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excluded Theognis, Marcus Antoninus, Maximus Tyrius Hierocles, Arrian, Herodian, Josephus, Pbilo, Dionysius Periegetes, Pomponius Mela, Manilius, and Ausonius; besides other indisputable classics, in rank fully equal to some that he has admitted.

The value and even necessity of a Bibliographical work on a more comprehensive scale, must therefore have been sensibly felt, by British students of ancient literature. The volumes on our table attempt, for the first time, to supply this defect. It is impossible to peruse them without being convinced, that a very large proportion of the contents is the result, not of mere compilation from Fabricius, Panzer, Harles, De Bure, &c. but of most copious stores of original information, The great extent of the author's personal labours in the indefatigable examination of public libraries, in the collation of copies, and in the actual reading of innumerable volumes, is evidently and unquestionably marked in his execution of this work.

In endeavouring to convey to our readers a correct idea of the character and merits of the Bibliographical Dictionary, we shall find it convenient to distribute our observations under a few obvious divisions.

I. Works printed in the infancy of the Typographical Art. With this curious and costly class, the author manifests an extensive and minute acquaintance. His descriptions of the most rare and important articles of early typography are so full and particular, as to afford a gratifying repast to the enthusiastic collector. As a specimen we extract the account of Coster's Horarium, which morceau unique is represented to the reader by a well-engraved fac similc.

“ HORARIUM, seu Enchiridion Precum, primum, ut vero simile est, Laurentii. lo. filii proto-typographi tentamen. Supposed to have been printed between 1430 and 1440, and to have been the

very at printing with moveable types.

One copy only of this rarest of all rare books is extant.

It was lately in the possession of Mr. John Enschedius, a printer at Haarlem. Mr. Meerman in his Origines Typographicæ. vol. 1. cap. iv. § 4, 5, has given a description of this singular curiosity, a correct Fac Simile of which embellishes this work.

“ What was the first Specimen which Laurentius Coster first cut, one would think impossible to be discovered after the lapse of three Centuries : and

yet John Enschedius, a printer, thinks he has found it. It is the as bove Horarium or Manual containing, i. The Alphabet. ii. Lord's Prayer. mi. The Ave Maria. ir. The Creed. v. A short Prayer beginning with Ave Salus Mundi ; and vi another begioning with Corpus et Sanguis Domini nostri Jesu Christi custodiat animam meam &c. It is on parchment, and contains only eight pages, cach about two Inches and a half SquareThere are no numeros to the pages, 10 signatures, no direction words, no divisions at the end of words ; on the contrary, a syllable divided in the middle is seen on the last pige, line 3 and 4, divièled thus, Sp iritu, and page 1, line 6), Şarati ficeiur. There are neither distinetiors, nor points, which are seen iu the other works of Laurentiu- ; and the

first attempt

letter i is not marked with an accent, but with a dot at the top. The lines are throughout uneven, and the pages not always of the same shape, as the Fuc simile shews. The Performance seems to be left, as Mr. Meerman has observed, as a specimen of his piety, and of the first essay in this newly invented art.

It was found among a parcel of MSS. pasted to a Dutch Book containing Psalms and Prayers. The controversy concerning this ancient piece, as well as that relative to the claims of Haarlem, as being the place where the typographic art had its origin, cannot be considered in this place. The figures on the outer side of the margin are not in the original, but are added here to shew the order of the pages ; and the imperfections on the last page, shew the state of the original which by age and use is thus obliterated." Vol. iy.

p.

129_131. II. Editions of the Original Scriptures, Ancient Versions, and Works of Biblical Criticism. The article BIBLE fills one hun- . dred and seventeen pages, and the article NEW TESTAMENT ševenty nine pages. This is certainly one of the most comprehensive and best digested lists ever published. The most recent version mentioned, is the Bengalee by Mr. Carey, one of the Baptist Missionaries in Bengal. Since that time (1801) translations into several other languages have been undertaken. The last that has been printed, is the Gospel of St. Matthew separately, in the Mahratta. Among many other iniportant particulars, we are much gratified with the curious and ample bistory of that enduring monument to the learning and the honour of the English Clergy, Bishop Walton's Polyglott,* and Castell's Heptaglott Lexicon. The demonstration that the three last leaves of the preface to the Polyglott were reprinted, is very interesting, and perfectly original. We are glad to observe also, that the author is not backward to celebrate the meritorious labours of Griesbach on the text of the New Testa

ment.

