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by Peter II., but the virtual authority rubles annually ; the empress herself still remained in the hands of the for some time assumed the title, till it Russian governors ; and the Ataman, was merged in that of Ataman-General though he marched at the head of his of all the Cossacks, which she conferred people in war, was allowed the exer. on her favourite Potemkin. The cise of but few of his former preroga. slender remains of the Cossack privitives. The remaining immunities of leges in the Ukraine, were now desthe Ukraine was silently and gradually tined speedily to disappear. On the undermined; but the administration promulgation of the project for a new was generally mild and equitable ; and general code in 1767, all their internal the Cossacks, to whom the remem- jurisdictions were summarily abolished brance of their past liberties was now by an imperial edict, and included but a phantom of bygone days, learned under the new regulations of the emby degrees to acquiesce in a sway pire. A capitation and hearth tax was which it was hopeless to resist. The levied ; and the deputies who appeared Supreme Court at Gloukhoff, which at St Petersburg to exclaim against had been abolished by Peter II., was these arbitrary measures, were thrown re.established in the last year of Anne, into prison, and are supposed to have under the new title of “ College of died in confinement. Regency of the Ukraine," and invested later, the annihilation of this branch with the functions not only of judica of the Cossacks as a separate commuture, but of government, its decisions nity, was completed by a decree which being subject only to the senate at declared the peasants attached to the Petersburg And when, in the suc- soil,* and enabled the Russian nobles ceeding reign of Elizabeth, the dignity to possess estates in the Ukraine : even of Ataman was virtually abolished by the distinction of territory was oblitebeing conferred as a post of emolu- rated in 1776 by the new general diment on Kyrillus Razumofski, the vision of Russia into viceroyalties. brother of the Empress's favourite, Six thousand migrated into Poland without even the form of an election, during these changes; but the rethe Cossacks saw this last vestige of mainder submitted in silence, and betheir independence vanish, without came, as Heber describes them at the any attempt at resistance or remon. commencement of the present century, strance. They still, however, conti- “ in all respects bonâ fide Russians, nued to serve under their own officers but still preserving their language and only in the Russian armies; and a dress, and very proud of their Cossack division of 12,000, which joined the descent." army of Marshal Apraxin in the Seven But the indomitable Zaporofskis Years' War, made their name terribly were not so easily reduced to obeknown throughout Germany by the dience: and their smouldering discondevastations which they committed in tent, which various causes had contriPrussia, where the royal poet Frederic buted to excite, burst into a flame at has commemorated their descent on

the attempt to coerce their savage the country

freedom within the bounds of legisla« Comme un vaste et sombre nuage

tive enactments. By the treaty of Renferme en ses flancs tenebreux Belgrade, it had been stipulated that

La grêle, la flamme, et l'orage" the extensive plains between the But these barbarities were severely Dniepr and the Seimka should be left avenged ; for during the whole war desert and abandoned, as a boundary the Cossacks were treated by the Ger- between the two empires : but this man troops as savage marauders, and neutral ground was speedily encroachnever admitted to quarter; and at the ed upon by the Russians, who aimed at defeat of Zorndorf, nearly their whole extending to the western frontier of number fell under the sabres of the the Khan's dominions, by the occupaPrussian hussars.

