« ForrigeFortsæt »
inches forward, and two feet six inches Several vessels for sea; and also inaft, averaging two feet ten and half land navigation, are now building, inches, when it is well known a vessel which may be at any time inspected at of her dimensions will draw from six the Patent Ship Building Yard, Upto eight feet.
per Watergate, Deptford. In Capacity, -being built without
ANNESLEY and SOWERBY, frame timbers, beams, knees, braces, London, October 23, 1819, &c. and from her even surface so well adapted for stowage, this ship gains upwards of forty tons, compared with a vessel of the same size.
For Durability.-When wood is in this manner closely united to wood, without any aperture to admit air or moisture, it must be in that state least liable to any of the usual causes of premature decay, and in this respect it has a most decided advantage over the old system.
For Safety:-Shonld this vessel be cast ashore with such violence as to beat off her stem, stern-post, dead-wood, and bilge-keels, the crew and cargo would be safe, nor would she admit of water in consequence, having no bolts to draw.
This vessel may also properly be termed a life-ship; for if her bottom were perforated by striking on a sharp rock, her water-deck would still safely float her.
So different is the new system from the old, that what constitutes the en- Extract from “ A short Account of a tire strength of the old, would only new Patent for a Steam Engine,” weaken the new. The only use of tim- taken out by Sir William Congreve, bers, knees, braces, &c. is to preserve
Bart. two planks running parallel to each The principle upon which I apply the other in their relative positions, and elastic force of the steam, in my new which can be thus only very imper- method of constructing Steam Engines, fectly effected. This vessel is braced is by collecting that force under the as she is built, and building is bracing. pressure of any given column of cirOn the old plan, the decks and sides cumambient water, or other heavy cannot be kept completely together; fluid; so that its effect to produce on the new, wedging the sides apart motion in any direction will be regutill deck is got in, strengthens the lated by the re-acting pressure of the whole structure. On the new plan, no column of such fluid, to the expansion filth, foul air, or vermin, can lodge. On of the steam in a contrary direction. the old, these cannot be entirely pre- and on this principle I give motion to · vented.
a variety of different modifications, This vessel, combining such advan- both of rotatory and reciprocating matages, has been built much cheaper chines, with much greater facility and than on the old plan. She was built at simplicity of construction, and with the most conspicuous spot in the world, less friction, than in any other prinadjoining the eminent seat of naval ciple of Steam Engine hitherto inarchitecture, the King's Dock Yard, vented. Deptford, and examined in the pro- The Plate shews a section of a Rogress of building, repeatedly, by men tatory Engine on this principle in its of science, commissioners, naval sar- simplest form, wherein ABCD is a veyors, and officers ;-shipwrights, boiler divided into two parts by an ship-owners, and masters of vessels, internal horizontal partition abcd. all of whom concur in admitting her Now, in the lower part of the boiler superiority.
CD the steam is supposed to be gene
rated; and in the upper part AB, rather in the bottom of the steam cham(which is filled also with water) an ber, will always stand on a level with over-shot water wheel WW, made the top of the aperture h, for then the either of wood, iron, or other suitable opposite columns of pressure condensmaterial, is suspended on its axis, so ing, the steam between them will be in as to revolve freely therein, being com- equilibrium: and up to this level will pletely immersed in the upper water. the lower compartment of the boiler,
Under these circumstances, there while working, be always supplied fore, the motion is produced by the through the pipe ef, though the steam passage of the steam from the lower cannot escape through it. compartment of the boiler to the upper These different compartments are, in one; where it is thrown into the fact, one vessel or boiler, having not ascending buckets of the water only a free communication with each wheel W W by the following arrange-other, but having the water in each ment for increased effect: ghi is a nearly of the same temperature, the third compartment in the boiler, form- whole being set in the same furnace, ed by the curved partition gh, the and surrounded with flues; so that, in whole breadth of the boiler, and passing from one to the other, there is nearly adapted to the periphery of the no loss of heat, or expansion in the water wheel. This compartment is steam, during the whole of the time subdivided by another partition kh, that it is in action. In this way a rotanot closed at k, and forms a steam tory motion will be produced, not actchamber, into which the steam enters ing by impulses, but revolving with a from the lower part A B, through an regular and constant force on the most opening in the horizontal partition abc, simple principle, and by means of mafrom b to c, and passes up the outer chinery within the compass of the most side of the partition k k, turns round ordinary workman to execute; at the at k, and forces its way down the same time without loss of power by other side of kh, by driving the water friction or refrigeration; and withbefore it, until it issues with great force out valves, pistons, or any other of the and velocity through the aperture h complex apparatus involved, I may into the ascending buckets of the say, more or less in every other de. wheel, being compressed in the steam scription of Steam Engine hitherto