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to all parties. Arduous, however, as the task may appear, of settling a serious dispute between man and wife, their mutual friend undertook it, and happily succeeded in the following manner. "It seems to me that you are both right. If the cheese was made simply in Parma, then generally speaking I should say it was Parmasan; but if it was made in the city of Parma, I see no reason why it should not be called Parma-city." This fortunate expedient cleared the matrimonial horizon: the gathering tempest subsided; and after a little time the sun began to shine.


[Concluded from Col. 46.]

9th. The numerous Charitable Institutions of the City.-The committee by no means intend to cast an indiscriminate censure upon these institutions, nor to implicate the motives, nor even to deny the usefulness, in a certain degree, of any one of them. They have unquestionably had their foundation in motives of true philanthropy; they have contributed to cultivate the feelings of Christian charity, and to keep alive its salutary influence upon the minds of our fellow-citizens; and they have doubtless relieved thousands from the pressure of the most pinching want, from cold, from hunger, and probably, in many cases, from untimely death.

But, in relation to these societies, a question of no ordinary moment presents itself to the considerate and real philanthropist. Is not the partial and temporary good which they accomplish, how acute soever the miseries they relieve, and whatever number they may rescue from sufferings or death, more than counterbalanced by the evils that flow from the expectations they necessarily excite? by the relaxation of industry, which such a display of benevolence tends to produce? by that reliance upon charitable aid, in case of unfavourable times, which must unavoidably tend to diminish, in the minds of the labouring classes, that wholesome anxiety to provide for the wants of a distant day, which alone can save them from a state of absolute dependence, and from becoming a burden to the community?

In the opinion of your committee, and in the opinion, we believe, of the greater number of the best writers, of the wisest economists, and of the most experienced philanthopists, which the interesting subject of Pauperism has recently called into action; the balance of good and evil is unfavourable to the existence of societies for gratuitous relief:-that efforts of this nature, with whatever zeal they may be conducted, never can effect the removal of poverty, nor lessen its general amount; but that indigence and helplessness will multiply nearly in the ratio of those measures which are ostensibly taken to prevent them.

Such are the consequences of every avowal, on the part of the public, of a determination to support the indigent by the administration of alms. And in no cases are measures of this kind more prolific in evil, than where they are accompanied by the display of large funds for the purposes of charity; or where the poor are conscious of the existence of such funds, raised by taxation, and of course, as they will allege, drawn chiefly from the coffers of the rich.

How far these evils are remediable, without an entire dereliction of the great Christian duty of charity, is a problem of difficult solution. The principle of taxation is so interwoven with our habits and customs, it would, perhaps, in the present state of things, be impossible to dispense with it. But while our poor continue to be thus supported, to prevent the misapplication and abuse of the public charity, demands the utmost vigilance, the wisest precaution, and the most elaborate system of inspection and oversight.

To what extent abuses upon our present system of alms are practised, and how far the evils which accompany it are susceptible of remedy, we should not at present feel warranted in attempting to state. The pauperism of the city is under the management of five Commissioners, who, we doubt not, are well qualified to fulfil the trust reposed in them, and altogether disposed to discharge it with fidelity. But we cannot withhold the opinion, that without a far more extended, minute, and energetic scheme of management, than it is possible for any five men to keep in constant operation, abuses will be practised, and to a

great extent, upon the public bounty; taxes must be increased, and vice and suffering perpetuated.

Lastly.-Your Committee would mention WAR, during its prevalence, as one of the most abundant sources of poverty and vice, which the list of human corruptions comprehends. But as this evil lies out of the immediate reach of local regulation, and as we are now happily blest with a peace which we hope will be durable, it is deemed unnecessary further to notice it.

Such are the causes which are considered as the more prominent and operative in producing that amount of indigence and suffering, which awakens the charity of this city, and which has occasioned the erection of buildings for eleemosynary purposes, at an expense of half a million of dollars, and which calls for the annual distribution of 90,000 dollars more. But if the payment of this sum were the only inconvenience to be endured, trifling indeed, in comparison, would be the evils which claim our attention. Of the mass of affliction and wretchedness actually sustained, how small a portion is thus relieved! Of the quantity of misery and vice which the causes we have enumerated, with others we have not named, bring upon the city, how trifling the portion actually removed by public or private benevolence! Nor do we conceive it possible to remove this load of distress, by all the alms-doings of which the city is capable, while the causes remain in full and active operation.

become established upon a basis as firm as a law of legislative enactment. And in matters of private practice, réformation which positive statute could never accomplish, social and moral influence may thoroughly effect.

