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and July, a man of the Roman Catholic party shot at the house of Mr. Cataneo a dozen times, happily without killing anybody. The Government of Tessin did not arrest this man, nor did the Federal Government at Berne put a stop to these proceedings, though surely religious liberty should be enjoyed on the south side of the Alps as elsewhere.-A. F.


THE Episcopal Methodists have sustained a heavy loss in the death of Signor Emilio Borelli, the highly-esteemed minister of that body, and editor of the Evangelista, the organ of that denomination. He settled first in Naples under Dr. Vernon, and remained there for two years. From thence he passed on to Modena and Florence, and then to Milan, where he stayed for three years. Pisa, and other places, profited for longer or shorter periods by his ministry. His faith was strong, and his great aim simply the honour and glory of his Divine Master. Endowed with reasoning power of no mean order, his arguments were far-reaching, and carried conviction not easily evaded. Persuasion and tenderness characterised his preaching, mingled ofttimes with passionate earnestness and burning zeal. His funeral took place in the cemetery in Campo Verano, Rome, and was attended by a very large number of people, among whom were many foreigners. All the Evangelical churches sent representatives. Signor Borelli was only thirty-nine years of age.

In the Bolletino for August interesting particulars are given of the Church at Riesi. The public worship has been frequented by many, and on the occasion of the celebration of the Holy Communion (when 60 persons came to the Table) the place was crowded. The Sunday-school numbers 250, with 12 teachers. The Day-school is flourishing, there being an attendance of 267; 65 of these are infants. The Evening school has 58 names inscribed on the books, and the "Societa Perseveranza "24 asscciates.

The news from Signor Golia, at Girgenti, is encouraging. He says: "We have a locale, and hold three services a week. We have made an earnest effort to get together a Sabbath school, but up to the present time the priests have succeeded in thwarting our endeavours. Not infrequently we get au attendance of 300 persons at our meetings. The number of catechumens is 40."

In a letter received from Dr. Prochet, dated Buenos Ayres, June 30, he announced that he did not expect to be in Italy again until the end of August. Interesting details may be expected from him upon his return to Rome regarding the work which is being done among the Italians in America. Accounts have been given in the pages of Evangelical Christendom, from time to time, of the establishment of churches for the Italians on that continent.

The recently published report of the Free Italian Church, now called the Evangelical Church of Italy, is an interesting pamphlet. The compiler, the Rev. Cav. Fera, mentions two events which are full of encouragement to Italian Protestants. First, that the municipality of Rome has accepted the gift of a bust of the lamented Alexander Gavazzi, and has decided to place it on the Janiculan Hill, among the Defenders of Rome. That is to say, one of the Fathers of the Evangelical Church, five years after his death, is to have erected in his honour a public monument in the Eternal City, still Roman Catholic and formerly belonging to the Popes! The other event is in Florence, where a committee of eminent citizens has been formed to erect a statue to Pietro Carnescchi, a reformer of the sixteenth century, who was of a noble historic family in the town, and burned by the Inquisition!

Among the incidents given, we may quote the following: "A young workman, very perverse, on being converted, remembered having stolen from his master. He went to him to confess his fault, giving back the stolen object in Jesus' name. The master was affected to tears by this act, and not only pardoned him, but said, 'Your Saviour shall be mine too,' and he is now a zealous member of the congregation."

One of the converts at Florence is Pietro Petroni, a young priest of Lucca, who was attending the Florentine University with a view to a professorship. In

a statement of his experiences, he says: "In Buggiano, near Pescia, a young man seriously ill, wished to be confessed by me, the Lent preacher, and from a scruple of conscience, desired to get rid of the Bible, as a prohibited book, and to give it to me. I took it, and disdainfully threw it among a lot of other books which I never read. Having to go on a journey, and wishing to take the four Gospels translated by Martini, I took instead, and without noticing it, this Bible translated by Diodati. It was in this way I began to read it. The first words which I read were these: 'There is one Mediator between God and men, the man Christ Jesus.' I thereupon ceased to recite the Roman Breviary. The worship of Mary was still in my heart, though I did not find Mother of God' in the Bible. In reading this Bible, I experienced joy, but did not as yet reflect deeply. A sermon I heard in the Evangelical Italian Church touched me. I thought myself already converted. In the absence of Cav. Fera, on a visit to the churches, I went to Signor Lenzi, who gave me a book on the Virgin Mary. Precisely here, in the worship of Mary, lay the difficulty in the way of my conversion. I would willingly have found Mariolatry in the Bible. Reflection and further knowledge of the Bible helped me to overcome this difficulty, but the help of God was still wanting. I proposed always to read the Bible, and to go and hear the Gospel, but in plain clothes and by night, like Nicodemus. My heart was not yet changed! What brought spiritual life into my soul was the reading of the Psalms, and little by little, through praying to Christ, there sprang up a repugnance to pray to Mary. At last I resolved, under the compulsion of the words, Come out of her, and be not partaker of her sins,' and became convinced that I could no longer remain a Papist. Out I came, and laid aside my church robes, and found occupation with good Christian people. With them I witnessed a good confession, but wishful to enter the Christian ministry, I asked and obtained the favour of joining the Evangelical Italian Church, where first my heart had opened to Gospel truth."