chamber according to the height of the produced. column of water or other fluid thus From what has been said as to the forced down from k to h. Rushing, calculation of the force of such an therefore, with the force thus acquired engine, it is evident its power may be through the aperture h, it not only increased or diminished in proportion drives round the wheel by its energy to the specific gravity of the fluid in and expansion as it ascends, but pro- which the wheel is made to revolve. duces, by the actual displacement of Thus, if mercury were made use of all the water or other fluid in the instead of water, a vast increase of ascending buckets, a buoyant power power would be obtained; or, in other on that side of the wheel equal to the words, a much smaller wheel would actual weight of the quantity of water produce equal powers ; a circumor other fluid thus displaced. The stance which, together with the conleast moving power, therefore, of such stant action and the extraordinary a wheel, independent of the energy and simplicity and compactness of its conexpansion of the steam, may be reckon- struction, seems to give this principle ed as equal to the power which the of engine peculiar fitness for steam same over-shotwheelwould exert work- boats: more especially as the steam ing in air by the fall of a column of wheel may be made to move with the water or other fluid equal in quantity velocity required for the propelling to the displacement of the steam in wheels of the boat; so that the latter this case. The upper part of the boiler might be applied at once to the extreis always kept full by a common ball- mities of the axis of the former, workcock, and the water in the upper com- ing through stuffing boxes in the side partment of the boiler communicating of the boiler. with that in the lower through the bent Here I have also to observe, that pipe e f, the lower boiler will thus also the steam may, if desired, instead of be regularly fed; and when the steam entering into the buckets of the wheel, is up, the water in the lower boiler, or on the common principle of the water
wheel, as hitherto explained from the ter, and its wheelwright: nay, these circumference, be carried into those very persons united, would be suffibuckets, from the centre, through a cient to construct every part of the hollow axis and radii, allowing it only most complicated of this order of Steam to enter into the ascending buckets. Engines. These buckets also may be either open Among the numerous inventions by buckets, or close ones with valves; so which the present age is distinguished, also they may either work wholly im- it may be doubted, if any are of more mersed in water, or other fluid; or the importance than those which we have fluid may be only partially employed, just noticed. It is not however to be and the steam may be allowed to expected, that either can be immeescape, as hitherto described, or it may diately brought into general use.
Το be got rid of by condensation.
inspire public confidence, repeated exThe construction of such an Engine periments will be necessary. But evidently comes within the power of a should these happily prove satisfactory, very ordinary mechanic, with very a new era will be formed in the conhumble means: and hence, every vil-struction of machines in which we nalage might have its steam engine vigate the ocean, and in the applicamaker, as well as its smith, its carpen- / tion of steam.
COMMERCIAL RETROSPECT, NOVEMBER 23d, 1819. Although the present season of the year is generally distinguished by a great inactivity in business, yet the transactions of the late month have been far from uninteresting : nay, we think symptoms of a radical improvement are apparent, and this will be more obvious on reference to our Price Current, wherein thc value of must articles will be found to have experienced e manifest enhancement. There appears more confidence, and the public funds indicate a state of health, which bear us out in making the preceding remarks.
The Sugar market lias been pretty lively, and purchasers have been forward in taking considerable parcels at several shillings advance. The stock in the Importers' hands is ascertained not to exceed 9000 casks.
Of Coffee, the stock in this port is only 1100 tons, which is scarcely one-fourth of what remained in the preceding year; much attention has of late been attached to this article, and although the rates rule high, they are consiciered as susceptible of much greater advance.
The sales of Cotton Wool comprise 26,896 bags, with little variation in price. American Cottuns seem likely to maintain their value, and tbe falling off in the imports, cannot fail of being very sensibly felt. The state of Commerce in America, during the Summer, has been very deplorable, to which, no doubt, the pervading sickne ss has much contribuied. The latest advices state, that happily no new cases had appeared ; in the interim all vessels arriving here are subjected to quarantine. At the commencement of the present month, there were only two American vessels in our port, which may be noted as an unprecedented circumstance. The Emigration from this port has greatly fallen off
, and the late arrivals have brought numeruus returned Emigrants, who have crossed and re-crossed the Atlantic without obtaining the objects of their wishes.-American produce maintains its value, with a tendency to look upward. Several vessels are still expected from British America, which will bring considerable quantities of Pot and Pearl Ashes, which rather deters purchasers from acceding to the pre
The imports of Timber from the British settlements, have been most abundant, and the present low rates are very ruinous to the importers; it appears probable, that an import duty will be laid on in the course of the ensuing year.
