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Review, Elegant Selections in Verse; able opinion which we have expressed
We could easily support the favourfrom the works of Scott, Byron, of this small work, by extracting at Southey, and other popular, poets, random any of the pieces ; but, as the chiefly of the present age. By David Grant. pp. viii. 95. 12mo. Is. 6d. price is exceedingly moderate, we bound. Oliver and Boyd, Edinburgh, refer our readers, and teachers in ge
neral, to the Book itself, to be con1818.
vinced of its justice. The task of a compiler is not a very inviting one, and for a creditable ac- Review:- A Practical Dictionary, concomplishment of it, we believe a de- taining concise yet comprehensive gree of ability, by no means univer- schemes of the most necessary subjects, sally enjoyed, and not very generally Divine, Moral, and Literary. ByW. supposed to be necessary, is requisite. Sleigh. pp. 295. Octavo, Boards, It possesses few charms to the man price_78. Blanchard and Richardwho is ambitious of literary distinc- son, London, 1817. tion, and to him who is desirous of the In this work, which is professedly a favours of fortune, it is “ stale, flat, and compilation, the writer presumes to unprofitable.” We are not, therefore, lay but little claim to those honours, surprised that few men of talents or which arise from that originality of taste, should be induced to enlist in thought and expression, on which most the service, seeing the one or the other authors found their title to literary preof these objects is the polar star of all eminence. He tells us, that " in this literary exertion; and we are the more business, he has availed himself of the disposed to express our unqualified labours of Beddome, Beveridge, Biapprobation of those compilations field, Charron, Clark, Fisher, Flavel, which bear the impress of good taste, Gouge, Hooton, Taylor, and others; so and good intention.
that he has often, little other claim to For these reasons, we deem the Se- merit, than that which arises from selection before us, fully entitled to our lection and arrangement.” warm commendation. A short extract To the derivation of words, and their from the Advertisement, will serve to varied and primitive meaning, Mr. S. explain the object of the publication : has paid no attention; his aim being
Though the primary design of the to ascertain their distinct bearings on volume was for the use of schools, the the various doctrines of the Bible, and compiler trusts, that the variety, beauty, on those branches of ethics, which and singular sublimity of the pieces, have an immediate connection with the will recommend to the admirers of moral conduct and character of manpoetical compositions.”
kind. We think, that in the attainment of To a superficial observer, who cursoboth these objects, Mr. Grant has been rily glances over its pages, this treaeminently successful. Most of the tise appears to be à dictionary of pieces contain delineations of the ob- words and doctrines found only in the jects of Nature; most happily em- inspired volume. But on a nearer inployed for the purpose of inculcating spection, many terms occur, which the moral lessons on the mind; and all of sacred writers have not incorporated them are distinguished by a purity and in their language. They are, however, elevation of sentiment, a harmony, such as invariably communicate ideas, force, and felicity of expression, which on some important topics with which should be the inseparable accompani- the doctrines of the Gospel are intiment of books designed for the benefit mately connected; and in their expliof youth. The extracts cannot fail to cation, this association is invariably gratify even those who may have seen kept in view. As a specimen of the the originals. They are not of that author's manner in this department of description of wbich the spirit evapo- theological philology, we give the folrates on the first perusal; on the con- lowing article: trary, the beauties become more per- DUEL, a battle or engagement ceptible, and the gratification more between two persons, ordinarily fought exquisite, as we acquire a more inti- by choice with sword and pistol, upon mate acquaintance with them. Seve- account of some real or imaginary afral of them we have never seen before, front. Of all the vices which disgrace and we presume they are original. our age and nation, that of duelling is
one of the most ridiculous, absurd, and omnipresence, Mat. viii. 20; thirdly, criminal; ridiculous, as it is a com- by the divine names given to him, as pliance with a custom that would plead the name of Jehovah, Is. xlv. 24, 25, fashion in violation of the laws of our Jer. xxiii, 6; El and Eloim, Psalm country; absurd, as it produces no xlv. 6, 7, Isaiah ix. 5; Adonai, Dan. test by which to determine on the ix. 17, Exod. iv. 10, Judges vi. 13 ; merit of the point in dispute, for the God, John i. 1, Rom. ix. 5, 1 John, aggrieved is equally liable to fall with v. 18; fourthly, by the divine operathe aggressor; and criminal, (criminal tions attributed to him, as creation, in the highest degree,) as it arises from John i. 3, 10, Col. i. 3, 16, Heb. i. 2, pre-determined murder on each side. 10; the preservation and government Let no man so far disclaim his reason, of it, John v. 17, Heb. i. 3, Col. i. 17 ; as to rush upon a deed which every the power of miracles, John x. 25; for-. law, civil and sacred, condemns, which giveness of sins, Mat. ix. 6; sanctifican admit of no justification, which cation, 1 Cor. iv. 38; fifthly, by the inmust either involve his soul in the hor- stances of divine worship paid to him, rid guilt of