental A dispute arising at Cape François, principles of the Revolution, will cre- between a few English merchants and ate embarrassments, injurious both to some others, respecting the settlement Prince and People.

of some property, both parties appealed to law; and the case being brought to a legal issue before the judges, was decided against our coun

trymen. These, however, instead of DR. J. C. Smith obtained £5000 from Parliament for the following sim authority, repaired to Christophe, gain

yielding submission to the constituted ple Recipe :-Six drachms powdered ed a hearing, laid their case before saltpetre; six drachms oil of vitriol : him, and obtained a promise that the mix them in a tea-cup, by adding one

affair should be reconsidered. On drachm of the oil at a time. The cup the day appointed for the merchants to be placed, during the preparation, to meet him, they came, and were inon a hot hearth or plate of iron, and the troduced into his presence, where they mixture to be stirred with a tobacco-found the judges, from whose decision pipe. The cup to be placed in differ- they had made their appeal. On ent parts of the sick room.

entering the house, they were requested

to sit down, while the judges were ANECDOTE OF CHRISTOPHE. ordered to take their stand in certain ALTHOUGH the independent inhabit parts of the room which he allotted ants of Hispaniola are far from being them. The places which they thus cordially attached to any of the Eu- occupied, were immediately under ropean nations, they seem to have some cocks, through which water oc




173 Slave Dealers punished.Death of the Esquimaux. 174 casionally issued, to cool the apart- which the prisoners were apprehended. ment. The cocks were then instantly The facts were clearly proved in eviturned ; and in this degraded situa- dence, and the culprits were immetion the judges were compelled to diately found guilty; and sentenced to remain, with water streaming on their three years' confinement in the house heads, and running over their bodies, of correction, during which time they until his majesty was pleased to libe- are to be kept to hard iabour. rate them. Having detained them in this condition for some time, they were dismissed with these observa- | DEATH OF THE ESQUIMAUX INDIAN IN tions : “I hope, gentlemen, that by this time your heads are somewhat on the 14th of Feb. 1819, died at Edincool. When you gave your decision burgh, John Sackeheuse, or Sacheuse, against these English merchants, they aged 22, a native of the west coast of were rather too warm. But as they Greenland. As this man had been are now reduced to a more moderate found of essential service in our late temperature, you must reconsider this voyage of discovery, he had, on his rebusiness, and give your judgment ac- turn to this country, occupied a concordingly.” The affair was imme- siderable share of the public attention. diately re-examined; and the claims of And his loss will be the more severely the English, as might naturally be ex- felt, from the expectations which were pected, were soon discovered to be just entertained of his services in the ex

pedition about to be sent to explore

Baffin's Bay. To qualify him for his SLAVE DEALERS PUNISHED.

employment, as an occasional interNothing can more fully evince the preter and guide, the Admiralty had, sincerity of Government, in their de- with much liberality, directed that no termination to abolish the slave-trade, pains should be spared in his educathan the vigilance with which they tion. With these views he was sent watch the coasts, and the readiness to Edinburgh, where he remained sevewith which they punish those who, ral months, until he was attacked with in defiance of humanity and law, still a violent inflammation in the chest, continue to

which, baffling all medical aid, in a * Drive a loathsome traffic, gauge and span, few days carried him to the house ap“And buy the muscles and the bones of man.” pointed for all living.

On Saturday, February 26th, 1819, In his manners he was exceedingly Philip Caday, alias Philibert, A. Cle- | docile and cheerful; and was always jensac, and J. A. Tresgrosse, were grateful for every attention that was arraigned before Mr Justice Best, paid him. But although he was inBaron Wood, and Baron Richardson, dustrious, and attentive to his teachby special commission, to take their ers, in the acquirement of learning ; trial for having feloniously taken a like most others taken from savage number of negroes from the Mosam- | life, his proficiency was but inconsidebique Islands, on the coast of Africa ; rable. To the public, his death is a and carried them to the Isle of France, loss which cannot be repaired; and in the Mauritius, for the purpose of his friends, when they learn that he is being dealt with as slaves, contrary no more, the stroke must be peculiarly to the statute, &c. The Captain of severe. It appears, however, that he the Magicienne frigate, which was has no near relations to mourn for stationed off the Isle of France to sup

him. Not long before his death, he press the traffic in slaves, saw a seemed sensible of his approaching schooner at some distance from him, dissolution; and observed, that his which, from several suspicious circum- father and mother had fallen by stances, inclined him to think that the same complaint, and that he knew she was engaged in this inhuman com- his departure was at hand, because