All Baltic Articles are exceedingly low, particularly Tallow, which may now be purchased'at -568.; it is not 12 months since this article was readily sold at 96s. per cwt.
There has seldom been so much business done in Dye Woods, as during the past month : prices are somewhat frmer, and we are glad to find cousumers cuming into the market, on so large a scale.
The stocks of Rum, Brandy, and Geneva, are very plentiful, and the prices of the two latter articles are extremely low.
Hops have been in some demand, and are now increasing in value.
The prevailing easterly winds have prevented the accustomed supplies of Grain arriving from Irelan The Corn market has been generally well attended, and most kinds have experienced an advance. Oats are in request, and are getting dearer.
Irish Provisions remain much the same.
Emigration to Ainerica, froin 21st August lo 21st November inclusive, 690 persons.—8 ditto, to British America.
WHOLESALE.--L. pool, Nov. 22, 1819. PROVISIONS.
SUNDRIES.- Liverpool, 22. Nos. SUGAR, Vcwt.
HAY, old, 201b. ......08.10d.a ls.id
09 middling 63 70 Butter, y cwt.
78 0 80 0 STRAW, Wheat, 2011. 0 3 04 good 72 82 Cork dry 3rds. new
POTATOES, new, 211h. 5 06 fine ....... 68 91 pickled new 2nds 88 0 90
OATMEAL,sack 24011 36 0 40 0 Refned, Dble.Loavs 6.a 71b. 130 140
Belfast dry new...... 920 94 0
FLOUR, best, sk.24015.500 38 6
seconds........44 0 48 0 100
Pork, Irish, brl. 870 90
FRESH BUTTER, 1602...... 1 ? 110 Canary do. 24-281b. 100
Cheese, old, 12016 64 0 68 0 MOLASSES, British ...... 32
53 0 57 0
LEATHER, Ib. RUM, gallon, 16 O. P. 38. 2d. a 3s. 3d.
Average Prices of Number of BankLeewards, common 1 2 2
Sugar. Gazette. rupts in Gazette. 4 3 BRANDY, Cognac.... 40
Dressing, 20 a 21tb....1 9 1 10 Oct. 27 ..358.94d. Oct. 26....... GENEVA...
Nov. 3..35 25
19 Do. COFFEE, cwt. $. 8.
30 a 35
- 10 ..34 81 Nov. 2.......... 15 West India, ordinary.. 108 a 112
Horse, ib. ........ 6 17
- 17 ..35 94 -- 6..
27 middling .. 120 126
-13... MAHOGANY, V foot, 8. d.
FLOUR, superfine, v brl...dol. 6 a 65 Prices of Coal 16. Honduras 1 0 ai 3 COTTON, GeorgiaUpl. tb.cts. 18 a 20 Ton of 22401b. 20.
21 St. Domingo ..... 16 19
..8 10 Wigan...158.6d.
....1024 good to fine
Philadelphia, October 18. ordinary to middling i 9 2 3 FLOUR, superf. brl ......dol. 61 a
Prices of Bullion.
Liverpool Bowed, Georgia... 1 1 12 COTTON, Upland, y tb...cts. 17 18
Foreign Gold, in Bars ......£3 19 0 New Orleans
Portugal Gold, in Coin. ..318 0 Pernambuceo 1 54 1 6
.3 15 6
14 1 31
New Dollars.... Barbadoes
...0 5 0
Silver, in Bars, Standard......0 5 West Indies 10 1 14
tish Settlements in 26 27 Surat 07 1 1 North America
Rates of Insurance.
L. pool.. Lond. DYE WOODS, Yton, £. $.
Brazils £. s.
To West Indies cent. 355 40s 10
U. States of America 40
United States Fustic, Cuba..... 9 0 a 10 10
9 Porto Rico.... 6 0
Ireland ......... 7 0
British America 133
C. of Africa & back..126
Mediterranean...... 40 Nicaragua Wood,
Total Toonage ........35126 large solid..)