murder, subject him to Acts vii. 59, 60, 2 Cor. xii. 7—10, 1. exile or imprisonment, to wander like Thess. iii. 11--13, 2 Cor. xiii. 14; the first shedder of human blood a sixthly, by his behaviour towards those wretched fugitive over the earth, or to who honour him, as commending their incur an ignominious death from the faith, Matt. viii. 8, 10; approving their impartial sentence of the law, or more requests, Mark ix. 24, Luke xvii. 5 ; fatal still, must dismiss him into the seventhly, by the patient suffering of tremendous presence of an eternal his saints, Rev. xii. 11; eighthly, by Judge, under the immediate guilt of the conquests the gospel hath made transgressing one of the strongest in the world, 1 Tim. iii. 16, and that commands, and for ever precluded not by any human power, Zech. iv. 6; from the possibility of repentance.” ninthly, by the absurdities into which
Of such words as occur in the sa- its most able opposers have been cred writings, the author gives the drawn, as labouring principally to invarious senses in which they are used, validate those texts which seem most referring to the particular passages explicit on the subject, and setting both in the Old Testament and in the aside some passages as no parts of reNew, where they are found to occur. velation. There was a necessity that Nor'are his observations exclusively Christ should be God, for these reaconfined to these simple facts. Hav- sons; first, that he might give full ing fairly stated them, he procceds to merit to the obedience and sufferings notice the inferences that may be of his manhood, for a mere creature drawn from the propositions which cannot merit of the Creator ; secondly, they contain; and adverts to the con- tha the might give his Spirit to believsequences which must ensue, from the ers to sanctify them, for none but God adoption of principles which lead could send him; thirdly, that he might either to virtue or vice. On many oc- be able to overcome the sharpness of casions the work assumes the form of death to which he was to submit; a practical commentary on words of fourthly, that he might raise us up significant import; sometimes uniting from the dead at the last and great them together in an expression, which day; fifthly, that he might be a proembodies some momentous doctrine, tector of his people for ever.
The conthat has a commanding influence on sequences of the denial of this docthe heart and life. In this department trine are awful; first, it tends to proalso, we give the following article as a duce as its native fruit, the greatest inspecimen.
difference both to principle and prac“ DIVINITY OF CHRIST, means tice; secondly, it contradicts the testihis being the most high God. It may mony of the faithful and true witness, be proved, first, by the testimony of and is a virtual rejection of it; thirdly, scripture, Isaiah ix. 6, John i. 1, Rom. it leaves the soul in all its guilt, exix. 5, 1 Tim. iii. 16, 1 John v. 20; se- posed to all the horrors of the second condly, by the divine attributes as- death. Let the doctrine work in us, cribed to him, as eternity, Isaiah ix. 5, first, a great esteem of his sufferings, John i. 1, Heb. ix. 14, omnipotence, Acts xx. 28; secondly, the celebraJohn iii. 31, Phil
. iv. 13; omniscience, tion of his praises, Rom. ix. 5; thirdly, John xxi. 17, Heb. iv. 13, Rev. ii. 23; the adoration of his person, Heb. i. 4
fourthly, faith in his merits, John i. 9; | the shells which have been found in and fifthly, ready obedience to his high mountains, are unquestionable voice, Acts i. 13, Heb. ii. 2."
proofs of the deluge. They were igOn the practical tendency of this norant however of an important fact. work, but one opinion can be enter- The lofty, primitive mountains, contained. It seems calculated to be tain no organic remains whatever. It useful to all those who have neither is manifest, that the deluge, which detime nor opportunity to consult more posited shells in some high mounvoluminous writings, without perplex- tains, would have deposited them in ing their minds with speculative theo- all the rest, if it had risen above ries, or embarrassing them with the them all. But even, if the shells subtleties of metaphysical disquisi- which are found in some tions. To the humble Christian, whose tains, were discoverable in all the principal aim is to have his heart re- mountains in the world, you would novated, and his life reformed, this gain nothing by it. You could never work may be strongly recommended. bribe these shells, to give their testiFor the propositions that are ad- mony to a flood which they never saw. vanced, plain and satisfactory reasons If you could bribe them, the imposare generally assigned. Both virtuous ture would be detected. They were and vicious practices are traced to quite superannuated, when the last their respective causes, and these are deluge happened. The fishes, then inaccompanied with such warnings, cau- habiting the seas, were undoubtedly tions, and admonitions, as the occasion the same, as those which exist at preseems to dictate. It is what its title sent. But these shells are always of expresses,
“ A Practical Dictionary," a different species, and generally of a in wbich both virtue and vice appear different genus, from any shells which without any artificial covering ; the are in existence now. former displaying the native simplicity Other writers have imagined, that of its charms, in language that is un- when the bone of an elephant was adorned, and the latter its deformity, found in a northern country; it was in such a manner, as to become de- almost the same thing, as if the word testable without exaggeration.
