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Poles to possess themselves of the with augmented numbers and resoluWestern Ukraine; while the Russian tion; and, in defiance of all the efforts general Romanodofski, attacking of Romanodofski to relieve it, Czeh. Czehryn in the absence of the Turkish ryn was taken by storm, and the gargrand army, made himself master of rison of 30,000 Řussians and Cossacks that important place, capturing in it put to the sword. The main Russian the person and treasures of the Ata- army, struck with panic, abandoned man, who purchased pardon by once its positions, and retreated in dismay more changing his allegiance, and re- across the frontier, pursued by the ceiving investiture at the hands of the Turks, who then, for the first and only Czar. But these successes of the time, trode the soil of Russia as con. Russians were displeasing to Sobieski, querors; and the Czar Feodor (who who, dreading their becoming masters had succeeded Alexis in 1676) hastily of the whole Ukraine, and anxious assembled troops to oppose the promoreover to restore tranquillity to his gress of the invaders towards his capiown states, concluded a separate peace tal; but the exhausted state of the at the end of the year, by which the country, which Romanodofski had disputed territory underwent a fresh wasted in his retreat, had already partition; the western part being re- compelled the Vizir to retire ; and stored to Poland, while the southern, on the approach of winter the Ruswith Kaminiek and part of Podolia, sians gradually re-occupied great part remained in the possession of the of their conquests. But, notwithstandTurks.

ing these successes, the war had beThe Russians, who had been entire- come unpopular and burdensome to ly passed over in this arrangement, the Turks, who derived no equivalent exclaimed against it as a perfidious advantage for the expense of sending breach of faith on the part of the armies into a remote province to conPoles : and, entering the Ukraine in tend for the supremacy over fickle the depth of winter, reduced the great- vassals against an enemy whose reest part of the country, with the sources were near at hand; and a assistance of Doroscensko's partisans, pacification was finally concluded in before the advance of the Turkish 1680-1, by which, in return for some army in the following spring under concessions to the Tartar Khan, Czehthe Grand-Vizir, the famous Kara ryn and the other Turkish possessions Mustapha Kioprili, whose career, six in the Ukraine were resigned to Rusyears later, was cut short by Sobieski sia, and the river Samara made the before the walls of Vienna. The Turks boundary of the two empires ; while were accompanied by George Khmiel. Doroscensko, distrusted by all parties niçki, son of the former Ataman of alike, sunk into obscurity, and was that name, who had been confined in succeeded as Ataman by Ivan Sathe Seven Towers at the instigation muelowitz, a Cossack leader of great of Doroscensko, but on bis defection reputation and experience. It was was released by the Sultan, and in- not till five years later that the claims vested with the dignity of Ataman, in of Poland were finally adjusted by a which capacity he now made his ap- definitive treaty with Russia, which pearance to re-establish the Turkish ratified the truce of Andrussow, and ascendency in the Ukraine, and was acknowledged the sovereignty of the joined by a considerable number of Czar over the whole Ukraine. The the Cossacks. The open country was

whole of the Cossack territory was speedily overrun by the Turks, but thus re-united to the Muscovite mo. their progress was arrested by the narchy, after having been separated strong ramparts of Czehryn; and af- from it since the first conquests of the ter pressing the siege for two months, Tartars; and the Cossack annals, from and losing many of his men in a night this time, are necessarily incorporated attack, Kara Mustapha abandoned with the history of Russia. his baggage and artillery, and closed The overthrow of the Turks before the campaign of 1677 by an inglorious Vienna, in 1683, was hailed by all retreat across the Danube. But the Christendom as the prelude to the time was not yet come when the downfal of the Ottoman power. Rusprowess of the Turks was compelled sia joined the league against the Porte to submit to defeat: their forces re- in 1685-6, and sent an army of entered the Ukraine the next year 300,000 men under Prince Basil Gal. litzin, the favourite of the Regent cation procured him among the rude Sophia, to invade the territories of the chiefs of the Cossacks, he had been, Tartar Khan, to which the possession throughout the troubles of the

