Billeder på siden

so that a very small degree of force one with a ground stopper, which was on the inside, much less than that proved to be air-tight, having been afforded by highly compressed air, used for the containing of gasses. would have been abundantly sufficient The experiments of this friend have to have expelled the cork, and have just come to hand, and are as follows. given free admission to the surround- “ The first set of experiments with ing waters ; but nothing of this being the bottles, was made during a perfect apparent, it is demonstrable the air calm. The common bottle was corked, could not have been highly compress- leathered, and sealed; and, besides ed, and therefore could not have passed these precautions, a stick was put into through the pores of the glass; and, the inside to prevent the cork from dethen it is equally clear, that the water scending: the bottles were then lowercould not have passed through those ed about 100 fathoms at least, and pores.

when drawn up, the cork was found When these reflections at first oc- thrust into the bottle, and the bottle of curred, an intelligent friend, about to course full; but the one hermetically sail for America, was requested to sealed, came up quite empty. The repeat the experiment; which he has last time the experiment was tried, done, and kindly communicated the was just before we made the island of following

Ceylon; we then let down a common Experiment 1.-Took an empty bottle well corked and sealed, a bottle wine bottle, and simply corked it tight, hermetically sealed, and one with a and sunk it 120 fathoms. It came up ground stopper. As before, the cork full of water, the cork being forced was thrust into the common bottle, the down the neck of the bottle.

bottle hermetically sealed had a flaw “Experiment2.-Lowered an empty in it, for upon its being drawn up, the bottle closely corked, tied under and water burst out through a very small over together, with a piece of sail-hole, and continued to do so till the cloth over all, to prevent its being water was completely out; the bottle forced either in or out of the bottle. with the ground stopper came up It filled at 80 fathoms; the cork appear- empty. The experiments therefore ed to be unmoved.

did not prove unsatisfactory. There Experiment3.-Lowered an empty was an advantage attending the bottle bottle, the cork being tied under and hermetically scaled, having this very over as before, and covered all over small hole, as it points out the degree with a thick coat of sealing-wax. The of pressure sustained by the bottles at bottle filled at about the same depth, the depth of 90 fathoms, for it was but the cork was forced about half an too small to suffer the air to escape, and inch down the neck of the bottle, and the water could only enter by comthe string by which it was tied broken. pressing the air. The bottle was three

“Experiment 4.- To prevent the quarters full of water, so that the prescork being pressed down the neck of sure was such as to force air of the the bottle, I placed in it a piece of density of the atmosphere, into one wood, which reached within an inch of quarter of its bulk. the top of the neck, then corked it “ In a conversation I had with a down as tight and close as possible, gentleman in this island, he stated that and waxed it over. The bottle filled he had made the experiment with a as before, but the wax appeared to be common wine decanter, or something a little cracked. The bottle each time similar, and that the water penetrated; seemed to fill instantaneously. The but I feel confident, that there must experiments upon the whole were unsa- have been some flaw in the bottle or tisfactory; and the only way, it ap- the stopper." This is my friend's depears to me, to demonstrate whether cision, to which, it is presumed, most glass is sufficiently porous to admit so persons will be inclined to subsoribe; much water in so short a time, would though the case is still attended with be to make the experiment with a singular phænomena. bottle having a ground glass stopper, It may be necessary just to remark, or one hermetically sealed.”

that some oversight must have induced The remarks of this gentleman were the observations of my very intelligent adopted ; and another friend going to friend, respecting the flaw in one of the island of Ceylon, was provided the bottles, being too small for the with bottles hermetically sealed, and I escape of the air; because it is inti


mated, that when drawn up a small successfully imposed upon superficial hole was observed, through which the minds ; but let us examine the present, water was seen to burst forth; and if so, and see whether it will obtain in the undoubtedly there must have been a face of truth and reason. passage quite sufficient for the extri- It is admitted that God is the aucation of the internal air. Nor does thor of conversion, that in this great it appear at all probable, that the air work, he gives the will its right direcshould have been compressed into one tion, and sustains the religion which quarter of its bulk, without bursting he first produced; but all the consea cracked bottle to atoms. The point quences of CALVINISM are not involved of advantage obtained by the flaw in unless “ Neuter” can successfully conthis bottle, appears to be this, that trovert the following statements.with all the assistance of this flaw, the God sustains the religion which he water could not enter with sufficient first produces, in various degrees. It velocity to fill the bottle, but when is acknowledged by all judicious Caldrawn up, was found to be one-fourth vinists, that the AVOIDABLE neglect of empty.

