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997
On the Language of Paradise.

998 at all. He continued speaking for the things nor their names, he must some considerable time; after which have been wholly ignorant of them; the Attorney General replied. Mr. / and if he knew nothing of them, how Justice Bayley then delivered a suit could he give the dog its name, on acable and eloquent charge; after which count of any similarity between its he pronounced on the prisoner the fol- teeth, and an unknown object? lowing sentence:

The language of Paradise may yet That, for the first offence, he should be in existence, and the Hebrew, for pay to the King a fine of one thousand ught I know, may be this language. pounds, and be imprisoned in Dorches- But as Adam gave names to the brute ter gaol two years. That, for the second creation, it appears to me, to be a offence, he should pay a fine of five strange way of proving its divine orihundred pounds, and suffer imprison- ginal, by deriving its names of animals, ment one year in the same gaol. That from words which signify things in he should then give securities for his vented by art, in future ages. good behaviour for life ; himself in one Adam, in Paradise, I have no doubt, thousand pounds, and two sureties in was as ignorant of the name and naone hundred pounds each.

ture of “ tongs and pincers," as he was of the name and qualities of gas;

and therefore, if the name of the dog On the Language of Paradise.

in Hebrew, be actually derived from a MR. EDITOR,

word which signifies tongs or pinSIR,—The power which the imagina- cers,” it is a convincing proof to me, tion possesses, to discern and com- that Adam did not give it that name. bine the most distant resemblances, is And this circumstance, instead of provnot more conspicuous in the “Meta- ing, forms a presumptive evidence phors” by Keach, or the “ Solomon's against the Hebrew being the lanTemple Spiritualized,” by Bunyan, guage which he spoke. than in the etymological deductions of Perhaps, Sir, if you insert these remany of the learned.

marks in your Magazine, it may inThe author quoted, col. 733, has not duce some of your learned correspondproved to my satisfaction, that the He.ents, to employ a portion of their good brew is the language which was spoken sense on a subject, which, hitherto, offiin Paradise. I agree with him, how- cious fancy has contrived to wrap in ever, in his opinion, that learned men “ clouds and darkness." sometimes indulge their fancies too

I am, Sir, much in these etymologies ; as, I be

Respectfully, TYRO. lieve, they frequently affix meanings P. S. It is the British bull-dog, that to words, which were not intended, and is so remarkable for the firmness of its perhaps never thought of, by those who hold, and not the mastiff, which is a first used them; and if I am not greatly different species. This animal, from mistaken, the author in question has its peculiar appearance and stubborn given us a fair specimen of this "fancy courage, was one of the natural obwork” in his remarks on the word dog, jects that attraeted the particular noto say nothing of his other instances. tice of the Romans, after their inva

We have the authority of Revela- sion of Britain. Nor is this to be tion for believing that(Genesischap. ii. wondered at, as it is literally true, that verses 19, 20.)“ Adam gave names to some real-bred dogs will suffer their all cattle, and to the fowls of the air, limbs to be cut off, or bones broken, and to every beast of the field.” And without discovering a disposition to that “ whatsoever Adam called every let go their hold. living creature, that was the name À monster in the shape of a man, thereof." But we have no evidence was once shown to me, who gained a that his vocabulary contained words wager by proving the truth of this fact. expressive of the form and properties The bet was, that his dog would pin of artificial things, which had not then a bull, and suffer the amputation of an existence.

Few will contend, I its leg without quitting its hold. The presume, that Adam had “ tongs or poor animal succeeded in pinning the pincers” in Paradise. And as he had bull; in that situation its limb was not these instruments, it is not at all severed from its body: it retained its likely that he had words which stood hold, and its infernal owner pocketed as their signs. And if he had neither the wager of iniquity!!!

ARCHITECTURE.