The present tranquil state of the public mind, and the almost total absence of political jealousy, indicate a period peculiarly favourable to internal improvement and reformation.

We therefore proceed to point out the means which we consider best calculated to meliorate the condition of the poorer classes, and to strike at the root of those evils which go to the increase of poverty and its attendant miseries.

We hold it to be a plain fundamental truth, that one of the most powerful incitements to an honest and honourable course of conduct, is a regard to reputation, or a desire of securing the approbation of our friends and associates. To encourage this sentiment among the poor, to inspire them with the feelings of self-respect and a regard to character, will be to introduce the very elements of reform. In the constitution which we shall offer for the government of this society, the means will be provided for effecting, or endeavouring to effect, the following regulations, as soon as the society shall become sufficiently large and weighty to proceed therein. But we wish expressly to state, that in whatever measures the society shall engage, it will be proper, in our opinion, that the managers endeavour to obtain the sanction of the corporation of the city, and, in every case which requires it, the authority and co-operation of that It body.

Effectually to relieve the poor, is therefore a task far more comprehensive in its nature than simply to clothe the naked and to feed the hungry. is, to erect barriers against the encroachments of moral degeneracy,-it is, to heal the diseases of the mind,-it is, to furnish that aliment to the intellectual system which will tend to preserve it in healthful operation.

But can a task of this nature come within the reach of any public or any social regulation? We answer, that to a certain, and to a very valuable extent, we believe it can. When any measure for the promotion of public good, or the prevention of public evil, founded upon equitable principles, is supported by a sufficient weight of social authority, it may gradually pass into full and complete operation, and

1st. To divide the city into very small districts, and to appoint, from the members of the society, two or three visitors for each district, whose duty it shall be to become acquainted with the inhabitants of the district, to visit frequently the families of those who are in indigent circumstances, to advise them with respect to their business, the education of their children, the economy of their houses, to administer encouragement or admonition, as they may find occasion; and in general, by preserving an open, candid, and friendly intercourse with them, to gain their confidence, and, by a suitable and well-timed counsel, t

excite them to such a course of con- | expedient, in furnishing employment

duct as will best promote their physical and moral welfare. The visitors to keep an accurate register of the names of all those who reside within their respective districts, to notice every change of residence, whether of single or of married persons, and to annex such observations to the names of those who claim their particular attention, as will enable them to give every needful information with respect to their character, reputation, habits, &c.

to those who cannot procure it, either by the establishment of houses of industry, or by supplying materials for domestic labour.

Although this mode of relieving the necessitous, may appear to be entirely exempt from the evils arising from gratuitous aid, it will undoubtedly require a judicious course of management, lest it produce a relaxation of concern on the part of the poor to depend on their own foresight and It may fairly be presumed, that if industry, and the same consequent this scheme of inspection can be car- increase of helplessness and poverty. ried into full effect; if visitors can be Yet it must be expected, that numefound who will undertake the charge, rous cases will occur, in which employfrom the pure motive of philanthropy; ment will furnish by far the most eligiand if, on the principles of active con- ble kind of relief. Among the female cert, a reference be always had to the poor, these cases will be most numebooks of the visitors, before charitable rous. Women have fewer resources relief is extended to any individual by than men; they are less able to seek for any of the institutions already esta- employment; they are more exposed to blished, and due notice taken of the a sudden reverse of circumstances. Of information they afford, a change will the wants and sufferings of this class, soon be perceived in the aspect of the their own sex are the best judges. poor. Finding that they have real Hence, we are of opinion, that the friends, that their conduct is an object Society for the Promotion of Indusof solicitude, that their characters will try" deserves the thanks of the combe the subject of remark; a sense of de-munity; and that the disinterested and cency, and a spirit of independence, will be gradually awakened, the effects of which must eventually be perceived in the diminution of the poor-rates of the city.