III. Oriental Learning. With the profound recesses and the most recondite treasures of the Asiatic languages and literature, the author of these volumes manifests a pre-eminent aoquaintance. Beside the numerous dispersed articles, Hebrew, Chaldee, Syriaç, Coptic, Ethiopic, &c. we have a striking evidence of this in the sixty pages occupied by a Catalogue Rai. sonnée of Arabic and Persian manuscripts and printed books,and of philological works on those languages. Many of these MSS. in the possession of the author, are scarcely known even to oriental, scholars, and some, if we mistake not, are unique. In this part, the critiques on all the principal articles are large, satisfactory, and manifestly original.

* See Ecl. Rev. I. 854. Mr. Dibdin was indebted for the particulars he inserted, to the work now under consideration, of which it seems he had the editor's unsought permission to avail himself. There are many other instances, however, in which Mr. D. appears to have found the Bibl. Dict, serviceable, without having acknowledged it,

IV. Greek and Latin Classics. In this department the Bib. liographical Dictionary professedly comprises the whole of Harwood's Viere, and we find many additional articles. But we have to object, that some of Dr. Harwood's numer. ous errors, and many of his impertinencies, are allowed to pass without correction or censure ; and

that the most important editions of Greek and Roman authors are not characterized with sufficient minuteness. This omission, as also that of authorities, except in dubious points, was perhaps rendered expedient, from the great increase of bulk that must otherwise have ensued; but hence the purse of the reader has been more consulted in this instance, than his entertainment. We have frequently thought that too little notice was taken, of the learning and critical felicity displayed in the Greek and Roman authors published by Hemsterhusius, Ruhnkenius, Piersoni, Valckenaer, Villoison, Ernesti, Gesner, Brunck, and others of the same order; while some of the editions in usum Delphini, and even certain books with vernacular translations and parsing indices, are highly commended. Perhaps the editor would reply, that these editions are commonly accurate, cheap, and useful; and that he wished to encourage the study of classical literature, and especially to guide poor scholars in their pursuits. If his learning and talents, however, had not been sufficiently manifested, such a species of condescension would have lowered him not a little with the fastidious critic. We acquiesce in the argument of the following extract, concerning the true editio princeps of Pliny.

• Can PLINII SECUNDI Historia Naturalis, libri xxxvii fol. Venet. Jo. de Spira, 1469. EDIT. PRINC. Beautifully executed and extremely

Sold at the Vallierian Sale in 1784, for 1699 livres 19 sous; and at the Hotel de Bullion in 1786, for 3000 livres.

Many respectable Bibliographers have supposed there was an edition of the Natural History of Pliny previous to this; as Cornelius Beughem in his work Incunabula Typographie, 18mo. Amstel. 1688, p. 110 (falsely printed 101) mentions an edition thus : Historia Naturalis, libri xxxvii. noctibus et horis subcisivis. Conscripti, Veronæ 1468. Every person who has looked into Beughem's work, knows it abounds with errors, perhaps beyond any book ever published. It is therefore very likely that Veronæ, MCCCCLXVIII, is a mistake for Ventet. MCCCCLXVIIII, The following considerations lead me to conclude thus: 1. The edition stands solely on the authority of Beughem, who might have either misquoted the edition, as he does several, or found such a work mentioned on some sale catalogue, in which places and dates are repeatedly changed and misplaced. 2dy. Beughem does not mention the Venetian edition of 1469, a presumptive evidence that he, or those from whom he quoted, had misnamed and misdated it, as his book seems to shew. 3dly. It does not appear that printing had been established at Verona before 1470, as the fi-sy book printed in that city was the Batracomiomachia d'Omero, 8vo. In VA

rare.

rona, die xv Januarii, MCCCCLXX. 4thly. Alexander Benedict, who published an edition of Pliny in 1507, mentions Spira's edition as the first : had there been one at Verona in 1468, it is not likely that one who lived so near the time could have been ignorant of it, especially as the nature of his work necessarily led him to consider what preceding editors had done, We may

therefore conclude that no such edition as that of 1468 ever exó isted.” Vol. V. pp. 234, 235.