in vessels constructed upon this sysANNESLEY'S NEW SYSTEM OF NAVAL

tem, consists in her ballast or water

deck. This deck rests upon two addiThe new system of building ships. tional courses of inch planking, and boats, and barges, recently introduced partitions dividing the weight of the into the merchant service of Great water into seven compartments; it Britain, combines in an eminent de consists of four courses of one inch gree the properties of strength, buoy- planking, tarred paper between and ancy, capacity, durability, and safety. caulked, it is perfectly water-tight, and For the purpose of explaining the pe- made to contain thirty tons of water. culiar construction of a vessel built A well is formed where her mainmast upon this plan, the following descrip- and two pumps are placed; a brass tion of a ship launched this day from cock receives and discharges the water; the patent ship-building yard, Dept- and another cock delivers the water ford, is submitted :-She is built en into the well, if required to pump the tirely of fir or pine planks, consisting water deck dry when the vesselis afloat. of seven courses, four of which are fore Two draining lead pipes lead into the and aft of 7-8ths of an inch thick, and well, so that if it should be possible three are vertical athwart from gun- that any water can be made above the wale to gunwale, without interruption, ballast deck, the motion of the vessel of 5-8ths thick ; six of the courses are will send it into the well. caulked and payed ; tarred paper is The upper deck rests upon a clamp put between four of them : the solid all round, consisting of four courses of thickness through the whole is six planks, one inch thick, and eight inches inches ; her length is ninety-one feet deep; the two cross plankings of one eight inches ; breadth twenty-five feet and a half inch each at the hatchways, six-inches; depth of hold fourteen feet; &c. (in lieu of beams) are let into it; admeasurement two hundred and fifty on these are laid two courses fore and tons, and will carry upwards of five hun- aft, and one course athwart between, dred tons, drawing thirteen feet water. of one and half inch plank each, all

The manner of building is, to erect caulked and tarred paper between; moulds previously formed to a precise each course as laid on is firmly caulked scale, corresponding to the model de- all round between the deck and sides, termined on for the vessel. Upon these which completes the strength of the moulds the first course fore and aft is vessel, and proves the necks and sides laid, and fastened to them in a tem- can never separate, and is a firm selfporary manner by small iron clamps supporting arch on which the whole and screws, which are all afterwards tonnage of the ship might with safety taken away. The remaining courses be placed, for in caulking thus three are fastened with wood pins that are times she did not extend one quarformed by a machine, and compressed ter of an inch. round and parallel, leaving a head The bulk-heads forward and aft are which requires no wedging. There is formed of two courses, and rendered po metal whatever below water, ex- water-tight. cept the iron

ork the rudder, which For Strength.-H. form is the works in a circular joint in the stern-strongest for general purposes, and her post, for the purpose, of protecting it structure, the firmest in which wood from the effects of any shock or strain and wood can be put together, preit may be liable to.

cludes the possibility of working or This vessel is a regular figure, equal straining, having no space to strain at both ends, calculated to sail on an to: she was built on a level, and to even keel, having two bilge keels to give her a declivity for launching, enable her to hold good a wind, each she was balanced on one block; a of fifty feet long, fourteen inches deep, line was previously strained fore and and eight inches thick ; the keels are aft above deck, crossing a marked uptwelve feet apart ; her centre keel at right in the centre, from which she did midships is only three inches thick, not vary a quarter of an inch. to save the bottom ; consequently the For Buoyancy.--Her superiority is vessel will draw the least possible manifest from the great weight of wood water, and will sit erect in tide-har- and metal saved in her construetion, bours when aground. A peculiar ad- and consequently, must be a fine seavantage, which can only be obtained boat. She only draws three feet three

1001

Congreve's Patent Steam Engine.

1002

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inches forward, and two feet six inches Several vessels for sea, and also inaft, averaging two feet ten and half land navigation, are now building, inches, when it is well known a vessel which may be at any time inspected at of her dimensions will draw from six the Patent Ship Building Yard, Upto eight feet.

per Watergate, Deptford. In Capacity,-being built without

ANNESLEY and SOWERBY. frame timbers, beams, knees, braces, London, October 23, 1819. &c. and from her even surface so well adapted for stowage, this ship gains upwards of forty tons, compared with a vessel of the same size.

For Durability.-When wood is in this manner closely united to wood, without any aperture to admit air or moisture, it must be in that state least liable to any of the usual causes of premature decay, and in this respect it has a most decided advantage over the old system.

For Safety.-Shonld this vessel be cast ashore with such violence as to beat off her stem, stern-post, dead-wood, and bilge-keels, the crew and cargo would be safe, nor would she admit of water in consequence, having no bolts to draw.

This vessel may also properly be termed a life-ship; for if her bottom were perforated by striking on a sharp rock, her water-deck would still safely float her.