Some of his men were imme- his sister, the last of his relations diately sent in pursuit, and the result who died, had just appeared to him, was a confirmation of his suspicions. and “called him away.” This cirOn searching further it was discovered, cumstance clearly proves that he had that ninety-two human beings had some knowledge of a future state, been landed from the schooner, for the and that the belief of this fact prepurpose of sale: in consequence of vails among his tribe. It is much to


be regretted, that, before he drew so , engages much of the public attention, near the close of life, some particular As the general history of his life, and inquiries had not been made on this the various steps by which he so rainteresting point, into the opinions pidly advanced to popularity and howhich prevailed among his country- nour, have been given in many of our men. Truth mixed with much error, public papers, we shall forbear to nowe might naturally expect; but his tice any of these particulars, but refer testimony would have confirmed or immediately to his unhappy exit, as corrected the various accounts which stated in the following letter, dated travellers and voyagers have taught us Manheim, March 24th, 1819. to believe.

“Our town was yesterday the theaClosely connected with the belief of tre of a horrid scene of fanaticism. hereafter, in what condition of society M. Augustus de Kotzebue, whose litesoever it may be found, are some rary celebrity had even penetrated to general ideas of a supreme Being ; but Japan, has been assassinated in his on this subject, only confused and in-bed-chamber. A student, or at least distinct conceptions can be expected an individual who had inscribed himfrom barbarous nations. It is, how- self as such, on the register of stranever, pleasing to behold, even a few gers at the Weinberg Inn, entered solitary, rays of light penetrating the the apartment of M. de Kotzebue,

oom of savage darkness, although attacked him relative to his opinions they only lead us to see God in and conduct, and after a short dclay, clouds, and hear him in the wind;” and proposals for a duel, which M. de and to infer from the obscurities Kotzebue probably refused, stabbed which, in a state of nature, we every him four times with a poniard. M. de where find resting on this important Kotzebue fell dead in the arms of his reality, how much we are indebted to eldest daughter, who ran into the Revelation. In no part of the world room on hearing the cries of her has God left mankind destitute of father. The assassin quietly walkproofs of his eternal power and god- ed out of the house, knelt down in the head; although, from many accounts street, and, raising his clasped hands which we have read, it must be con- to heaven, exclaimed, Vivat Tuetonia! fessed that, in some instances, all Afterwards, rising, he stabbed himgenuine knowledge of his nature is self on the spot. The assistance which nearly obliterated from the human was administered to the assassin, leaves mind. But it is only by an appeal even to-day some signs of life; but it to fact, that theory can be either con- is not thought that he can recover. firmed or disproved; and opportuni- The University diploma found upon ties, like those which have led us into him, states his name to be Sandt; his these reflections, but seldom occur. shirt is marked S; but he had inscribOn this account, whenever they pre-ed himself at the inn under the name sent themselves, they should be care- of Henrich. A billet was also found fully embraced ; and few articles upon him, with another poniard, conwould be more pleasing and instruc- taining the following words:— The tive, if laid before the public, than sentence of death of Augustus de Kotzethe result of such communications. bue, executed the 23d of March, 1819.'— To the general opinions of the Indian It is said, that this young man is a tribes on these points, the English native of Wunsiedel, in Saxony." reader can hardly be considered as an Other accounts, on the authority of entire stranger. But it will furnish private letters received in Paris, state instruction, even to behold individuals his name to be Charles Sander, a theoof the same tribe concurring in one logical student of the University of common sentiment, or differing in Wurtzburg, and that he arrived post opinion from each other.

the same morning at Manheim. One account asserts, that M. de Kotzebue

survived half an hour. ASSASSINATION OF KOTZEBUE.