V. Critical and Philological Works. The books of this class which are enumerated in the dictionary are many; but, on the whole, this departinent of literary industry is not treata ed in a manner corresponding to its importance. "If we except the philological articles which relate to the Persian and Arabic languages, and those which have been above referred to, under the head of biblical criticism, there is a disproportionate reserve on the distinguishing characters of works in this class. While many books, whose only recommendation is their scarceness, are accurately described, we must complain when we see those valuable works, a familiar acquaintance with which is almost indispensable to the attainment of sound learning, omitted, or passed off by a bare epitome of their titles. For example; of Isaac Casaubon only the posthumous epistles are mentioned, in connection with those of his son Meric, and these without any biographical or critical notice;-Hooge, veen's Doctrina Particularum, and the Etymologicum and Analogia of Lennep, Valckenaer, and Scheide, appear only under the most brief and scanty abridgement of their titl.s;a similar defect is seen in regard to the writings of the late Professor Gesner, two of whose works are'assigned to Conrad G. the naturalist of the 16th century; and the following celebrated names in classical criticism and philology are not mentioned in the alphabetical series, though many of them, it is true, necessarily occur under other articles, --- Bentley, Dawes, Muretus, Vigerus, Devarius, Ruhnkenius, J. Alberti, Reiské, Borheck, Koen, Heynè, cum aliis quamplurimis.

VI. Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature. In enumerat. ing and describing the monuments of the miserable divinity and metaphysics of the middle ages, the volumes on our table are sufficiently copious. Alexander ab Ales, the Irrefragable Doctor, and the Father of the Schoolinen; St. Thomas Aquinas, the Angelic Doctor; St. Bonaventure, the Seraphic Doctor; Walter Burley, the Plain Doctor; Ægidius of Rome, the most Solid Doctor: Peter Lombard, Master of Sentences; Peter Comestor, Master of Histories; with a goodly company of their most acute and profound, most grave and sad, pupils and imitators, are all duly honoured in the Bibliographical Dictionary. We find no fault with this. Let each of the solemn triflers enjoy his leaden chair, and his crown of yew and poppies. But we feel much surprise and regret, that the au..

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thor should have neglected so many most valuable theological writers, British and foreign, which his plan apparently included. It is unnecessary to enumerate them, but a considerable list might be forined from Owen and Baxter, down to Stapfer and the Michaelises, of useful and important books of this description, wbich are wholly overlooked. Some, also, of the Remonstrant divines are equally excluded, as Vossius, Episcopias, Tilenus, Vorstius, and Limborch (the Theologia.) The best hooks, we might certainly expect to find inserted, both in the theclogical, and, as we have mentioned above, in the grummatical class. So far, however, as the author's more particular design extended, namely, in enumerating the Apostolical Fathers, ecclesiastical writers, and schoolmen, down to Thomas Aquinas, the Bibliographical Dictionary greatly surpasses any list yet compiled, both for completeness and detail.

VII. Modern Latin Poetry, History, Science, and General Literature.-- This department is executed with superior intelligence and accuracy, especially with respect to the works of the 16th and 17th centuries. The reader will find ground for this commendation in the articles, Vida, Sannazarius, Politian, Picus Mirandula, Thuanus, Ray, Linnæus ; and many besides.

VIII. Books valuable only for their scarceness, though not among the early printed.--To books of this description, the author has been sufficiently attentive, and his accounts of them are very accurate. He also is intitled to our esteem, for his condemnation of that folly and pride, which authors or publishers have manifested, iu destroying valuable copper-plates after very few impressions had been taken, and printing editions of an ercessively small number. For our consolation, however, such books and plates are in general worthy of very little consideration, except for their external beauty, or for their rarity thus disgracefully secured.

IX. Biographical Notices and Anecdotes. These are necessarily short, but they are numeroas, evidently the fruits of extensive reading, and presenting many curious traits of literary history.

As a specimen' we extract the account of Scapula, in which, by the bye, we could wish the various editions had been appropriately characterized.

• JOANNIS SCAPULÆ Lexicon Graco-Latinum, fol. Lugd. Bat. Elzev. 1652. Edit. opt.---This book is now become very scarce, and sells semetimes as high as 51. 5s. The first edition was printed in 1580, and has been often republished since. Though the history of this work is a disgrace to literature, yet it should be more generally known, that the nefarious

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