2d. To encourage and assist the labouring classes to make the most of their earnings, by promoting the establishment of a Savings Bank, or of Benefit Societies, Life Insurances, &c. The good effects of such associations have been abundantly proved in Europe and in America; Boston, Philadelphia, and Baltimore, have each a Savings Bank.

3d. To prevent, by all legal means, the access of paupers who are not entitled to a residence in the city. The plan of inspection before described, will furnish the means of entirely preventing those disgraceful encroachments upon the charity of the city which it is believed have been practised to no inconsiderable extent.

4th. To unite with the corporate authorities in the entire inhibition of street begging. There can be no reasonable excuse whatever for this practice, more especially if the course of inspection, now recommended, be kept in operation.

5th. To aid, if it shall be deemed

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well-directed efforts of that society, ought to receive an adequate and extended support.

6th. To advise and promote the opening of places of worship in the outer wards of the city, especially in situations where licentiousness is the most prevalent. This subject is considered as one of vital importance. If, as we believe, nine-tenths of the wretchedness which the city exhibits, proceeds directly or indirectly from the want of correct moral principle; and if religion is the basis of morality, then it will be admitted, that to extend the benefits of religious instruction, will be to strike at the root of that corrupt tree, which sheds dreariness and penury from all its branches. That there is a lamentable deficiency of religious observance, is extremely obvious. It is questionable, whether one man or woman in fifty, of the indigent, enters a place of worship three times in a year. The means are not provided for them, and they are unable to provide for themselves. Now, it has been remarked, that in the immediate vicinity of a church, it is rare to find a house devoted to lewdness or depravity. One half of the sum annually expended in the maintenance of

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the poor, would be sufficient to build three houses for public worship.

Further, if wretchedness proceed from vice, and vice, among the poor, be generally the offspring of moral and intellectual darkness, is it not a most reasonable, social duty, which the enlightened portions of society owe to the ignorant, to instruct before they condemn? to teach before they punish? Can there be a more painful reflection in the mind of a humane juror, than the thought of consigning to death, or to perpetual exclusion from the enjoyments of virtuous society, a fellowcreature, for crimes that have evidently resulted from that condition of vicious ignorance, to which he has ever been exposed, without any attempts on the part of the community to rescue him from it?

The committee would, therefore, submit to the society, the proposition of endeavouring to effect, as the means may accrue, the gradual erection of buildings for public worship, in those parts of the city where they are most needed, until every citizen may have an opportunity of attending divine worship.

7th. To promote the advancement of First-day or Sunday School Instruction, both of children and adults. We cannot but regard this kind of instruction as one of the most powerful engines of social reform, that the wisdom and benevolence of men have ever brought into operation.

8th. To contrive a plan, if possible, by which all the spontaneous charities of the town may flow into one channel, and be distributed in conformity to a well-regulated system, by which deception may be prevented, and other indirect evils, arising from numerous independent associations, be fairly obviated.

It appears highly probable, that if the administration of the charities of the city were so conducted, as to obviate all danger of misapplication and deception; those charities would flow with greater freedom, and that funds might occasionally be obtained, which would afford the means of erecting houses for worship, opening schools, and employing teachers, and thus direct, with greater efficacy, those materials, which alone can ensure, to the great fabric of society, its fairest proportions, and its longest duration.

9th. To obtain the abolition of the

greater number of shops, in which spirituous liquors are sold by license.

We trust that four-fifths, if not the whole, of the intelligent portion of our fellow-citizens, will unite in opinion, that the present extension of licensed retailers is equivalent, or very nearly so, as it respects the morals of the city, to the entire abrogation of the law which requires a dealer in liquors to take out a license. While the number of places in the city remains so excessively great, which afford to the poor and ignorant not only so many facilities, but so many invitations and temptations, to spend their money 66 over the maddening bowl," reformation will be greatly impeded; poverty and ruin must increase and abound.

