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besides other absurdities, were all the ed are you therefore, nullo reparante, beauty of the heavens transferred into without a Saviour. But this fallen the face of a vicious sinful woman, cer- sinner you thus tread upon, alterius matainly no angel could have joyed in litiâ cecidit, alterius meritis resurget, he her; and St. Austine gives the reason fell by another's malice, and shall rise of it: for their joy extends no further by another's merit. They were some (saith he) than the works of God; but of the black crew that helped to throw peccator non est inter opera Dei, a sin- him down; the Son of God shall help ner is no work of God. Look in the first him up again: for though sin hath chapter of Genesis, you shall not find been his poison, yet repentance may him in the whole catalogue of his crea- be his antidote; though his sins have tures; as he is man, he is God's work, made the devil sport, yet his repenttrue ; but as he is sinful man, he is his ance may breed his (God's) angels' own work : see him in the pure robe joy. A sinner is no good prospect; of original righteousness, he is God's but at the sight of a repentant sinner work; but look on him in the dressings heaven opens all her windows: the of his own vanity, he is his own work, text is warrant enough for such a docor if not his own, I am sure the devils: trine, for there is joy in heaven over no argument then of joy here, no ditty one sinner that repenteth. for such an anthem.

Not for a sinner then, but for a reFor do but consider with thyself, oh pentant sinner; not for him that hardsinner, think of it seriously; the angels ens himself in sin, but for the sensible, that were by, when God stampt his melting, bleeding sinner. But he that image on thee, when he wash'd thee in would draw repentance to the life, that baptism as clean as the untouch'd would make such a resemblance of snow, when he married thee to his son her, as the angels might delight in, let Christ Jesus, made thee a temple of him look that he fit her with two faces, his holy Spirit, how can they either on the one side a mourning dejected know or joy in thee, when that image is countenance, looking sadly back on rased out, that innocence polluted, the sins she hath committed; on the that contract violated, that temple other side a more cheerful lively asturn'd into a sink of filth, into a den of pect, looking forwards on new resoluserpents? How will they look, think tions; for there is a beauty in both, in you, when God the Father turns away the sad as in the cheerful. his face, God the Son cries out, thou will look on both, or not at all. hast crucified him again; thou hast As for the sadder look, though Anpierced him with thy oaths, spit on him dreas Vega, a Spanish writer, doted with thy lust, wounded him with thy ma- so much upon it, that he is censured lice, when God the Holy Ghost shall by his own friend Bellarmine for mainleave thee either to a fluctuating unquiet, taining that the sorrow of the heart for or (which is worse) to a seared, a stupi- sin was of so high a value, that he that fied conscience? Which of those spirits conceived that sorrow as be ought, can then take joy in thee? shall not needed no formal explicit purpose of the ill angels rather give thee their amendment;-though I confess this plaudite?

melancholy friar went too far, yet let Come, say those damned spirits, let not any therefore deceive himself, or us see this creature that was mailé to incline so far to the other side, as to fill up our seats in heaven; this crea- think the way to heaven is strewed ture that was the angels' joy, and his with roses, that he can leap out of the God's delight, see where he is fallen, how state of sin into the favour of his God, deep, how dangerously fallen, how still without so much as a single tear or he lies in his foul sins, without any mo- sigh. No, as it cost thy Saviour more tion left, any sense of grace: Ecce (say to redeem thy soul, so it must cost they) factus est tanquam unus è nobis, thee more to apply that redemption to behold he is become like one of us. thee. Saint Ambrose therefore calls

But Mentimini mali Dæmones, (a de- repentance Laboriosum Baptismum, a vout father answers them) ye were liars laborious, a painful baptism, a bapall from the beginning; so are ye now. tism in Marah, in the waters of bitterFor though a sinner be fallen, though ness : for we must as well Flere comfallen into the depth of sin, he is not missa, as Flenda non committere, as become like one of you ; for you fell, well deplore the ill we have done, as nullo tentante, without a tempter:damn- not do again the ill we have deplored.

God too,

None.

1049 Specimen of Bishop Duppa's Preaching.

1050 It is true indeed what Saint Bernard when his heart is thus broken, whether saith, non si te excories potes satisfacere, this care will be taken for it or no ? is should we weep ourselves blind, kneel he loath to venture on so bitter a reourselves cripples, should we flay the ceipt without his physician's oath? skin from this wretched body of ours, Why, God will swear rather than thy all could not satisfy for sin, but our soul shall waver: for look in the 33d of joy is that Christ bath already done it; Ezekiel, the 11th verse, Vivo, inquit Dohis blood hath fully satisfied for the minus: As I live, ( saith the Lord) I whole world : yet withal, there lies a take no delight in the death of a sinner : condition on every sinner vel hic flere, Turn ye, turn ye from your evil