Ukraine, of the Ukraine offered an easy access. a powerful auxiliary to the Russians, The advance of this mighty host at whose instigation he is accused of through the Nogai steppes encoun. having suborned the condemnation of tered no armed opposition ; but the his predecessor ;-an act of perfidy country, for the space of two hundred which, if justly ascribed to him, was miles, had been swept bare of every amply avenged by retributive justice thing which could afford subsistence in the conclusion of his own career, to an enemy; and no sooner had fa- Under his advice and direction, a semine compelled Gallitzin to commence cond armament was set on foot for the his retreat, than his divisions were invasion of the Krim in 1689, during enveloped and assailed by nomad ca- the absence of the Khan on the fron. valry, whose arrows, like those of their tiers of Hungary. The whole force of Parthian forefathers, dealt destruction the Cossacks, amounting to 50,000 among the ranks of their exhausted men,joined the Russians on the border; foes. This disastrous expedition cost but though, on this occasion, the invathe Russians 40,000 men,* and nearly ders succeeded in forcing the defences all their horses and artillery; but its of the isthmus after a sanguinary confailure was ascribed by their comman- flict with the Nooradin-Sultan, † and ders to the reason of the Cossack penetrated within sight of Perekop, Ataman, whom they accused of having they were amused by the Tartars with maintained, from within the Russian negotiations till the failure of their camp, a correspondence with the provisions compelled them a second Khan, and recommended to him the time to retire with loss. The estaplan of defence which was adopted; blishment of a line of fortified posts and Samuelowitz was summoned to along the Samara, to check the future answer the charge before the assembly incursions of the Tartars, was the sole of his people. The judicial process result of those two ill-conducted expewhich followed, is probably the only ditions, which failed even in obtaining Cossack deliberative council of which from the Khan the abandonment of the details have been preserved: the the degrading tribute of 60,000 rubles, inferior atamans, the staroshines or which he still annually demanded from elders, the polkovniks or colonels, and Russia ; but the revolution which took the chiefs of the different stanitzas, place at Moscow at the end of the year, met in the camp on the Samara; the by transferring the reins of governproofs of their leader's alleged delin- ment from Sophia to Peter, speedily quency were laid before them; and, gave a fresh impulse to the hitherto after a solemn investigation, Samuel unorganized mass of Russian power. owitz was declared guilty, deprived of Mazeppa, who had accompanied the ensigns of his dignity, and given Gallitzin

to Moscow, was an eyewitover for punishment to the Russians, ness of the revolution, and of the disby whom he was sent, with his only grace of his patron ; but his politic surviving son, to Siberia ; while the accession to the party of Peter provacant office was conferred, by the cured him fresh rewards and honours; influence of Gallitzin, on the lieute- and, on the conclusion of the advannant of the fallen chief, the celebrated tageous peace of 1699 with the Porte, Mazeppa. The romantic history of the Cossacks, who had done distinthis personage has made his name and guished service in the war as Russian early adventures too familiarly known partisans, had their privileges anew to English readers to need recital. confirmed and extended, while the corFrom his hatred to the Poles, and the don of the newly instituted order of ascendency which his talents and edu. St Andrew was conferred on their

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* A victory was announced to the populace of Moscow, and the silence of the army secured by bribes ;--the system of deception by bulletins seems to have been, even thus early, indigenous in Russia.

† The titles of Kalga-Sultan, Nooradin-Sultan, Ak-erman-Sultan, &c., were attached to the junior branches of the house of Zingis : the reigning sovereign alone bore the title of Khan, to which that of Sultan was subordinate in the scale of Tartar preces dency