deluge had been inscribed upon it. * Aye; this was brought hither from Asia, by the general deluge.” There
áre, however, fourcircumstances, which [Concluded from col. 918.]
evince, that the fossil elephants were Objection VIII.-It has been always never brought on so long a voyage. considered, that the earth itself bears 1. From some remains which have witness to the Mosaic account of the been found, it appears, that they were deluge; and that the various petrefac- not formed for a hot climate. 2. It is tions are proofs of its authenticity. manifest, from the state and condition But your system annihilates these evi- of their bones, that the inundation dences. You tell us, that these shells, and these bones, were all desposited Traveller and Mineralogist, informs me, that
* Mrs. Mawe, the wife of the celebrated before the creation of man. Answer. This is certainly what I lately found at New South Wales, with a fossil
she has compared a shell of the strombus kind, have asserted, and what I will main- shell which was imbedded in Hordwell Cliffs, tain. I maintain that there is no ap- Hampshire ; and she has ascertained, that the pearance in nature, no geological fact two shells are of the very same species. This whatever, that illustrates the Mosaic fact is curious, and we may with confidence deluge ; that throws the smallest light admit it; inasmuch as it rests on the authority upon it, or has any connection with it. of a lady, who possesses so extensive and acBut do I hereby destroy its evidence? curate a knowledge, both of mineralogy and By no means. It rests on the surest conchology. Two or three other cases have foundation; the authority of the Bible. occurred, wherein a species, whose remains Were the Bible even uninspired, it were preserved in a fossil state, bas been diswould still rest, like other events, on
covered inhabiting our seas. But what are the authority of History, and the tra- stances, when compared with the immense
two or three, or even half a dozen such inditions of various nations. But I multitude of genera and species of fistes, and again aver, that Geology can say no- genera and species of quadrupeds, which are thing in this matter.
now utterly unknown, and appear to be totally Some writers have supposed, that cxtinct ?
DISSERTATION ON GEOLOGY.
A Dissertation on Geology.
which destroyed them, did not trans- | corded, destroyed the whole human port them to, but overwhelmed them race, eight persons only excepted. If, in the countries where these bones are then, the alluvial soil which contains now preserved. 3. Along with the the elephants, had been deposited by fossil elephants, there has been found the Mosaic deluge, we should have
animal of the didelphis kind. found, at least a few human bones, in Now, the only species of this genus, common with the bones of beasts. which is known to exist in any part But I have already stated, that not a of the world, is in North America. single human bone has yet been dis4. The fossil elephants are decidedly covered, either in this alluvial soil, or of a different species, from either the in any other alluvial bed, or in any of Indian, or the African elephant. These the rocky strata. It follows, that as are ascertained facts: they have been the flood of Moses, could not possibly ascertained by Cuvier himself. You have been that which annihilated this see then, that neither the shells depo- race of elephants, it must have been a sited in high mountains, nor the ele- subsequent inundation. But we find phants buried in northern countries, no traces of any deluge which was can give the least account of the flood subsequent. If we even perceived the of Moses.
vestiges of one which corresponded in Professor Jameson has an extraor- every other particular, the question dinary passage, in his preface to the would still recur, Where are the translation of Cuvier's Essay. He bones of the human race?” No reason tells us, that “ the deluge is confirmed can be assigned, why they should have by a careful study of the appearances perished sooner than the bones of quaon or near the earth's surface.” In the drupeds. They are composed of the name of all that is strange and won- same materials as the bones of beasts ; derful, what does the Professor mean? and their being smaller than some of What are the appearances which con- the petrified bones, cannot be admitfirm the Mosaic deluge? Which of ted as the reason of their perishing; the rocky strata, or which of the allu- for they are also much larger than vial beds, were deposited by it? In some of the bones which have been his account of Cuvier's discoveries, preserved. I think, I have now suffiJameson informs us, that the flood ciently established the position, that which destroyed the elephants, was no appearance in nature, can be remost probably the last, or one of the ferred to that deluge, which the sacred last. Now, it is certain, that the de- historian has recorded. Some Divines luge described by Moses was the last have believed, that the entire crust of general deluge which ever took place the earth was dissolved by the flood; on our globe. It was therefore, either and that the particles of earth, and the that flood, which overwhelmed the ele- water were mixed up, till they were phants, or a subsequent one. But it brought to a consistence something could not have been the former, for like that of GOOSEBERRY-FOOL, three reasons.