ways, vel in futuro, a condition that cannot for why will ye die, ye house of Israel? be avoided, either to mourn here, or Could any thing be spoken more pasin the world to come; either to endure sionately? He protests, he exhorts, he now a sorrow that shall have end, or to expostulates; why then do we doubt? endure then a sorrow that shall have will he not save us when we repent,

that hath threatened not to save us But mistake me not, I do not coun- unless we repent ? Non patitur consel you to a sullen, continued, uninter-triti cordis holocaustum repulsam. St. mitted melancholy: but yet pardon Cyprian had learned so much of holy me, if I would have you thoroughly | David, A broken heart, O God, thou wilt sensible of your sins when you have not (or, as some translations render it, done them ; for without sorrow on the thou shalt not) despise: no, we have earth, I am confident there is no joy in him safe in his own fetters, entangled heaven; there is no sinner that re- to us in his own promises, if we repenteth.

pent, he will, he must forgive us, for But St. Austine makes the question, he neither will nor can deceive us : which were more bound to God, he that let every one of us therefore make should be preserved ever innocent, or that confession as Saint Austine did, he that were converted to be truly pe- O Domine si non sum dignus oculos, nitent ? and he resolves it thus : Inno- orando ad cælum levare, at sum dignus cens majora, hamitens majis debet, ex- oculos plorando cæcare: though I am tensively the innocent ones, more in- not worthy, O God, to lift up my eyes in tensively the penitent. Innocence, a praying, yet I am sure I am worthy jewel of higher price in the substance, to wear out my eyes in weeping; but repentance of greater value in the though I can plead no innocence, yet workmanship; so much of greater I would fain plead repentance; that value, that in the 7th verse of this chap- as my sins have caused the sorrows of ter, it is proclaimed, that there is more thy Son, so my sorrows might cause joy for one repentant sinner, than for the rejoicing of thy angels. ninety-nine that needed no repentance. I would go on, but methinks I hear But Saint Paul gives a reason for it, some troubled soul thus call to me, when he saith, that where sin hath abound- You tell me heavenly things of this reed, there grace hath much more abounded. pentance, what power a religious sorSo that I dare say, that God looks row hath, that the lizard doth not gaze neither on the heaven of heavens, nor more earnestly on him that sleeps, nor on the purest seraphim, with such con- the dolphin on the mariner, than the tent, such joy, as on a heart well angels do on a weeping sinner; nay, wrought, a heart either carved or cut, that God himself is pleased with such or inlaid with sorrows, where grief hath a sight; that he suffers all his anger been as witty in punishing, as pleasure to be washed away in such a shower: was before in sinning; a heart still Credo Domine, I believe this, o my under the hammer, and broken into a God, but wretch as I am, I cannot sorthousand pieces. O how busy is thy row. He that should tell me, that all Saviour at such a sight; watching thy the joys of heaven were to be bought sighs, and numbering thy tears, ga- for one single tear, how could he comthering up the several pieces of thy fort me that could not shed that tear? broken heart, as if they were so many when my eyes are dried up like the scattered diamonds ! how gently he parched earth in summer, my very heart handles them, how curiously he re- turned marble, what Moses shali I cali unites them, like a rich watch took to, to strike this rock for water ?-But asunder to be made cleaner, and set stay, be not discouraged whoever thou together again. But doth any doubt, / art; the mother of Peter Lombard, it

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seems, was in as great a strait as this, magnifying that saying, Pænitentia opwhen having transgressed her vow of tima, nova vita, the best repentance is continency, she told her confessor a new life; yet in the practice of it plainly, that when she saw what a son we shall all find, that though contrition she had brought forth, she could not re- may begin our peace with God, yet a pent, that she had sinned in having him: new life must crown it; though tears a hard condition! but her confessor may soften the wax for pardon, yet a sadly answered her, Dole saltem quod resolute amendment must set to the dolere non possis, be sorry at least that seal. You therefore that have recothou canst not sorrow: and the like must | vered out of the contagion of any parI say to thee, O troubled sinner; if thou ticular bosom sin, let me beseech you, findst but so much impression made as as ever you would have the angels joy to grieve really, that thou canst not for you, not to lean, or listen, or ingrieve, know that thou art already cline again to the opportunities, the come to a degree of that which thou occasions that have betrayed you ; to grievest thou art not come to; know cast off all inducements to sin, to hate again, that it is the beginning of that even the garment that is spotted by the thaw,which at last will dissolve thy very flesh; for who, having escaped the heart to water. Six times Elias his plague, would not burn the clothes he servant looked towards the sca, before wore when he was infected ? Be not he could see any thing ; the seventh like those planetary, unsteady penitime he saw but a cloud no bigger tents, who, having discharged their sin than his hand, yet that cloud within a this day in the ears of their God, take few hours covered the heaven with it up again the next day in the arms darkness, and the earth with rain : of a sinner; as if God were bound to just so may be thy case, when thou art set no end to pardoning, because they praying to thy God as Caleb's daughter are wilful to set no end of sinning: did unto her father, Dedisti mihi terram Hoccine pænitere? is this to repent? aridam, da etiam irriguam, thou hast can the angels joy at this ? no: as hitherto made me the owner of a dry, there are no rests, no stops, no pauses a barren heart, but give me now some in their holy anthems; so they look too springs of water, some feeling at least, there should be no digressions, no some sorrow for my sins. Though at breakings off, in thy repentance. If six times bending of thy knees, God then any of thy former sins will needs doth not grant it thee, though at the knock unseasonably at the door of thy seventh there appear but one small heart for entrance, answer them as drop swimming in thy eyes; yet be the spouse in the Canticles: I have put not discomforted, that drop may prove off my clothes, how should I put them a shower, or if not suddenly, yet in the on? I have washed my feet, how should mean time the angels begin their joy I defile them? I have put off my sins, in that; for, as the least piece of a why should I resume them? I am rebroken glass may serve to reflect the conciled to my God, why should I offend face that is before it, so from that him? O what triumphs does he cause small drop, that spot of sorrow, there above, that thus answers his tempta