the means of grace, especially that of Should the substance of this paper prayer, will supersede to the extent that be thought sufficiently interesting, for it is indulged in, the active energy of the readers of your Magazine, its in- Divine communications. If a Chrissertion will be regarded with esteem, tian, on the contrary, lives up to the by, Sir, your obedient and obliged careful observance of all the minutiæ servant,

N. R. of duty, and does not err at the same Stoke Newington, Nov. 18, 1819. tiine, in his understanding respecting

the various relations he sustains to

God, upon the score of humility, knowOn Perpetual Misery.

ledge, or experience, one may conMR. EDITOR,

clude, his felicity will comprehend Your correspondent Tyro asks, col. sical condition will admit of: the să

every portion of good which his phy762,“ What equitable proportion there tisfaction of every believer is the will is between finite offence, and infinite of God. Now if it be inquired, whepunishment? Certainly none. But

ther all this depends upon the dilithere is the same proportion in the re

gence of the individual? I simply reward as in the punishment; namely, ply, Viewing things as they actually betwixt finite good works, and infinite or eternal happiness, in joys incon-exist, and as they are represented in ceivable. The justice of God is there the word of God, that in regard to the fore made manifest, as well as the de- does not depend upon the conduct of

sovereignty of the Divine character, it testable nature of sin, unrepented of, the believer; but in regard to the ecowhich can draw down punishment so

nomy which God has instituted in the tremendous as everlasting misery.

comprehensive exercise of his compassion and condescension, it certainly

does; otherwise the scripture is a REPLY TO A QUERY ON THE WESLEYAN

sealed book, even to believers.

I will presume that in the course of [Inserted col. 763.]

one fortnight, in a proper degree of diLondon, Nov. 2, 1819. ligence to the duty of prayer, I am Mr. Editor,

preserved from a variety of evils of a In your Magazine for October, col. spiritual nature, some of which I 763, the following Query is proposed should probably have experienced in by Neuter.

“ As Mr. Wesley pro- a partial use of my privilege: although fessed to admit that God was the au- my praying has secured me from many thor of conversion, that he gave the evils, these acts have not merited that will its right direction, and sustained security; the security itself partook of the religion which he first produced ; that common act of sovereign goodwhen this admission is pursued to all ness, from which all the blessings of its consequences, I would beg leave the gospel have proceeded. It is certo ask, whether this does not prove tainly not myself, but God, who has all that Calvinism requires ?” Un- kept me. We do not sufficiently bear doubtedly not: similar representations in mind the harmony of that character to the one before us, have been too which God sustains in bis gospel,


and the harmony of that which he sus- did excelled; Virtue does exalts. But tains apart from the gospel. As His how can such expressions be adopted creatures, we shall in every condition by one, who has learnt to conjugate a and under all circumstances eternally verb, according to the pattern given by sustain a relation to the Divine Being, Mr. S. (page 65. &c.)? in each of these views of his charac- The observations on auxiliaries in ters. Respecting the principles ad- the following paragraphs of this Rule mitted by judicious Calvinists, that are useful and important; but they the volitions of believers influence Di- have no more connection with the first vine communications, the scriptures paragraph, than with the first verse represent to us that the evil incident in the Bible. to this principle may go so far, that Page 141. “ Adverbs which denote the remains of piety may be ready to qualities, and degrees of comparison, die, and that the exertion of the indivi- govern the same cases as the adjecdual, independent of all merit, is ne- tives from which they are derived; as, cessary to prevent that apostatical • He conducted himself agreeably to lapse which lies exposed to the eternal his instructions ; and behaved more wrath of God. I have examined, Sir, prudently than all his opponents.? the reply to the Query in the most ob- Here the adverb agreeably governs the vious and tangible mode which it is whole phrase to his instructions; and capable of assuming.

the adverb prudently governs the whole I am, Sir, very respectfully, phrase, than all his opponents, by caus

Z. ing them to be in the accusative case?

How it can be said that a whole Review of A Grammar of the Eng, know not; it is an expression not con

phrase is in the accusative case, we lish Language, by the Rev. Joseph veying any clear or distinct ideas

. Sutcliffe.London, 1815.