1. Moses assures us STIR-ABOUT.* Furthermore, they have that Noah's flood was universal, and that all the high hills were covered. Skilled in chemistry and mathematics, that all
* I am assured by men, who are eminently Jameson, on the contrary, informs us
the waters of the great deep, united to all the that this flood was not universal; that
waters in the atmosphere, could never procluce it did not extend to the high moun- such an effect. But granting, that the whole of tains; no, not even to the high valleys. this terrene fabric had been so dissolved, it is 2. It is undeniable, that the animals manifest, that the waters must have been in a which existed in the time of Noah, state of the greatest agitation. Two consewere of the very same kind as those quences, amongst many others, would therefore which live at present.
But almost all indisputably follow.--Firstly, the remains of maof the quadrupeds which are found line and land animals, would be pronuiscuously along with the fossil elephants, are of blended. Secondly, tliese remains would be different species from any of whose mixed and jumbled together, in the utmost
confusion. Now it happens, unluckily for the existence we have any knowledge. Very few of them resemble those enemies of science, firstly, that the greater which now inhabit the earth; and it is part of the strata contains the shells and the
bones of fishes, but not a single bone of any a matter of doubt, whether these few quadroped ; and secondly, that these shells be exactly the same, or not. 3. The and bones are generally arranged with the universal deluge, which Moscs has re- greatest regularity. The following case must,
believed, that when the waters retired, Geologists do not say, that the vegeand the terrene particles subsided, the table soil which covers, or has covered various strata of the earth were formed. any of the rocky strata, must have reAssuredly, every man of science in Eu- quired a long period of time, but that rope would agree with me, that all this, the strata themselves, must have requirwithout an express miracle, was abso- ed a long time for their formation. lutely impossible. But whether it Now, there is no analogy between the was possible or not, we have seen that strata of the earth, and the soil upon it was not the case. We have seen, beds of lava; or between the strata of that these strata were deposited at dif- the earth, and beds of lava. Many of ferent times; and that some thousand, them were formed by very different properhaps several thousand years elapsed, cesses, and must have needed very from the formation of the first primi- different periods of time, for their detive rock, to that of the last alluvial position. soil.
Objection IX.-You have asserted There is, however, a passage in more than once, that although the Bishop Watson's Letters to Gibbon, earth contains the petrified bones of so from which an argument has been many animals ; there is no instance of drawn against this extended period of a single fossil human bone having been the world's duration. It seems, that discovered. Does not this circuman author of the name of Recupero, stance afford an argument against the had been employed in writing an his occurrence of that flood, which Moses tory of Mount Ætna. He fancied has recorded ? If all the other deluges that when the soil had been over- were the means of petrifying the bones whelmed, and covered by a bed of of land animals, as well as the shells lava, it would require two thousand of fishes; how happened it, that the years before the lava could be covered bones of men and of the contempowith a good vegetable soil. He there- raneous animals were not mineralized? fore concluded, that as there had been Answer:- This is indeed a most imso many successive eruptions of the portant and interesting question. But mountain, the earth must have a much it is a question on which I have found greater antiquity than is usually as- myself incompetent to decide. For cribed to it. In answer to this, the many weeks it had been to me a subBishop brought forward an instance, ject of meditation ; and many an hyfroin a place near Mount Vesuvius. potheses I had formed, which at first In this place several successive erup- appeared unobjectionable, but which tions had formed beds of similar ma- | 1 afterwards discovered was vain and terials; they had been successively visionary. I well knew, that the theocovered by good vegetable coating ; logical world was rich in erudite and and all this had positively happened pious commentaries; but I knew also, in less than 1700 years. Now the ex- that here it was not probable they position of this fact, was a complete would impart the smallest light. At refutation of Recupero. It completely length I resolved to apply to a very refuted his argument, which was found eminent Mineralogist, being well coned on the time supposed necessary to vinced, that on a question of this cover a bed of lava with a proper soil. kind, his opinion would be more vaBut it has nothing whatever to do with luable, than that of all the Divines the question of the world's antiquity. in Christendom. I therefore wrote to
I think, convince the most superficial thinker, that the first and third were gently deposited that the various strata could not have origin- by a tranquil ocean. Lastly, when we conated from one universal deluge, or from any sider what stupendous masses of stone have one general cause. We sometimes find a stra- been deposited, without breaking, or even attum, the organic remains of which, are dis- tenuating the most minute and delicate shells; posed with as much symmetry and order, as we must feel convinced, that the process occuif they were arranged in the cabinet of a na-pied an immense period of time. Mr. Baketuralist. In the stratum above this, the or- well seems to think, that at least a hundred ganic remains are mixed in indiscriminate thousand years were requisite, to bring the confusion. In the stratum above this last, earth from its chaotic state to its present they are arranged with the most perfect order condition; and I have been informed by one and regularity. Now, it is clear, that the se- of the first mineralogists in this country, that cond of these strata was produced by a sudden it must have required a much longer period and violent inundation ; but it is equally clear, to produce and persect a ruby.