tion of this fertile delta, the line of Soon after the accession of Catharine circumvallation which the possession II., Razumofski was deprived of the of Azoph had at length rendered titular dignity of Ataman, the revenues complete on the east. The reclama annexed to which amounted to 100,( 00 tions of the Tartars produced no effeet: and the supine court of Constan. given to the narrative of De Tott) tinople, buried in a thirty years' peace, rivalled in merciless atrocity the deeds (unexampled for duration in the Ottom of the early followers of Zingis. But man annals) saw with indifference the death of Krim-Kherai, who was the communication with its vassal poisoned through the jealousy of the kingdom gradually intercepted: towns, Grand-Vizir, speedily changed the villages, and military posts, rapidly fortune of the war : and when its tri. sprung up ; while settlers were invited umphant conclusion, by the peace of from Germany, Switzerland, and even Kutchuk-Kainardji in 1774, left the Scotland, to aid in the colonization of Russians at liberty to regulate the the rising province of New Servia, as affairs of their own frontier, the conthis hitherto nameless district began tumacy and rebellion of the Zaporofto be called. In the efforts made by skis were not long in meeting with the Tartars to check the progress of due punishment. The setsha was the new colony, they received zealous surrounded by a cordon of troops, assistance from the Zaporofskis, who and its inhabitants, excepting a porclaimed the territory as pasture-land tion who escaped into Tartary, made for their herds, and were unwilling, prisoners : a few only were allowed like the red Indians of North Ameri- to retain their lands on condition of ca, to have their fortresses approached submitting to the new ordinances, but too nearly by the haunts of civilisa- the majority were either draughted tion. The settlers, harassed by the into Russian regiments, or exiled to inroads of their wild neighbours, at distant parts of the empire : the vacant length applied to Petersburg for pro- lands being assigned to Russian protection: and some regiments of cavalry prietors, and colonized by peasants were located as military colonies in forcibly transplanted for the purpose, the most exposed quarters, where an from Podolia and Volhynia: while irregular warfare was carried on to the new town of Kherson became the such an extent, that the Zaporofskis emporium of Russian commerce in were on the point of being denounced the Mediterranean, till superseded as open rebels, when the promulgation twenty years later by the erection of of the new code brought their disaf- Odessa.* With their expulsion from fection to a climax. They unani- their ancient haunts the name of the mously refused compliance: and when, Zaporofskis ceased to exist :f but a in the following year (1768,) war at portion of the same race, under a new length broke out between Russia and appellation, have continued to the the Porte, they not only withheld their present day. These derive their origin appointed contingent, but many de- from the refugees who fled into the serted to the Turks on their advance Krim on the destruction of the setsha, towards New Servia, in order to and who earned their pardon from wreak their vengeance on those whom the Russians, in the struggle which they considered as the usurpers of preceded the final annexation of that their soil. The Tartar Khan, Krim- country to the Muscovite empire, by Kherai, who was appointed general. turning their arms against the nation issimo of the Ottoman forces, by a which had sheltered them. This last daring and unexpected maneuvre act of treachery was rewarded by Pocrossed the Dniestr on the ice in the temkin with an establishment on the depth of winter : and the wretched territory between the Don and the inhabitants of New Servia were ex- Kuban, which the Kuban Tartars had posed without defence to a torrent of deserted † on its seizure by Russia : desolation, which (if credit is to be and there, under the title of Tcherno

*Lesur.

* It should be remarked, that the name of this modern city is correctly New Odessa ; while Varna is marked in the Russian maps by its classical name of Old Odessa ;—a tolerably significant hint its present possessors !

+ A paragraph appeared in some English papers shortly after the passage of the Pruth, by the Russians in 1828, stating that the Zaporofskis had just tendered their voluntary allegiance to the Russian empire, and that their Ataman, late a pasha of two tails, had held the helm of the barge in which Nicholas crossed the Pruth! This extraordinary blunder passed, however, uncontradicted.

* Three-fourths of the Tartars expatriated themselves after the treaty of Kainardji morski or Black-Sea Cossacks, their endeavouring to restore order; but the descendants still remain, carrying on advance of a Russian corps speedily an incessant border warfare with the induced the appearance of submission, Circassians. They elect their Ataman, and the town was retaken from the subject to the governor of Ekatarino. insurgents. slaf: they are allowed free fishery in The germs of disaffection, however, the sea of Azoph, and the still more remained ; and when, two years later, valued privilege of making and selling the daring adventurer Yemedyan Pubrandy free from duty. Their num.. gatchef, a Don-Cossack by birth and bers are estimated at about 15,000 a roskolnik by religion, made his apeffective men; and, in conjunction with pearance near Yaikskoi, and assumed the Cossacks of the Terek (a branch the name of the deceased Czar Peter of the Donski), they serve in the fron- III., the Cossacks of the Yaik became tier cordon on the line between the his first, as they continued to the last Black and Caspian Seas.