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As to the work in Rome, Pastor Conti says: "As on the one hand Popery dazzles with its ceremonies and the pomp of its external magnificence, on the other hand, without any mask, it here shows all its ambitious designs, all its greediness of dominion and of riches, and, together with the evil doings of its clergy and prelates, manifests its reactionary spirit, and the materialism of its worship and its traffic of religious things. All this in the popular mind has produced a disgust of religion, and incredulity and indifference. Another fatal consequence of the system is the general ignorance of everything pertaining to religion. If even the priests do not know anything of the Gospel and of the Bible, which most of them have not even read, it is natural that the people do not know anything of it, and therefore no difference is made in general between Christ and the Pope, His Vicar, between the Gospel and the Syllabus, between the Word of God and the decrees of councils. Many leading thinkers, of whom some are members of Parliament, believe that the only remedy for the many rampant evils is the pure religion of Jesus Christ."

Pastor Silva's work at Savona has some very encouraging features. He writes: "The work proceeds enthusiastically, and amid constant revival, and with the happiest success. Sometimes at my evangelistic services, the attendance has been so crowded that the stairs and the street under the windows of the hall have been thronged with people. It is a pity that in Italy it is not allowed to preach in the open air. The Roman Catholic newspaper is against me and evangelization, and spreads calumnies about the doctrines of the Protestants. The Liberal newspapers are favourable to our movement, one of them publishing my special lectures. In connexion with the Roman Catholic Church of St. Francis, the parish priest organised last spring a society of women, under the name of the Anti-Silva Society. The members use every means in their power to prevent their husbands, sons, and fathers from going to the Evangelical Church."

THE multitude have never searched the Scriptures for themselves, and are therefore following in the track of their leaders; but when they shall turn from these to the lively oracles, and shall be found listening to their inspired and infallible responses, they will not be astonished to find how rapidly and how closely they can be made to approximate to each other.-Rev. John Angell James.


By the Rev. ALEXANDER ROBERTSON, D.D., Venice.

THE Church of Rome has now few friends in the land of Italy. Twenty years of Italian unity and independence under a constitutional Government, marked by a condition of material, intellectual, and moral progress unknown under the Papal sway, has brought home to the minds of the Italians the fact that the worst enemy of their bodies, of their minds, and of their spirit with which they have to contend is the Church of Rome. The people have not ceased to be religious-the very opposite-they are only now beginning to be so; they have not ceased to be Catholic, they are not turning their backs on their primitive church to join provincial and foreign denominations, but they have ceased to be Papists. As a rule all men of culture and position and intelligence are outside the pale of Rome. The exception proves the rule. A few have been left both amongst the clergy and the laity. But even amongst these a spirit of dissatisfaction with Rome has been manifesting itself. Some have written against the Jesuits who rule with an iron hand both Pope and priest, others are demanding reform in the Church, and others have been writing about Jesus Christ and the Gospel. This week the Roman Curia has turned savagely upon these writers; she counts them rebellious children. She has condemned their books to the flames, and the writers too-the former to be burned now and the latter hereafter, unless they recant and repent! Some of these writers have been foolish enough to yield to the impotent threat, but others are proving themselves to be made of better stuff, and are joining the millions who have already learned that neither religion nor patriotism is compatible with adherence to the Church of Rome in Italy. We can only here speak of a few authors, "faithful sons of the Church," and of their works, who have been thus trampled