Ataman. The unity of this branch of were put to death by repeated strokes the Cossack family had been in the of a mallet or mace, the ordinary Cosmean time restored, by the re-union of sack punishment for sedition. But the remaining Cossacks of the Polish when, on the advance of Charles toUkraine, who, in 1691, migrated in a wards the Ukraine in the following body over the Dniepr into the Russian year, the mask was at length thrown dominions : but this prosperity was of off, Mazeppa was dismayed by findshort continuance. The plans of re- ing that none of his followers, exceptform which Peter had projected for ing his personal adherents and the every part of his dominions were car- wild Zaporofskis of the setsha (whom ried on with fresh energy at the return he had gained over by largesses) were of peace, and their operation was not disposed to brave the wrath of the long in extending itself to the Ukraine. Czar. Abandoned by the greater An attempt (in 1701) to impose a · part of his troops, he joined the Swecapitation tax was so vehemently re- dish camp with 7000 Cossacks only,* sisted by the Cossacks, who rightly rather as a fugitive than an ally; while regarded it as the first step to the the Russians under Menzikoff, aided establishment of slavery, that the by the bulk of the Cossacks, found no scheme was for the time abandoned ; difficulty in capturing Bathurin, the but the still more obnoxious proposi- stronghold of Mazeppa, whose partition of including them in the new mi- sans were every where consigned to litary organization, and dividing them the wheel or the gibbet. The events into regiments, trained and equipped of the succeeding campaign, till the in the European manner, was pressed hopes both of Charles and Mazeppa with greater pertinacity; and resent- were extinguished on the field of Pulment for a brutal threat with which tava, are matter of general history : Peter, in one of his habitual fits of intox- 12,000 Cossacks and Zaporofskis perication, replied to the remonstrances of ished in the battle and pursuit ; but Mazeppa, is stated by contemporary the Ataman escaped to Bender, where historians to have goaded the Ataman he died in 1709, while the sword and to the fatal determination of throwing the scaffold were busy in completing off the yoke of Russia. But the Cose the destruction of his adherents. The sacks, always restless when not em- setsha of the Zaporofskis, in the islets ployed in war, were curbed by the of the Dniepr, hitherto inviolate by constant presence of Russian troops the foot of an enemy, was forced by on their frontier; the free communi- the Russians, and its inhabitants cation with their brethren on the Don, slaughtered, without distinction of age which they had hitherto enjoyed or sex. Thousands of Cossacks were through the intermediate Cossack dragged in chains to the shores of the settlements of the Slobode-Ukraine, Baltic, to labour on the canals and was purposely intercepted by the lo- other public works; and though a nocation of Russian military colonies in minal Ataman was appointed in the that quarter, ostensibly as a check on room of Mazeppa, he was declared the Tartars; and it was not till 1707, subordinate in authority to Menzikoff, when the victories of Charles XII. who fixed his residence in Bathurin, seemed to threaten the dismemberment and assumed the viceroyalty of the of the Muscovite empire, that Ma- Ukraine. A remnant of the Zaporofzeppa ventured to attempt the execu. skis, to the number of 4000, who tion of his designs, by opening a cor- escaped from the slaughter and caprespondence with the Swedish monarch, tivity of their comrades, took refuge, and also with the Porte. These ma- with their koschevoi-ataman, Horochinations were detected, and revealed denko, in the territories of the Tartar to Peter by two polkovniks of the fac- Khan, who assigned them some lands tion adverse to Mazeppa ; but such on the banks of the Kaminka, a river was the confidence still reposed by the falling into the Dniepr, in the vicinity Czar in the fidelity of the Ataman, that of their ancient settlements. he delivered these two unfortunate The revolt of Mazeppa was in its officers, as traitors, to the vengeance results a deathblow to the independence of their chief, by whose orders they of the Ukraine, which thenceforth fell

* This number is stated by Norberg, who was an eyewitness.

irretrievably under the iron yoke of manent curtailment of the privileges Russia; while, in the territory of the of the community. The Don-Cossacks, Don-Cossacks, who had remained habituated to the sway of Russia, and tranquil since the war of Stanko Razin, surrounded on almost every side by similar scenes of blood and devastation Russian provinces, were not objects to arose from an insurrection which broke the Czar of the same jealous suspicion out nearly at the same time, though as their brethren of the Ukraine, whose apparently without any concert with indomitable spirit of independence had the disorders in the Ukraine. The led them to defy successively Poland details which we possess relative to and the Porte, and the geographical this outbreak are imperfect. Accord. position of whose country, extending ing to the Russian historians, it ori. along the flank of Russia Proper, enginated in an attempt by Prince Dol- abled them to open a road for an ingoruki (the son of the opponent of vader into the heart of the empire, Stanko) to reclaim the refugee serfs whenever an opportunity should be who had sought an asylum in the found of throwing off their subjection Cossack villages, to the incredible to the Czar. In order to secure this number, as stated by Lesur, (Histoire important province by reducing its indes Kosaques, vol. ii.) of 30,000 in a habitants to the same footing as his single year. The unpopularity of this other subjects, the designs of Peter, proceeding, and the hereditary hatred which had been suspended by the borne to the name of Dolgoruki, ex- Swedish invasion and the revolt of cited violent commotions; and the Mazeppa, were resumed and proseprince was at length surprised and cuted with an unrelenting rigour to slain, with his guards and suite, in a which the Cossacks, prostrate at the night attack headed by a Cossack feet of the conqueror, could no longer named Bulavin, the chief of a stanitza, offer any effectual opposition: their who, elated by this success, assumed right of internal jurisdiction by their the command of the malecontents, and staroshines and officers, which had fruitlessly attempted the surprisal of hitherto been religiously respected, Azoph, which had been in the posses- was supplanted by the erection at sion of Russia since the peace of 1699. Gloukhoff of a Court of Judicature, But the insurgents were unable to administered according to the dilatory make head against the Russian troops, forms of Russian law, and from which who poured from all sides into the an appeal lay only to the governor of revolted districts. Bulavin and 20,000 Malo, or Little Russia, a name now of his partisans perished in the field, formally conferred on the country by or by the hands of the executioner; an imperial edict, in token of its incorwhile 10,000 more sought shelter in poration with the Russian empire. Krim Tartary, the usual sanctuary of The titular Ataman was retained conRussian exiles. Here their descend- stantly at the court of Moscow, as a ants remained till the occupation of the pledge for the fidelity of his people; Krim by Catharine II., and did good and the change in the condition of the service to the Porte in its wars against Cossacks from allies to subjects of the their former country.