his firmest, supporters and followers. The history of both the branches of The extraordinary career of this imthe Cossacks on the Dneipr may now postor, who was at one time master of be considered at a close, one of them the whole country between the Ural being reduced to insignificance, and and the Volga-his repeated victories the other melted into the general mass over Russian generals, and his final of the Russian population ; but, before betrayal and execution at Moscowwe recur to the changes effected in the remind the reader of the exploits of condition of the Don.Cossacks, it is ne- Stanko Razin, whom Pugatchef recessary briefly to advert to the famous sembled also in the success with which rebellion of Pugatchef; anevent which, he allured the serfs to his standard, though removed by its magnitude and by promising the abolition of slavery, importance beyond the scope of merely and by the cruelties which he exerCossack history, demands some notice cised on all the nobles who fell into in this place, from both the leader and his hands. But the details of the war, his original, partisans having been of which cost in its progress and supthe Cossack nation. In our introduc- pression the lives of 300,000 persons, tory remarks, allusion was made to the belong rather to the general history prevalence among the Cossacks of the of Russia than of the Cossacks, whom roskolnik or schismatical tenets, and it only affected by its origin among a the persecution to which these secta- remote and obscure branch of their ries had frequently been subjected by body. On the extinction of the rethe Russian sovereigns. As early as volt, the Cossacks of Yaik suffered the reign of Peter I., a large body of severe punishment: and, in order to them had migrated into the Tartar ter. mark their treason by a perpetual ritorities rather than shave their beards, stigma, Catharine abolished the name to the preservation of which they at- of Yaik by an imperial edict, and subtached peculiar importance ; from stituted that of Cossacks of the Ural, their patron saint, St Ignatius, they by which they have been since known. were known among the Tartars as The final abolition of the privileges Inat Cossacks, under which name they of the Ukraine, must have prepared are mentioned by De Tott in 1768, as the Don-Cossacks for a similar inva. forming part of Krim-Kherai's army. sion of their own rights; but their forA similar attempt in 1771, to deprive midable and still unbroken numbers of these cherished appendages, and made the experiment too hazardous to subject to regular military discipline, be risked, at a juncture when all the the Cossacks of the Yaik (a wild race forces of the empire were required for deriving their origin from those of the the execution of the ambitious projects Don, and professing almost universally of Catharine: and the capricious fathe roskolnik heresy), led to a sedition vour of Potemkin, who saw and apin their capital of Yaikskoi, in which preciated their value as irregular both their own Ataman and the Rus- troops, was a farther safeguard to their sian commissioner lost their lives, in remaining immunities. Important

-in 1769, the peninsula alone furnished 40,000 cavalry-in 1782, only 450 houses in Kaffa were inhabited. Most of them fled to Turkey: but many to Circassia and other parts of the Caucasus.

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changes were, however, made in their of a fan suddenly flung open, and, joininternal organization: their troops, ing in a loud yell or hourra, rush, which had hitherto appeared in the each acting individually, upon the field in separate stanitzas, each headed object of attack, whether infantry, caby its own chief, were formed into re. valry, or artillery ; to all of which they gular regiments of the guard and the have been in this wild way of fighting line, under officers appointed and com. formidable assailants.' missioned by the crown: a fixed period covering the retreat of their own of military service was rendered obliga. army, their velocity, activity, and courtory on each Cossack as the tenure of his age, render pursuit by the enemy's lands and fisheries : and the authority cavalry peculiarly dangerous; and in of the Ataman was circumscribed by pursuing a flying enemy their qualities the establishment at Tcherkask of a are still more redoubtable. In the Russian chancery under a procurator- campaign of 1806–7, the Cossacks took general, to which was transferred the the field in great numbers under their control of the allotment of lands, and celebrated Ataman Platof, who, him. the revision of judicial sentences. But self a Cossack, knew their peculiar while the spirit of their government capacity for warfare, and raised their was thus silently undergoing a trans. fame to a pitch which it had not atformation, nothing was neglected tained in former European wars." which could foster and inflame their The military history of the Cosmilitary spirit, and convert them from sacks may here be closed ; but the

; the turbulent allies into the zealous political changes which were effected and obedient soldiers of Russia.- during this period in their constitution, Honours and rewards were liberally demand attention as containing the showered on their leaders ; and Souva. seeds of the present disaffection. The roff, to whose ferocious courage and appointment of Platof to the dignity contempt for modern tactical science of Ataman in 1796, by the sole power in war, their undisciplined bravery of the crown, had abolished the anwas peculiarly congenial, treated them cient right of election ; but the popuwith eminent distinction, and employed larity of the new chief reconciled the them as his chosen troops on all occa- Cossacks to the change ; and the sions of peril. In the sieges of Ocza- powers of the Ataman, which, accordkow and Ismail, columns of dis- ing to Heber, had extended even to mounted Cossacks were combined with causing men to be summarily bound the regular battalions in the assault ; hand and foot and thrown into the but their want of discipline made them Don, were restricted henceforward to inefficient when acting in concert with military matters. Paul, whose wish the other troops: and the total de. was to obliterate, as far as lay in his struction at Ismail of a corps of 5000 power, all that his mother had done, Cossacks, whom their headlong valour at first declared his intention of rehad carried into a situation whence it storing the ancient privileges of the was impossible to rescue them, pre- Don-Cossacks in their pristine vi. vented the experiment ever being re- gour ; but his fickle and wayward peated. But as light cavalry in the temper prevented the realization of field, or in protecting the flanks and any of his promises ; and an imperial outposts of an army, the Cossacks con- edict, which assimilated the commistinued to be unrivalled; and their sions of the Cossack officers to those eminent services in this capacity, in the Russian army, and conferred through the various campaigns of the nobility on the children of those who French revolutionary wars, spread the had the military rank of colonel, exrenown of their powers throughout cited great discontent, and was exEurope. Their peculiar mode of claimed against as introducing a new fighting, though not materially differ- aristocracy,