1. Signor Ruggero Bonghi, author of La Vita di Jesu (The Life of Jesus).— Signor Ruggero Bonghi is respected and esteemed not only in the land of Italy, but beyond it, as a statesman, a University professor, and an author. His fidelity to the Church of Rome has been such as to expose him to much personal discomfort and loss. For example, when the erection of the monument that now stands in Rome to Giordano Bruno was being discussed, he opposed the prayer so vehemently that he lost his professional chair in the University. The University authorities took no action, but the students absolutely refused ever again to listen to his lectures. The disorder in his class-room day after day was such, that the police interfered and closed its doors. On another occasion he had arranged to come to Venice to lecture in the Athenæum on 66 Jesus Christ." The lecture was announced, tickets for it were issued and bought. Many were looking forward with interest to the lecture, when suddenly an order came from the Curia in Rome to the Patriarch in Venice, instructing him to forbid Ruggero Bonghi to lecture. Bonghi, like an obedient son of the Church, bowed to the dictation of these enemies of our Lord and withdrew, much to the surprise and indignation of the Venetians. Notwithstanding this Ruggero Bonghi, two years ago, wrote a Life of Jesus. Evidently, two motives prompted him to do this. One was a desire to find personal comfort and peace of heart, to have his spiritual cravings satisfied, to find rest for his soul. The other was to lead others to the enjoyment of the same peace and rest. He felt that the Church of Rome, with its doctrine of salvation through external rites, said by its priests, and paid for by tariff rates, did not really touch his spiritual state, and he believed others must so feel in this matter. In his preface to his book he tells us this, for he prays God to grant that, as in writing about Christ he had felt his own heart filled and satisfied, so in reading of Him might it be with many others; and as he had passed happy hours in doing his part, so might many others spend happy hours in doing theirs. He further invites all whose souls are thirsty to drink of the living Fountain that has been for ages past and will be for ages to come, open for all in the life of Jesus. The work itself is compiled solely from the four evangelists, their accounts being arranged and harmonised. Passages explanatory of biblical scenes

* We regret that this article has been held over for some time, owing to pressure on our space.

and customs are added, but all merely traditional matter has been excluded. The book came out in bi-weekly parts, and when completed formed a goodly volume of 322 chapters and 491 pages, besides an appendix of nine chapters on the four evangelists, the two genealogies of our Lord, the canon of Scripture, &c. The book soon obtained a wide circulation. Over 20,000 parts were sold weekly as it came out, and nearly as many completed copies have been sold since. The Church of Rome, until the other day, took no notice of the publication. But now, alarmed at the avidity with which it is being bought and read, and realising how true Professor Bonaldi's words are, uttered recently at a political meeting: "Woe to the Church of Rome when my countrymen get hold of the Old and New Testaments, then they will know the difference between Jesus Christ and His so-called Vicar (?)." The Roman Curia has taken action and put this book in the "Index," and called upon Ruggero Bonghi to recant or suffer the wrath of the Church and Almighty God. How Ruggero Bonghi will act remains to be seen, but every one hopes that having found Christ, he will let his anti-Christian Church go its way.

2. Domenico Penzo and his book, "Dominatori della Chiesa."-Domenico Penzo is a priest in Venice. He is a man of intelligence and considerable attainment, and, I need not add, up in years, for there are not many young Italians whose selfrespect will permit them to enter the ranks of the Roman clergy, and thereby proclaim themselves the enemy of their country and of all the principles that underlie human progress, and of those who do enter the clergy list only a very few know more than how to say their offices.


Penzo's book is not written against the Church, he is loyal to it and to its head. But it is directed against the Jesuits. These are "I dominatori della Chiesa" (the tyrants of the Church) whom he denounces. His book is dedicated to the memory of the Popes, Benedict XIV., Clement XIV., and Gregory XVI., and its object is to "revindicate the liberty of the Church from open and secret usurpations and abuses." It is a book of about 300 pages, divided into three parts, entitled, “ Gregory XVI. and Rosmini," "Pio IX. and Rosmini," and "Leo x111. and Rosmini." In this case unhappily the author has recanted, and his book has been withdrawn from circulation and destroyed, but not before many of us secured copies, which may yet be turned to account. When a friend of my own remonstrated with Penzo for his pussillanimity, his reply was, What could I do? I am an old man without resources. There were only the alternatives of submission or starvation." His case is that of hundreds in the ranks of the Papal clergy. Offer them bread and butter, and lifting the little finger would bring them out.