France and Holland 40 80
126 TOBACCO, V tb. $. d. 8. d.
Ireland West Coast 40 James River
0 34 a 0 8 tures, from 22d Oct. to 22d Nov.
East Coast.. 30
Prices of Stock, London, Nov. 20. Kentucky 0 31
216 ASHES, Vcwt.
661 ist, Pot, fresh, U. S. 400 a 41 0
67 Montreal ........34 0 36 0
4 Cent Consols.... American, 1st, Pearl 400 41 0 Blanketing .. 311 pairs, 33514
5V Cent Navy Annuities ..1031 TAR, y barri.Stock bolin 200 Hats, 208 doz.-Hose, 10590 doz. pairs.
Bank Long Annuities .... 179-16 Archangel 220 23 0 Hardware, 433).-Nails, 2165 cwts.
.dis, 25 American 16 0 18 0 Copper, 1486.-Glass, 2493 cw-338 crts
Consols for Acct...........
671 RICE, V cwt. American,
338. a 36s.
Bar and Bolt Iron, &c....... 869 tons. IRISH FUNDS.-November 19. duty paid,
Lead, 205 tons.- l'inplates,.. 296 boxes. Bank Stock
. 2708 crates, &c. Government Debentures,3 cent, 75 HIDES, Y Ib. Buepos Ayres 6d. a 9d. Refined Sugar West Ind.a 5 6
.... 611 cuts W bite Salt to Foreign Parts ..5467 tons.
5 pcent, 1041
Government Stock, 31 pcent.... BRIMSTONE, 4 ton, £. s.
cent...... 104 Rock Salt to Foreign Parts.. 1388
Grand Canal loan, 4 cent.. SHUMAC, pcwt. s. d. s. d.
AMERICAN FUNDS.-Nov. 20.
2748 Petersburg clean 46 0 a
New 6 y Cents
1015 Riga Rhine ......48 0 49 0
(The above with Div. from October.) TLAX, ton,
£. s. £. s.
Liverpool Imports, from the 22d Oct. U.S. Bank Shares ... St Petersburg 12-head 75 0 a to the 22d November.
... £21 & 22
Manchester, Nov. 17. HOPS, Kent, pock. new 0 5 0 Sugar, B.P. 1149 hhds. 22 brls. 18 bxs. Reeled Yarn, Mule No. 40...... 25. 1d. bags, do. 4 0 4 10 Foreign, 59 cases.-Coffee, B. P. 69 cks.
40...... 26 Worcester, do. 4 0
5 0 648 bags. Foreign, 400 bags-Cotton, Yearling, Kent or} 3 16
West India, 385 bales, 3 bags. Ameri
4 4 Worcester, in ps.
can, 1870 bales. Brazils, 7860 bars, PINE TIMBER, Y cub it. s. d.
1766 serons. E.India, 1000 bales.-Rum, American
8 291 punchs. 13 hhds.-Wine, 193 hhds. Baltic
25 2 6 782 pipes, 2 butts.-Melasses, 30 punchs. SALT PETRE, y cwt. 34 0 37 0 -Fustic, 72 tons-Logwood, 16 tons.GRAIN,
s. d. 8. d.
Lignum Vitae, 22 tons.-Pimento, 100 bgs. Barley, Enz y 607. 095 6 --- Pepper, 30 bays.-Ashes, 1705 bris.
4 9 Turpentine, 2408b.s.-Tobacco, 783 hds. Beans, Engl. gr...44 0 48 0 - Iron, 1049 bars.--Hemp, 202 bdles.
Foreign .... 29 0 40 0 Flax, 970 bobbins, 19 bundles. Tallow, Flour, barrel,
1469 casks, 10 serons.--Hlides, 11817.American, sweet 38 0 42 0 Sarsaparilia, 204 bundles Elephants'
sour..310 33 0 Teeth, 1456.-Brimstone, 175 tons.Oats, Engl. ¥ 45lb. 3 4 3 6 Sumac, 1386 b. s.-Madders, 17 csks.
new .... 3 10 4 0 Oak Bark, 180 tons.- Valonía, 100 tons. Trish & Foreign 2 10 3 0 -Wool, 101 bales.--Corn, Wheat, 26378; Wheat, Engl. 7010.100 10 9 Barley, 4112; Oats, 15804; Beans, 680;
Irish.... 8 0 90 Malt, 1295 qrs-Flour, 199 tons, 750 bris.