to the subversion of the old ing from that of Oriental cavalry democratic institutions of the nation. in general, has been described by the military spirit of a government, Scott in language so vivid and pictu. where formerly all were equal, or had resque, that we cannot refrain from only a temporary but absolute power quoting it in this place :—"Instead of when elected officers, was obviously acting in a line, a body of Cossacks violated by the creation of this priviabout to charge disperse at the word leged class, the numbers of which con. of command, very much in the manner tinually increased: and the partiality shown to them in the allotment of to transpired vague and imperfect, lands, and appointment to commissions, their uniform tenor sufficiently proves, (which were conferred even on chil. that the love of freedom which in by. dren in the cradle,) widened the breach gone days animated the Cossacks between the new nobles and the com- against the Tartars, is not yet extinct, mon Cossacks, and excited jealousy and that any attempt to narrow still against the former, as the partisans and further the already restricted circle of creatures of the Russians. On the their liberties, must produce a convul. death of Platof, the dignity of Ataman sion which would seriously affect the ceased to exist as a local title, and was stability of Russian sway in her southreserved by the crown till the present eastern acquisitions. emperor conferred it on his son, the The vulnerability of Russia on the heir-apparent: the routine duties of side of the Black Sea, in the event of the office were,

in the mean time, per- her engaging in war with a maritime formed by an officer styled nakazniż- power, has been long felt by herself, ataman, or vice-ataman, whose resi- and can now be no longer concealed dence was fixed at Tcherkask; but the from the eyes of Europe.

When limited power possessed by this func- Alexander spoke of the Dardanelles as tionary, and the insignificance into “ the key of my house," he used the which the staroshines, and other local phrase in the full consciousness of the authorities, had by this time sunk, left danger to his empire which must folthe real administration in the hands of low the passage, by a hostile power, of the procurator-general at Teherkask, that important barrier; and in our and the council of war at Petersburg, hands especially, if the energies of and deprived the Cossacks of the chan- England were wielded by men of a difnels throughwhich their complaints had ferent stamp from those who now dihitherto reached the ear of the sove- rect them, the knowledge of Russian reign. The continued alienation of weakness in this quarter might be conlands from the common territory in verted into a better security than we favour of the new nobles, and even of now possess for the pacific policy of Russians, was viewed with discontent the Czar, from the ease with which a and suspicion by the commonalty, who revolt might be excited and maintainanticipated the introduction of com- ed among the tribes which cover his pulsory labour as the inevitable con- southern frontier from the Dniepr to sequence of these appropriations: and Ghilan, all more or less oppressed and an attempt, shortly after the accession discontented, some but recently subof the present Emperor, to introduce dued, and some still maintaining, the payment of customs on some of against fearful odds, the struggle for the articles which they had hitherto freedom. Little cohesion, beyond that received duty-free, was met by such which results from a uniform system violent reclamations, that it was found of military occupation, exists among necessary to abandon the project be- the various races which have been fore the commencement of the last brought within the geographical boun. Turkish war. The severe and haras. daries of the Russian empire since sing warfare against the Circassians, the time of Peter the Great: and, in and the neglect to withdraw several regarding the present protracted war Cossack regiments from this unpo. in Circassia simply as the gallant but pular service at the end of their sti- isolated resistance of a warlike nation pulated period of duty, excited mur- against the power of Russia, the Euromurs and discontent, which the impru- pean public has erroneously estimadent ukases of 1837, and the attempt ted the importance of the contest. It to coerce the disaffected corps by seve- is not the prowess of a single people rity, have inflamed into the present which Russia has encountered on the spirit of resistance ; and though the heights of the Caucasus, but the acrigid surveillance which has been ex- cumulated hatred of the wrecks of ercised, to prevent the transactions in tribes and nations once independent, the interior of Russia from being which have turned to bay in the fastdivulged beyond the frontier, has ren- nesses of this ancient barrier* against dered the accounts which have hither. northern irruption. Many thousands

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* The Persians térm the Caucasus Seddi-Iskender, “the barrier of Alexander :"from the mythological traditions of the East, which attribute to him the erection of

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