So different is the new system from the old, that what constitutes the en- Extract from A short Account of a tire strength of the old, would only new Patent for a Steam Engine,weaken the new. The only use of tim- taken out by Sir William Congreve, bers, knees, braces, &c. is to preserve

Bart. two planks running parallel to each The principle upon which I apply the other in their relative positions, and elastic force of the steam, in my new which can be thus only very imper- method of constructing Steam Engines, fectly effected. This vessel is braced is by collecting that force under the as she is built, and building is bracing. pressure of any given column of cirOn the old plan, the decks and sides cumambient water, or other heavy cannot be kept completely together; fluid ; so that its effect to produce on the new, wedging the sides apart motion in any direction will be regutill this deck is got in, strengthens the lated by the re-acting pressure of the whole structure. On the new plan, no column of such fluid, to the expansion filth, foul air, or vermin, can lodge. On of the steam in a contrary direction. the old, these cannot be entirely pre- And on this principle I give motion to vented.

a variety of different modifications, This vessel, combining such advan- both of rotatory and reciprocating matages, has been built much cheaper chines, with much greater facility and than on the old plan. She was built at simplicity of construction, and with the most conspicuous spot in the world, less friction, than in any other prinadjoining the eminent seat of naval ciple of Steam Engine hitherto inarchitecture, the King's Dock Yard, vented. Deptford, and examined in the pro- The Plate shews a section of a Rogress of building, repeatedly, by men tatory Engine on this principle in its of science, commissioners, naval sur simplest form, wherein ABCD is a veyors, and officers ;-shipwrights, boiler divided into two parts by an ship-owners, and masters of vessels, internal horizontal partition abcd. all of whom concur in admitting her Now, in the lower part of the boiler superiority.

CD the steam is supposed to be generated; and in the upper part AB, rather in the bottom of the steam cham(which is filled also with water) an ber, will always stand on a level with over-shot water wheel wW, made the top of the aperture h, for then the either of wood, iron, or other suitable opposite columns of pressure condensmaterial, is suspended on its axis, so ing, the steam between them will be in as to revolve freely therein, being com- equilibrium: and up to this level will pletely immersed in the upper water. the lower compartment of the boiler,

Under these circumstances, there- while working, be always supplied fore, the motion is produced by the through the pipe ef, though the steam passage of the steam from the lower cannot escape through it. compartment of the boiler to the upper These different compartments are, in one; where it is thrown into the fact, one vessel or boiler, having not ascending buckets of the water only a free communication with each wheel W W by the following arrange- | other, but having the water in each ment for increased effect: ghi is a nearly of the same temperature, the third compartment in the boiler, form- whole being set in the same furnace, ed by the curved partition gh, the and surrounded with flues; so that, in whole · breadth of the boiler, and passing from one to the other, there is nearly adapted to the periphery of the no loss of heat, or expansion in the water wheel. This compartment is steam, during the whole of the time subdivided by another partition kh, that it is in action. In this way a rotanot closed at k, and forms a steam tory motion will be produced, not actchamber, into which the steam enters ing by impulses, but revolving with a from the lower part A B, through an regular and constant force on the most opening in the horizontal partition abe, simple principle, and by means of mafrom b to c, and passes up the outer chinery within the compass of the most side of the partition hk, turns round ordinary workman to execute; at the at k, and forces its way down the same time without loss of power by other side of kh, by driving the water friction or refrigeration; and withbefore it, until it issues with great force out valves, pistons, or any other of the and velocity through the aperture h complex apparatus involved, I may into the ascending buckets of the say, more or less in every other dewheel, being compressed in the steam scription of Steam Engine hitherto chamber according to the height of the produced. column of water or other fluid thus From what has been said as to the forced down from k to h. Rushing, calculation of the force of such an therefore, with the force thus acquired engine, it is evident its power may be through the aperture h, it not only increased or diminished in proportion drives round the wheel by its energy to the specific gravity of the fluid in and expansion as it ascends, but pro- which the wheel is made to revolve. duces, by the actual displacement of Thus, if mercury were made use of all the water or other fluid in the instead of water, a vast increase of ascending buckets, a buoyant power power would be obtained; or, in other on that side of the wheel equal to the words, a much smaller wheel would actual weight of the quantity of water produce equal powers ; a circumor other fluid thus displaced. The stance which, together with the conleast moving power, therefore, of such stant action and the extraordinary a wheel, independent of the energy and simplicity and compactness of its conexpansion of the steam, may be reckon- struction, seems to give this principle ed as equal to the power which the of engine peculiar fitness for steam same over-shot wheel would exert work- boats: more especially as the steam ing in air by the fall of a column of wheel may be made to move with the water or other fluid cqual in quantity velocity required for the propelling to the displacement of the steam in wheels of the boat; so that the latter this case. The upper part of the boiler might be applied at once to the extreis always kept full by a common ball- mities of the axis of the former, workcock, and the water in the upper com- ing through stuffing boxes in the side partment of the boiler communicating of the boiler. with that in the lower through the bent Here I have also to observe, that pipe e f, the lower boiler will thus also the steam may, if desired, instead of be regularly fed; and when the steam entering into the buckets of the wheel, is up, the water in the lower boiler, or on the common principle of the water

1005

Commercial Retrospect, &c.