Russians, was still more distinctly The sedition of Bulavin, notwith marked by the ceremonial observed at standing the formidable numbers of his the ratification of the peace of Nysfollowers, was an unpremeditated po- tadt with Sweden in 1721, when their pular commotion, in which neither the leaders were compelled to swear alleAtaman nor the more influential chiefs giance to the Czar in the same terms took part; and, from the scanty ac- as the authorities of the other ceded counts which have been transmitted to provinces. The ancient independence us, it does not appear that the severi- of the Ukraine was now, both in name ties which attended its suppression and fact, extinct; and on the death, in were followed by any material* or per the following year, of Skoropaski, who

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* De Guignes states that the dignity of Ataman was suppressed by Peter; but, in this and other points, he has evidently confused the history of the Don and Ukraine Cossacks.

† Such was the importance attached by Peter to the sovereignty of Malo-Russia, that his title of Emperor of all the Russias is said to have been assumed with an express view to its assertion.

had borne the title of Ataman ever but in vain, opposed all reconciliation since the deposition of Mazeppa, the with their former foes: the promises office was suffered to remain vacant. and gifts of Russia prevailed : Orlik But the Cossacks, though no longer retired into Turkey, where he became able to vindicate their liberties by a Moslem and entered the service of force of arms, still retained the spirit the Porte; and the Zaporofskis, after of freemen; and an energetic remon. having signalized their zeal for their strance was presented at the foot of resumed allegiance by a sanguinary the throne in 1724, by a deputation foray into Volhynia, re-occupied in from the Ukraine ; their various grie triumph their ancient setsha on the vances were enumerated and insisted Dniepr, and welcomed with discharges upon ;

and Peter was boldly reminded, of artillery the Russian commissioners that in infringing the convention by appointed to receive their adhesion to which his predecessor had bound him. the Czarina. self to the observance of their privi. In the war of 1806 with the Porte, leges and independent jurisdiction, he the Cossacks of the Ukraine furnished dissolved the tie which connected the to the Russian army a contingent of Cossacks with the crown of Russia. * 20,000 men, who were mostly organThe despotic temperament of the ized as irregular cavalry ; but their Czar, accustomed to see in his subjects exploits no longer corresponded to only the blind instruments of his sove- their former fame. Deprived since reign will, was irritated to fury by the time of Peter I. of the free exerthis address : the deputies were de- cise of arms, they had lost the habit of nounced as rebels, and thrown into using them; and their total inability to the dungeons of Schlusselburg, where withstand the impetuous onset of the a few only survived the hardships of Spahis, suggested to the Russian comtheir imprisonment till the accession manders the expedient of arming both of Catharine I., who (in obedience as the Ukraine and Don Cossacks with she said to her husband's last com- the lance, which has since become so mands) released them and restored formidable in the hands of the latter, them to their country. But though as a means of repelling the scimitars Catharine, during her short reign, of their fiery opponents. The Zaposhowed herself well disposed to ame- rofskis, on the contrary, who formed liorate the condition of the Ukraine, a separate corps of 8000 men, distinthe oppressive edicts of Peter still re- guished themselves as of old, both by mained in force; and it was not till the valour and relentless ferocity, which fall of their arch-enemy, Menzikoff, in defied the control of the Russian genthe reign of Peter II., that the Cos. erals. In the wild partisan warfare in sacks obtained a partial restoration of the marshes of the Dniepr and the their privileges, with liberty to elect steppes of the isthmus, they recognised an Ataman. Their choice fell on both the character and scene of their Daniel Apostol, who had been the ancient achievements; and when Muspokesman of the deputation to Peter nich at length entered as a conqueror I., and was regarded by the Cossacks, the hitherto impregnable capital of from his subsequent sufferings, as a the descendants of Zingis, their appemartyr to their cause; and, as the fa- tite for blood and plunder was amply vour extended to them by Peter II. glutted by the sack of Perekop. In was continued by his successor Anne, three successive campaigns, the Tartar the Ukraine presented such a spectacle territories fell almost wholly into the of returning prosperity, that the re. hands of the Russians; but the losses mains of the Zaporotskis, who had of their Austrian allies on the side of sought refuge in Krim Tartary after Hungary arrested them in the career the overthrow of Mazeppa, made over- of triumph, and Anne was reluctantly tures of submission in 1733 to the compelled to acquiesce in the treaty court of Petersburg, on condition of of Belgrade (1793), which restored all being resture to their former posses- her conquests except the dismantled sions. The koschevoi-atuman Orlik, fortress of Azoph. an old follower of Mazeppa, who had The forms of the ancient Cossack succeeded Horodenko, vehemently, constitution had been partially restored

* Lesur, ii. 151. Scherer, ii, 206.

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