10 3 25 sacks.-Vatmeal, 51 tons, 172&cks TALLOW, 11216. S. d.
8. d. Raisins, 410 brls. 800 frails, 2410 bxs.Russia Y Candle 56 O a
Lemons, 343 chests, 114 bxs. -Oil, Cod,
Palin, 1015 casks.
Seal ...36 0 38 0 Rapeseed, 878 bris. 924 bags, 851 scks.
Cod ......37 0 38 0 2374 qos.-Cowe, 1897.-Heifers and
Oxen, 50.--Sheep, 800.---Pige, 1908.--
Horses,8.-Mules, 18.-Bacon, 215 bales.
3 9 4 2 Pork,á tces. 752 bris.-Linea Cloth, 361 Turpentiue, cwt.62 0
bales, 817 boxes. PRINTED BY H. FISHER, LIVERPOOL, PRINTER IN ORDINARY TO HIS MAJESTY,
24 3 Average Prices of Grain for the 12 Districts.
21 5 378 od 24s od
Madrid, 884. effect. Cadiz, 35. 36 9 35 11
Naples, 3: Palermo,
OR, COMPENDIUM OF RELIGIOUS, MORAL, & PHILOSOPHICAL KNOWLEDGE.
THE VALUE OF A BOOK IS TO BE ESTIMATED BY ITS use."
CURIOUS AND INTERESTING EXPERI-
doubts of the correctness of the worthy Traveller's inference, that the porousness of the glass was the cause of the
phænomena which he records; your SIR,-In the Rev. Jolin Campbell's present correspondent felt some desire Travels in South Africa, a singular ex- to have the experiment repeated by periment is related to have been made different persons, and in other circumby the author, in his voyage home to stances. For, were it admitted, that England, which he describes in the fol- glass would become pervious to water, lowing words :-“We drove a cork when subjected to a high degree of very tight into an empty bottle: the pressure; yet surely no one will imagine cork was so large, that more than half that it would become a sieve, and an of it could not be driven into the neck ordinary sized wine bottle admit a of the bottle. We then tied a cord quart of water to rush through its sides round the cork, which we also fastened in an instant ; for then must it run in round the neck of the bottle, to pre- streams, through pores, at least as vent the cork sinking down, and put a large as straws, instead of those of incoat of pitch over the whole. By describable minuteness, which it is obmeans of lead we sunk it in the water. vious the pores of glass must be, if it When it was let down to about the has any at all, and to pass through depth of fifty fathoms, the captain said which must require time in proportion he was sure that the bottle had instan- to their diminutive capacity; and no taneously filled ; on which he drew it velocity that is at all credible, would up, when we found the cork driven allow a quart to pass through an exdown into the inside, and of course the tent of surface, which a bottle affords, bottle was full of water.
in any thing like a period that could pared a second bottle exactly in the be denominated sudden, or instantasame way, only with the addition of a neous; nothing short of hours, or days, sail-needle being passed through the or weeks, could be calculated upon upper part of the cork, which rested for such a process, by any of the on the mouth of the bottle, and all smallest degree of reflection. completely pitched over. When about But, it is not only stated, that the fifty fathoms down, the captain called rush of water into the bottle was sudout as before, that he felt by the sudden, but that it filled the bottle : what den increase of weight, that the bottle then had become of the air, with which was filled; on which it was drawn up. it was previously filled ? If the bottle We were not a little surprised to find was full of water, the air could not rethe cork in the same position, and no main there in a state of compression; part of the pitch broken, yet the bottle and that it passed through the pores as was full of water. None of us could the water entered, seems to be contraconjecture how the water got in. There dicted by experiment, which has frewas no part of the pitch open that quently compressed air in glass vessels, would admit the point of a needle. without its ever being known to escape, Supposing the pitch and cork both but by the destruction of the vessel. porous, it does not appear easy to ac- At any rate, it could not pass without count for a quart of water passing so a most extraordinary degree of cominstantaneously through so small a pression; and if this were the case, space;-the porousness of the glass how is it that it did not make its way seems to be the only consideration by out by forcing up the cork? For it is which we can account for the fact.”. to be observed, that no power was emCampbell's Travels, 362.
ployed to prevent the expulsion of the This singular account having excited cork, all that was attempted was to some little notice, and created many prevent its being thrust downwards
No. 11.--VOL. I.