3. Canon Virginio Marchese and his works, "The Reform of the Clergy," the "Council of Trent," "The Catholic Deaconship," and "The Social Question."Canon Virginio Marchese is rector in the diocese of Saluzzo. He is a priest held in great esteem. He has the spirit of patriotism strong in him, and actually fought at the battle of Solferino. Within the Church he is striving to reconcile love of country with his priestly position and functions. Others before him, like Count Campello, have tried this, and found it an impossibility. It is to be hoped that he will feel constrained to join the noble band of Reformers, who, outside the pale of Rome, represent the pure Italian Historic Catholic Church.

4. We must content ourselves with simply naming two other authors, and their works that have been condemned; these are Panciani, and his work, "The Rome of the Popes," and Emile Ferrière, the French author, and his eight theological treatises.

Everyone can see that the Church of Rome, by taking such steps as we have described, courts the defiance of her best sons, and adds to the contempt with which it is regarded by the country. Its action hurts chiefly itself, and is another proof of its unworthiness to exist, and another reason for the demand of the Italian nation that their Church-as a papal institution, inimical to the best interests of themselves as individuals, as families, and as a nation-should cease to exist; and a Church in harmony with their patriotism, and with the principles of human progress, intellectual and spiritual, should take its place. Such a church is the Reformed Catholic Church, at the head of which is Count Campello. Being neither a foreign importation nor of provincial character, its adaptation to Italian national needs is patent to all. I have just heard, that the men of whom I have spoken,

and others who think with them in the different towns of Italy, have strong bands of young followers, so that, in spite of the action of the Church of Rome, and in spite of individuals succumbing to her power who ought to have resisted it, the work of Christ in Italy will advance more and more, and we expect day by day to I see earnest Christians separating themselves from that Church that stands selfcondemned as corrupt and a source of corruption in the face of Italy and of Christendom.



WE are continually receiving information showing that the persecution of the Stundists is still carried on with vigour in some parts of the south of Russia. A few weeks ago, one who had been long identified with the movement, and an earnest worker among his fellow-Stundists, had his home visited by police officials, when his papers and letters were seized. These included some which revealed the fact of his having been in correspondence with friends of the Alliance, through whom money was supplied for the relief of many of the Stundist families.


This good brother, fearing that the seizure of his papers would ultimately mean his arrest and imprisonment, determined to leave the country, and, by the aid of friends, he was enabled to escape, though with considerable difficulty. eventually found his way through St. Petersburg to Sweden, and thence to London, where he was able to confer with friends. He has since then returned to the Continent with the view of settling in Roumania, where he has arranged for his wife and family to join him. The Council of the Alliance has been very glad to be able to assist, with other friends, in the expense incurred in this case.

The special fund of the Evangelical Alliance has also been found useful in helping another earnest Christian who escaped from Russia only three weeks ago. This good brother was one of those who left Russia, after repeated warnings, in 1884, that he would be imprisoned if he carried on his evangelistic work. He eventually proceeded to America where he laboured for some years in various parts of the United States, and among his fellow-countrymen. He has been very successful in his evangelistic work, and, having obtained his papers as a naturalised subject of the United States, he proceeded only a few months ago to Southern Russia, hoping that by remaining only a few days in each place, he would be able to travel through the country, seeking out the persecuted Christians, and speaking of Christ as opportunity occurred. For some time his progress was not hindered, but in May last he was arrested, put under chains, and sent to St. Petersburg, where, as he had formerly been in the Russian navy, he was placed in the naval prison. From this he managed to escape with considerable difficulty, and at last found his way to London. He has now returned to America where he hopes to rejoin his wife who was with him when he was arrested in South Russia.

We feel sure that the continued prayers of members and friends of the Alliance will ascend to God on behalf of His suffering people in Russia; for there are many who are at this moment in grave peril, and for whom there seems to be little hope of any relief through earthly means. The two brethren above referred to will also be followed with the prayers of their fellow-Christians in this country, that God may open the way for both of them to labour for Him again amongst their fellowcountrymen.



OUR correspondent at Constantinople writes, with reference to the earthquake of July 10: "The damage is done in Constantinople along a narrow line from Silevna, thirty miles west of us, to Adabazar, about eighty miles east. Great suffering must result, since the native industries and trades of the city are very largely overthrown, and must be months in recovering anything like prosperity. The impression produced on the mind is that many native industries will not at all recover from this blow. The loss of life is probably about 150 in the city, with several hundreds

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