If each of the 1600 retailers in the city, sell, upon an average, to the amount of 250 cents. per day, an estimate which, we presume, all will consider within the truth, the aggregate amount for the year is 1,460,000 dollars. This enormous sum, extorted from the sweat of labour, and the tears and groans of suffering wives and children, would be sufficient to build annually 50 houses of worship, at 20,000 dollars each; and leave a surplus that would be more than sufficient to erect school-houses, and amply provide for the education of every child in the city. When, with a single glance of the mind, we contrast the difference in moral effect, between the appropriation of this sum to the support of the buyers and sellers of strong drink, and its appropriation to the support of honest and industrious mechanics, employed in the erection of buildings, which would improve and ornament the city, and to the diffusion of religion and useful learning; who will not rise and exert his strength against the encroachment of so mighty an evil?

Various other subjects and modes of relief, tending to the same great object, might be enumerated; but we forbear any further to enlarge our report by the recital of them.

In the Constitution which we herewith submit for the organization and government of the society, a door is opened for the adoption of any measure which the society may deem it expedient to pursue, in conformity to the principal design of its institution.

To conclude: The committee has by

no means intended, in the freedom with which it has thus examined the causes of pauperism, and suggested remedies, to encourage the expectation that the whole of these remedies can be speedily brought within the power and control of the society. A work of so much importance to the public welfare, cannot be the business of a day; but we nevertheless entertain the hope, that if the principles and design of this society shall, upon mature examination and reflection, receive the approbation of the great body of our intelligent fellow-citizens, and the number of its members be augmented accordingly, it will be able gradually to bring within its operation all the important measures suggested in this Report. By what particular mode these measures shall be encountered, whether through the agency of large and efficient committees, of this society, or by auxiliary societies, each established for a specific purpose, under the patronage of the parent institution, and subordinate to its general principles, we leave to the wisdom and future decision of the society.

On behalf of the committee,

JOHN GRISCOм, Chairman. New York, second month, 4th, 1818.

Proposed Constitution.

Article 1.-This society shall be known by the name of "The New York Society for the Prevention of Pauperism."

Article 2.-Its objects shall be, to investigate the circumstances and habits of the poor; to devise means for improving their situation, both in a physical and moral point of view; to suggest plans for calling into exercise their own endeavours, and afford the means for giving them increased effect; to hold out inducements to economy and saving from the fruits of their own industry, in the seasons of greater abundance; to discountenance, and as far as possible prevent, mendicity and street-begging; and, in fine, to do every thing which may tend to meliorate their condition, by stimulating their industry, and exciting their own energies.

Article 3.- Any person signing this constitution, paying one dollar at the time of signing, and one dollar annually, shall become a member of this society.

Article 4.-The business shall be conducted by a Board of Managers, consisting of thirty members, to be chosen at the annual meeting of the society, to be held on the last Tuesday in October, in each year, and nine of whom shall constitute a quorum.

Article 5.-Its officers shall be a president, two vice-presidents, a treasurer, and secretary, to be appointed by the board of managers.

Article 6.-The corporation of this city shall be entitled to appoint any five members of their body, who, when appointed, shall, ex-officio, be members of this board of managers.

Article 7.-This constitution shall not be altered, except at an annual meeting of the society, and by twothirds of the members present.



ASTRONOMY is a science, which, in all ages and countries flourishing in arts and politeness, has engaged the attention of the speculative and contemplative mind. It has not only employed the tongues of the most eloquent orators, and embellished the writings of men of the most elevated genius; but has also been cultivated by the greatest princes, the ablest statesmen, and the wisest philosophers, whose names have been recorded in history, and whose studies have enriched mankind.

He finds the

The Astronomer has for the subject of his speculations, the whole universe of material being. He considers the nature of matter in general; and inquires by what laws its several parts act upon one another. But his thoughts are more particularly employed about those vast bodies, which compose the visible phenomena of the heavens, and which, in common speech, are comprehended under the appellation of the Sun, Moon, and Stars. magnitude of these to be vastly greater than is commonly supposed. He is able to demonstrate, that very few of them are so small in bulk as the earth on which we live ; and that the greater number far exceed it in dimensions. He is assured, that, in point of real magnitude, the Sun is equal to a million of our globe; and that his apparently diminutive bulk arises solely from that amazing distance which separates him from our planetary habitation. He discovers that there are

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