The peculiar circumstances under There are few literary characters, which this horrid deed was perpewho have exhibited, in modern times, trated, and the probable causes which a more conspicuous figure on the great led to the assassination, are thus detheatre of Europe, than M. Augustus tailed in another letter. de Kotzebue, whose untimely fate now “ On the. 18th of March last, the


Interesting Account of the Rev. Samuel Lee.


students of Erlangen assembled in a device,- Vita et Mors.' He was taken house of recreation, situated without to the civil hospital, and two centinels the town, and deliberated, with closed posted at his bed. This event, it is doors, upon the fate to which they said, will be followed by very imporshould subject M. de Kotzebue, for tant consequences, and may lead to having attacked the licentiousness confessions of the highest interest.” which existed in the Universities, and According to accounts received from the novel doctrines, which, since the Manheim, dated April 12th, the asevents of Walsburg and Gottingen, sassin still lives; and the professional have made so much progress amongst gentlemen say, that it is even possible the youth of Germany. At this secret he may recover. The point of the meeting, the death of the writer, whose poniard passed between his heart and remarks they so much dreaded, was his lungs. The family of Kotzebue conspired; the students who pronoun- still remain here. They have changed ced the horrid sentence, then cast dice their residence. The proprietor of the for one who should be charged to exe- apartment in which the assassination cute it. Chance, at first, designated took place, might have made a fortune five; who threw between themselves, if he had exacted a small sum from until the lot fell upon one: it was the the multitudes who came to visit it. young Sandt, son of a judicial counsel- Kotzebue received from the Russian lor, born at Wundtzigel, in Saxony, Court, 15,000 rubles per annum.

The on the borders of Lower Bohemia, Grand Duke has dispatched a comwho found himself charged with what missioner to Heidelburgh, to obtain inthey called, in true revolutionary style, formation relative to certain facts, the materiel of the crime. Sandt set off which may throw light on the origin of post from Erlangen on the 21st of the crime committed by Sandt, or Sant. March, and arrived at Manheim on the 23d, at seven o'clock in the morning :

INTERESTING ACCOUNT OF THE REV. he took a bath, breakfasted at the table d'hote, visited the magnificent

SAMUEL LEE, church, the castle, and the promenades. Whose talents, industry, and attainments, At four o'clock he called upon M. de

have raised him to an exalted station Kotzebue, who was dressing himself

in learned eminence. to receive company.

The valet-de- “Let high birth triumph,—what can be more chambre told him, that his master great? could not be seen. 'Inform him,' said

Nothing, but merit in a low estate." Sandt, that a deputy from the Muses Mr. Samuel Lee, now Professor Lee, of Erlangen is come to visit him. M. de is a native of the county of Salop. Kotzebue begged him to wait, and The village of Longnor, which is situgave orders to serve him with coffee, ated on the Hereford road, about eight &c. and sent him a pipe, filled with miles from Shrewsbury, was honoured Virginia tobacco. Kotzebue, when with his birth, on a day and year, only half dressed, caused this pretend- which we regret we have not the means ed deputy of the Muses to be intro- of stating with precision. In this vilduced, went to meet him at the door, lage a charity-school had been foundreceived him with distinction, took ed, and endowed by the family of from him a paper,

which he pre- Corbett; ancestors of Archdeacon Corsented to him, and, whilst he was bett, who afterwards became Mr. Lee's perusing it, fell, pierced with a stiletto. patron and friend. In this school he The billet contained the following sen- received the first rudiments of his edu

Sentence of death pronounced cation, remaining in it until he was on the 18th of March, by the University twelve years of age; but acquiring of Erlangen, and carried into execution nothing more than a general knowon the 23 March, by the bearer.' Sandt, ledge of reading, writing, and arithhaving seen his victim fall, went tran- metic, and without distinguishing quilly out of the house, and scarcely himself in any respect by those bright was he in the street, when he stopped, coruscations of genius, which occaand lifting up his hands to heaven, ex- sionally give, in early life, such strong claimed several times,—Opus consum- indications of future greatness. Nomatum est! and plunged the poniard thing, indeed, appeared in this semitwice in his own breast. There was nary, to kindle the latent spark, or to fonnd, upon a large blue riband, this awaken the torpid energies of his soul. No. 2.-Vol. I.