a reflection made of thy repentance; tions here! what shouts, what peals, and as there is a full joy for the total, what jubilees of joy, even for one the full conversion of a sinner, so there such sinner that repenteth. is a proportion, a measure of joy for We are now come to the last partione tear, nay for one desire of a tear cular, For one sinner : but what, for of any one sinner that repenteth. one? yes, even for one ; for could it be

But stay, you must remember I told supposed, saith Saint Austine, that you repentance had two faces, not only there were but one lost soul in the a sad one that looked back, but a whole world, suppose it were only cheerful, that looks forward on new re- thine ; yet thy Saviour, thy Jesus, solutions ; for, as in diseases, it is not would have come into the world, he enough to purge, to sweat, to bleed, would have suffered all that he did unless we keep a stricter diet after it: suffer; those scorns, those buffetings, so neither are tears, or sighs, nor a that passion, and that death, for that broken heart sufficient, unless we for- one soul of thine. · If God then would bear to commit again the sin we sor- have died for a single sinner, may it rowed for: for, however Bellarmine be not become the angels to joy for him, pleased to censure Luther for over- whom their God would die for? Of

1053

Answer to some Queries on Domestic Economy.

1054

the ten lepers whom Christ had cured, Question the 1st,“ Which is the there was but one turned back to best method of making bread? thank him, yet there was joy in hea- The method that prevails throughven even for that one; of the many out the kingdom, is, I believe, the best she-sinners in Jerusalem, there was for making small quantities; and this but one Mary Magdalene that washed is so generally known, that it is useher Saviour's feet with tears, yet there less to describe it. Indeed the strength was joy in heaven even for that one of yeast varies so much in different Should there want one string to a lutė, parts of the country, that no general the music would not be full ; or one rule can be laid down, as to the quanlink to a chain, the chain would be im- tity necessary for any given portion of perfect; or one regenerate soul to the flour. Experience has taught most number of the elect, heaven would not old housekeepers, the strength of the be satisfied; why then doth not every yeast in the county in which they one of us strive to make up that num- live; and therefore if any of your corber? how long shall God expect for respondents should be ignorant of this, one sinner to make towards him? when the only way to be informed is to shall his holy angels spy so much as a inquire of some ancient dame. The promising cloud in thine eyes, that following general observations may thy tears are coming to a setiled reso- be of use. The temperature of the lilution in thy heart that thy life is quor with which the spunge is to be changed? what shall I say more? Let set, should never (except in very cold there be but one among you that weather indeed, or when it is absoluteshall reckon his conversion from this ly necessary to raise the sponge in a day; God the Father shall bless the very short time) be above milk warm. memory of this day for ever, for he It is a general rule, that the hotter the shall gain a son: God the Son with liquor, the darker is the bread. his own blood shall give it a red letter Great care must be taken not to in his calendar, for he shall gain a scald the yeast; for if this takes place, brother: God the Holy Ghost shall heavy bread is the certain consesanctify it, for he shall gain a temple : quence; and if the yeast be allowed or if this be not loud enough, all the to freeze, the result is the same. glorious angels shall at this instant Question 2d." Which way can the shout for joy, even for that one sinner labouring poor, who are pent up in the that repenteth. Who then would not heart of cities, &c. get the flour or meal thus make holiday in heaven? who say a bushel at a time) so as to have it would not feast the Trinity ? or who genuine, and at the same time reasonwould not joy the angels ? begin there- able?fore your repentance early. Begin it As your work circulates through the now, since this is the only way to fill kingdom, it is difficult to give an anup the number of those angels that ex- swer to this question, that will be appect you, when instead of having your plicable to all the places in which it is sorrows the burden of their songs, read, on account of the different cusyou shall become the fellow-singers of toms that prevail in different places. their anthems. Amen.