Instructions is the objective case, yo(Concluded from col. 949.]

verned not by the adverb agreeably, Page 132. “ The participle to be but by the preposition to. Than all his mended or repaired.To be mended is opponents

, Mr. S. says, is in the accusanot a participle; but the present infi- | tive case; now opponents is not the acnitive passive, of the verb to mend. cusative case, but the nominative, being

Page 133. “ The auxiliary in the joined to the former nominative he by third person singular of the present the conjunction than, and being nomiand perfect tense of the indicative native to the verb behaved understood; mood, governs the principal verb, by as evidently appears, when the ellipsis requiring it to be of the plural number; is supplied, thus, he behaved more pruas Henry did excel;' Virtue does dently than all his opponents (behaved). exalt a character.' Whereas were the Mr. Murray does not say absolutely auxiliary removed, the verb would be (as Mr. Sutcliffe represents) that “adsingular; as 'Henry excelled ;" Vir- verbs have no government.” His words tue exalts,” &c.

are: (Rule XV.) “ Adverbs, though This Rule, we must confess, appears they have no government of case, tense, to us not only useless, but altogether &c., require an appropriate situation ridiculous. In the sentence Henry did in the sentence.” Whatever governexcel, Mr. S. tells us the auxiliary did ment adverbs may bave, we are fully is third person singular, and the verb persuaded with Mr. M. that they have excel is plural; so that here is a sin- no government of case, tense, fc. and we gular nominative connected with a think Mr. S. has completely failed in plural verb, in direct violation of the his attempts to prove the reverse. All first rule of Syntax. Virtue does exalt; that the subsequent paragraphs of Mr. here also we are told, does is singular, S.'s rule, quoted above, tend to prove, and exalt plural, where the same breach is just what Mr. M. asserts, viz. that of rule recurs. But is it not absurd“ adverbs-require an appropriate sithus to separate the auxiliary from its tuation in the sentence.” principal, to give them different con- Page 142. “ Instead of saying, “I structions, and those of such a nature would have come, but bad weather as to overturn the established laws of hindered me,” we must say, “ I would Grammar? The only end which this have come, but hindered me bad weaRule can answer, is to prevent learners ther.”' from using such expressions as, Henry We cannot see the smallest con

66 But

nection between this example, and the tion from the Greek—“ ita ut non point which Mr. S. had been treating. posse ipsos neque panem manducare." He had been speaking of the govern- Beza, whose language is correct, gives ment of adverbs; now in the sentence only one negative. Though a few rare adduced, there is no adverb at all: examples of a double negative may consequently, the impropriety of the be found in old Latin authors, they expression, I would have come, but hin- are to be regarded, not as the standard dered me bad weather, cannot be owing of grammatical accuracy, but as anoto any error in regard to the position malies, being deviations from the conor government of adverbs, but solely stant practice of all the best writers. to this circumstance; bad weather is Mr. S. tells us, that “one of the double the nominative to the verb hindered, negatives employed by our Fathers” is and therefore ought to precede it. sometimes superseded" by the auxi

Page 145. “ It might be asked, Who liary do.Of this however he has not else does it expose!"

produced, and we apprehend cannot If we had met with this expression produce, a single instance. The only in the works of any other respectable cases that seem to illustrate this suppoauthor, we should immediately have sition, are in the French sentence ** Je concluded that it was an error of the ne sais pas,I do not know ; and in press. But as Mr. S. would vindicate the Latin,“ aisne”-say you not, or do it according to the principles laid you say. But in neither of these, does down (page 123,) we must notice it, as the auxiliary do stand in the place of a a glaring and unpardonable breach of negative: in the former sentence, the the rules of grammar. The relative in two French negatives ne and pas are this sentence, who else does it expose, rendered in English by the single nenot being nominative to the verb ex- gative not; and in the latter, ne is not pose, is governed by it, and ought a negative, and requires no corremost certainly to be the objective, spondent word in English. whom.

(says Mr. S.) we cannot alter the Again, as in all interrogatories, the phrases of the common people. They noun or pronoun which answers the still use two or three negatives in every question must be in the same case county and in every dialect.” We are as that which asks it ; if it be right to truly surprised, that Mr. S. should adsay Who else does it expose, it must be duce this by way of argument. If the equally right to answer in the nomina- practice of the common people be to tive, and say, I, thou, or she ; that is, decide what is right and what wrong, supplying the ellipsis, it exposes I, it we may at once discard all the rules exposes thou, it exposes she, &c. that grammarians have laid down; for