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Punishment for negligence was the one of the priests, who frequently only stimulus to action; and, under visited the chapel while it was in buildthis cheerless system, the height of ing. But, unhappily, instead of findhis ambition was to avoid flagellation. ing that assistance with which he had

Having attained the age of twelve, flattered himself, he was dismissed Mr. Lee was put an apprentice to a car- with this unexpected repulse, "Chapenter and joiner, through the kind-rity must begin at home.” On the ness of Robert Corbett, Esq. His motive which dictated this reply, to a situation, as an apprentice, was not young man struggling with all the difwithout its hardships; which, on many ficulties of his situation, and attemptoccasions, rendered his condition ra- | ing to emerge from the shadows of ther uncomfortable. But his father ignorance, it will be useless to specuhaving died when he was young, and late. It is not improbable, that the the support of two other children de- priest imagined the axe and saw more volving on his mother, “ whose hand becoming the hand of a poor mechaJaborious earn’d their daily bread,” nic, than the volumes of Livy, Virgil, he submitted, though with some reluc-or Sallust. tance, to the destiny which he could Happily, however, for Mr. Lee, he not avert.

was not to be intimidated by this cold Advancing towards maturity, Mr. refusal. He was mortified at the unLee felt an attachment to reading, and kindness he had received, but his perused with attention such books as indignity only furnished a new stimuhappened to fall in his way, in the lus to exertion; and he determined, if house where he lodged. In the pages possible, to excel, in his knowledge of of these, he occasionally found quota- the language, the man who had distions from Latin authors, and felt no missed him with such frigid indiffersmall degree of mortification, in not But, unfortunately, Mr. Lee being able to understand them. This had at this time to contend with a more circumstance suggested to him the first formidable rival. His wages amountidea of making an attempt to learn the ed to no more than six shillings per Latin language. Another incident week ; with which sum he had to prooccurring nearly about this time, tend- vide for his own subsistence, and to ed in no small degree to confirm the pay for his washing and lodgings. resolution which he had thus formed. But even poverty itself was unable to Peing employed in the building of a extinguish the fire of genius, which the Roman Catholic chapel, for Sir Ed- circumstances already mentioned had ward Smith, of Autonbumel, he had conspired to kindle. Small as this sum an opportunity of seeing many Latin was, he contrived to reserve a pitbooks, and, not unfrequently, of hear- tance, to gratify his desire of learning them read, accompanied with the ing; but in the same proportion as this painful reflection, that their treasures literary propensity was indulged, he were concealed from him.

was compelled to suffer a partial priHaving fixed his resolution tó at- vation of the necessaries of life. tempt the Latin language, when he But these difficulties, though formidhad attained the age of seventeen, Mr. able in their nature, were only tempoLee found, on a book-stall, “ Ruddi- rary in their rigour. His wages were man's Latin Grammar,” which he im- soon afterwards advanced one shilling mediately purchased; and, by unre- per week; and in the ensuing year, mitting application, committed the one shilling more was added. Small whole to memory. Not long after- as these improvements in his circumwards, he bought “ Corderi• < Collo- stances may seem, they enabled him quies, by Loggon,” from which he to prosecute his studies with renewed derived considerable assistance ; and vigour, and furnished him with the to this he soon added, " Entick's Latin means of reading the Latin Bible, FloDictionary, Beza's Testament,' and rus, some of Cicero's Orations, Cæsar's “ Clarke's Exercises." But, notwith- Commentaries, Justin, Sallust, Virgil, standing the information which these the Odes of Horace, and the Epistles books afforded him, the difficulties of Ovid. To procure these works, with which he was compelled to strug- Mr. Lee had recourse to an expedient, gle, still appeared formidable. To which his pecuniary circumstances ohviate some of these, he one day very naturally suggested. The books ventured to solicit information from enumerated were never in his possess

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