1006

V.

wheel, as hitherto explained from the ter, and its wheelwright: nay, these circumference, be carried into those very persons united, would be suffibuckets, from the centre, through a cient to construct every part of the hollow axis and radii, allowing it only most complicated of this order of Steam to enter into the ascending buckets. Engines. These buckets also may be either open Among the numerous inventions by buckets, or close ones with valves; so which the present age is distinguished, also they may either work wholly im- it may be doubted, if any are of more mersed in water, or other fluid; or the importance than those which we have fluid may be only partially employed, just noticed. It is not however to be and the steam may be allowed to expected, that either can be immeescape, as hitherto described, or it may diately brought into general use. Το be got rid of by condensation.

inspire public confidence, repeated exThe construction of such an Engine periments will be necessary. But evidently comes within the power of a should these happily prove satisfactory, very ordinary mechanic, with very a new era will be formed in the conhumble means: and hence, every vil- struction of machines in which we nalage might have its steam engine vigate the ocean, and in the applicamaker, as well as its smith, its carpen- / tion of steam.

COMMERCIAL RETROSPECT, NOVEMBER 23d, 1819. Although the present season of the year is generally distinguished by a great inactivity in business, yet the transactions of the late month have been far from uninteresting : nay, we think symptoms of a radical improvement are apparent, and this will be more obvivus on reference to our Price Current, wherein the value of must articles will be found to have experienced a manifest enhancement. There appears more confidence, and the public funds indicate a state of health, which bear us out in making the preceding remarks.

The Sugar market has been pretty lively, and purchasers have been forward in taking considerable parcels at several shillings advance.—The stock in the Importers' hands is ascertained not to exceed 9000 casks.

Or Cotfee, the stock in this port is only 1100 tons, which is scarcely one-fourth of what remained in the preceding year; much attention has of late been attached to this article, and although the rates rule high, they are considered as susceptible of much greater advance.

The sales of Cotton Wool comprise 26,896 bags, with little variation in price. American Cottuns seem likely to maintain their value, and ibe falling off in the imports, cannot tail of being very sensibly felt. The state of Commerce in America, during the Summer, has been very deplorable, to vhich, no doubt, the pervading sickne ss has much contribuied. The latest advices state, that happily no new cases had appeared ; in the interim all vessels arriving here are subjected to quarantine. At the commencement of the present month, there were only two American vessels in our port, which may be noted as an unprecedented circumstance. The Emigration from this port has greatly fallen off, and the late arrivals have brought numeruus returned Emigrants, who have crossed and re-crossed the Atlantic without obtaining the objects of their wishes.-American produce maintains its value, with a tendency to look upward. Several vessels are still expected from British America, which will bring considerable quantities of lot and Pearl Ashes, which rather deters purchasers from acceding to the pre

The imports of Timber from the British settlements, have been most abundant, and the present low rates are very ruinous to the importers; it appears probable, that an import duty will be laid on in the course of the ensuing year.

All Baltic Articles are exceedingly low, particularly Tallow, which may now be purchased'at 569.; it is not 12 months since this article was readily sold at 96s. per cwt.

There has seldom been so much business done in Dye Woods, as during the past month : prices are somewhat firmer, and we are glad to find consumers coming into the market, on so large a scale.

The stocks of Rum, Brandy, and Geneva, are very plentiful, and the prices of the two latter articles are extremely low.

Hops have been in some demand, and are now increasing in value.

The prevailing easterly winds have prevented the accustomed supplies of Grain arriving from Ireland. The Corni market has been generally well attended, and most kinds have experienced an advance. Oats are in request, and are getting dearer.

Irish Provisions remain much the same.
Butters are in good demand, at an advance of 2s. per cwt.

Emigration to Arnerica, from 21st August 10 21st November inclusive, 690 persons.—8 ditto, to British America.

Sent rates.

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