Pages 146, 147. We cannot accord there is not one of them but what is with Mr. S. in the opinions here laid constantly violated by the common down respecting negatives. The Eng- people. And to what a state would lish language is in many respects es- this reduce our language! sentially different from the Greek, The examples quoted by Mr. S. are Latin, and French; and particularly false, and cannot be justified accorddiffers from he Greek and French, in ing to the laws of English Grammarthe use of negatives. In this particu- “ I never gave him no cause of dislar, the Latin and English must re- pleasure” is wrong, and is certainly semble each other. That two negatives cquivalent to, I have given him cause of in the same clause are very common in displeasure. One of the negatives must French and Greek, and in the latter be expunged. language sometimes three or four, “We were a great family; and none which strengthen each other, and add of us never had no learning.” This, emphasis to the negation, is readily which Mr. S. says, was court lanallowed ; but in Latin and English, guage not long ago,” would now be the doctrine of Lowth and Murray is, deemed by all persons of education we think, perfectly accurate ; viz. that completely vulgar, and unpardonably two negatives, in the same clause, inaccurate. Two of the negatives destroy one another, or are equivalent to must be cancelled. an affirmative. The Latin example The example from Shakspear-"He quoted from Montanus's version proves never yet no villainie ne sayde,” might nothing, because it is not pure classi- have passed in his days, but is inadcal Latin, but only a literal transla- missible now.

“ I have not found so great faith, no, said, it is nominative to the verb came, not in Israel.” This language is cor- the preposition against is then left withrect and emphatic, but it does not out any noun or pronoun which it can affect the point; for though there are govern, and stands wholly unconnected three negatives, they are in three dif- in the sentence. If it be said, that ferent clauses; there being a comma prince is the objective, governed by the after faith, and another after no; by preposition against, then the verb came which commas the sentence is divided is left without a nominative; which is into three clauses.

another anomaly. The sentence thereThe two examples—“For merchants fore cannot be analyzed and accounted to consult their interest is no uncom- for, unless it be granted that prince is mon thing,”—“ The veteran is not un- at one and the same time both nomiacquainted with the hardships of life,” native and objective case.

The same which Mr. S. says are not excep- observations apply to the other sentionable,” certainly are exceptionable tence quoted by Mr. S. “ Supper according to his own hypothesis, ready against the reapers return;" which admits two or more negatives where the noun reapers stands in a into one clause, with the intent of similar predicament. To speak gramstrengthening the expression. For if matically, the mode of expression must these expressions be used according be altered. If the preposition against to his system, the first means, For mer- be retained, we should say, against the chants to consult their interests is ex- coming of the prince ; against the return tremely uncommon, oris by no means com- of the reapers. Otherwise, for this mon ; and the latter, The veteran is ut- preposition should be substituted when, terly unacquainted, or not in the least ac- as soon as, by the time that, or the like: quainted with hardships, &c. Whereas thus, that all things might be ready when according to the correct and true sys- the prince came thither ; supper being tem of Lowth and Murray, those ex- ready as soon as the reapers return. Mr. pressions are allowable, and the two S. may object, that this is “ to use four negatives in each sentence destroy words, when one would do better." each other, and are equivalent to an That one word would do better, has not affirmative; so that the first means, been proved ; and at all events, breFor merchants to consult their interest vity of expression can never atone for is a common thing; and the latter, a plain breach of grammatical rules. The veteran is acquainted with the hard- (See Mr. S.'s Gram. page 167. Rule ships of life.

XXIV.) The saying of Frederic the Page 147. “ No one, among all the Great to the Austrian General, I would friends I conversed with yesterday, rather have you on my right hand than never dropped any hint of my brother's over against me, is quite foreign to the arrival." Mr. Sutcliffe's attempt to point in dispute, for in it the preposivindicate this expression is quite un- tion against is immediately followed by successful; one of the negatives must the pronoun me, which it governs in he omitted.

the objective case. Page 148.

Prepositions govern Page 150." The conjunctions if, nouns and pronouns in the accusative though, whether, unless, except, &c. case; as, 'He loves us; we believed govern a plural verb in the third perhim,' &c. How strangely and unpar- son singular; as, If this part of our donably remiss must Mr. S. have been, trade were well cultivated. Though in selecting examples, the first two of accuracy apply to works of this kind. which contain no preposition at all, If this argument need confirmation. and therefore cannot exemplify the It must be always the preacher's own rule!

fault, if he transgress in unity,” &c. Page 149. “I doubt the propriety of In the above sentences, according to Lowth's stricture on Clarendon in the Mr. S. the verbs were, apply, need, following example; That all things transgress, are plural, while their nomight be ready against the prince came minative cases, part, accuracy, arguthither." We cordially agree with ment, he, are singular. If this be grantLowth on this point, and are sorry that ed, what becomes of the First Rule of Mr. S. should endeavour to justify the Syntax ? A verb may be plural, though expression. In regard to the above its nominative case is singular. sentence, we would inquire, What case The difference between were, apply, is the substantive prince? If it be need, transgress, and was, applies, needs,

« ForrigeFortsæt »