In some, the wheat is brought into the market, and sold in small quantities.

In others, the millers who live in the Answer to some Queries on Domestic vicinity of large towns, are in the haEconomy.

bit of supplying those persons who MR. EDITOR,

can afford to purchase from a bushel SIR,-I have taken up my pen to to a sack of flour at a time. While in answer some of the questions on Do- others, the public are principally supmestic Economy, proposed by one of plied by flour-dealers, or meal-men. your correspondents, and inserted in To get genuine flour, I know of no your 7th Number, column 658. As it better plan than the following: for is probable that the “

game” he has dealers to promise their custom to one started will be followed up, I trust, in individual, so long as he continues to the end he will not be “ a loser,” but supply them with an article of good

a gainer," by taking in your instruc- quality. The price of flour is genetive miscellany. I am, Sir,

rally regulated by the sellers, and thereYour humble servant, fore quality is the principal object.

ECONOMICUS. Question 3d.-“ Is there any substi

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tute for yeast? or, if not, which way ON THE INCLINATION OF THE EARTH can yeast be preserved?

TO THE LEVEL OF ITS ORBIT. Yeast may be preserved for a con

[Concluded from col. 924.] siderable time, by corking it up tight If an heterogeneous mass sueh as the in a bottle, and sinking it in a well of earth, were propelled forward, whether cold water. No discovery has yet been by mechanical force, or à supposed made of a substitute for yeast, that physical influence, while rotating will answer the purposes of house-upon its axis, the position of its poles keepers, who bake but small quanti- would be regulated by the arrangeties at a time. When yeast is very ment, or relative situation of the sevescarce, or very dear, the following ex- ral masses composing its internal strucpedient may be adopted, to make a ture. less quantity suffice. Suppose it is in- As the centre of gravity depends tended to make 14 lbs. of flour into upon the disposition of the internal bread. First, peel and boil 1 lb. of strata of bodies, so an unequal distripotatoes; pour the water from them, bution of weighty matter forming the and beat them up very fine, and mix aggregate, is sufficient to balance the with them about a quarter of a pound earth in a position which does not acof flour; then add as much of the cord with the centre of distance; the warm water in which they were boiled, earth having in all probability been as will reduce the whole to the consis-thrown into motion before consolidatency of common yeast. Then put about tion of its substance had taken place. one third of the yeast you would other. The subsequent formation of ponderwise use for the 14 lbs. of flour, and ous compounds, near the circumfermix it well up with the potatoes, &c. ence, is likely to have created a phyCover the vessel over in which you sical centre in that situation, much in make it, and let it stand in a warm the same way that a ship is said to place, until it has risen like a regular be trimmed by shifting its ballast, sponge, and begins to fall again. This which transfers the centre of gravity will generally be in about two hours. to some other part of the vessel. You may then proceed to make your It may be illustrated by any orbicubread as usual, substituting the whole lar body in a fluid medium, such as an of this instead of your yeast, and egg, after the yellow part has adhered using rather more salt than usual, in to the shell by lying some time on a consequence of the potatoes. Those shelf. If in this state it be immersed who think proper to use more than in water, instead of lying with its two one pound of potatoes, had better ends on a level with the surface of the mix the additional quantity with the water, one will be depressed and the dough, and not with the yeast, in the other elevated; or if projected into the first instance.

air, its long diameter would be in a Question 4th.-“What inventions are slanting direction, with a line perpenthere, if any, that will enable a person dicular to the horizon; and however to bake a loaf or two at a time, either be great the velocity of its rotatory mofore, or on, a common fire?"

tion might be, the same position of its There are none; nor do I think it ends would be preserved as long as the possible to bake bread properly but yolk continued fixed in its new situa

Genteel families have tion. The carth is a heterogeneous their Dutch ovens, and they are very oblate of various densities, in shape convenient; but economy is not their resembling an orange, immersed in a object: and the poor in the country have fluid medium, which sustains it under their small brick ovens, and know very the control, according to Newton, of well how to use them; but the poor in two distinct forces; by one it is suplarge towns cannot have these. Those posed to be perpetually urged forward, who choose to make their own bread, and by the other drawn aside from a may always have it baked at the com- right line. mon bake-houses, for from 2d, to 3d. In its annular circuit round the per peck. In some places all the sun, its long diameter inclines to the bread is baked in the bottom of the level of its path, exactly like the ends oven, and not in tins. This plan has of the swimming egg, with an extraother advantages than merely seeing neous weight laterally situated near it put into the oven, and this in some its great extremity, do to the surface cases is no small one.

of the water,

in an oven.

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