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German æ, when long, resembles the French cu, and oeu, in the words eux , quvres, and many others; being compounded of the sounds of e long in bath those languages, and of ue in the former, or u in the latter. Not having this last sound in our speech, no Englislı letters can properly express that of the Gerinan diphthong æ; but it approaches nearer to the sound of ei in vein and veil, than to any other in our language,
Some other sounds are very obscurely, or deficiently describe ed; but the preceding remarks may suffice to guard our readers against gross mistakes, and, we hope, also to suggest corrections in a future edition of Dr. R.'s work. Notwithstanding its present defects, we do not scruple to recommend it, on the whole, as a valuable companion for the man of business and the juve nile scholar, It comprises much in a small space; and the German-English part appears to have been executed with laudable diligence, and considerable accuracy. Art. XVII. The Work and Reward of faithful Deacons : a Sermon, addressed to the Baptist Monthly Association, Aug. 21, 1806, &c. By William Newman. 8vo. pp. 48. Price ls, Button. Burditt. THE 'HE institution of Deacons is common to almost all Chris
tian churches; but on the subject of their work, and consequently, in some respects, of their reuord, there exists no small difference of opinion and practice. We think, therefore, that a topic of this kind, which immediately applied to prace tical purposes, and was evidently attended with some difficulty, was wisely appointed for discussion by the association to which the sermon before us was addressed. It is treated with good sense, modlerațion, and seriousness; but we cannot say that the question, whether Deacons are temporal or spiritual officers, appears' to us to be conęlusively decided, or thoroughly investigated, by Mr. N. It is thus stated by him ;
• You opén Dr. Johnson's Dictionary, and he tells you, 66 A Dea. con is one of the lowest of the three orders of the Clergy.” But you are not satisfied with this, because the Church of England, and the Church of Christ, are phrases that do not mean exactly the same thing. * You open the New Testament, and after
passages in the Epistles, you infer that the Deacons are those brethren who are chosen by a Chorch of Christ, to assist the Pastor---to take care of the secular, while he is fully occupied with the spiritual concerns of the church.
• The seven men of honest report, full of the Holy Ghost and wisdom, whose names are recorded in the sixth of Acts, appear to have been extraordinary stewards, chosen for an extraordinary occasion, as must be obvią ous to every attentive reader.
! But in every Church of Christ, the nature and necessity of the case Te quire such officers as will correspond to the definition we have given of Deacons.' p: 7
If we understand the author, in this part, and through the remainder of his discourse, the institution of Deacons rests on the nature and the necessity of the case.”
But these rest on the “s definition he has given of Deacons ;” and this again, rests on “ several passages in the Epistles, from which,” says he,
you infer that the Deacons are,” &c. This might be suffia cient as an argumentum ad hominem ; but it cannot convey either conviction or information, to those who have not made a similar inference from the same premises. The passages alluded to, are not indicated by a single reference to the Scriptures. To have established, or even to have introduced, a general argument on the subject, these passages should have been collected, compared, explained, and practically applied.
The preacher's allusion to the seven (Acts vi.) was highly proper ; because, though they are never called Deacons in the New Testament, they have commonly been regarded as such. He justly observes that they were extraordinary stewards, chosen for a peculiar occasion. The work of a deacon can, therefore, no more be implied from this precedent, than the work of a bishop from that of an evangelist,---supposing the office of the latter to be likewise extraordinary; and if in one case the argument of expediency be admissible, it is equally applicable to the other.
We heartily join with the worthy anthor, in “ wishing for a well-written history of deaconship” (p. 40); as also of all the offices and ordinances of the Christian church. If executed with due research and impartiality, it would tend, perhaps more than any other means, to diminish the differences, and to eradicate the prejudices, that have too long, set pious people in mutual opposition to each other, and have prevented them from uniting against the common enemies of genuine Christianity,
Some notes, which contain valuable illustrations of the subject, conclude with a somewhat copious and interesting cha. racter of the late Rev. Abraham Booth, as a Christian, a divine, a pastor, a literary man, and a friend. We extract the closing paragraph:
* As a universal friend and counsellor, (I had almost said, a Patriarch) he was exceedingly beloved. His extensive and diversified knowledge, his well-tried integrity, his penetration, prudence, and benevolence, occasioned numberless applications for his counsel, not merely from the Baptists, but from Chriștians of almost all parties. Difficult texts of scripture, knotty points of controversy, disputes in churches and private cases of conscience were laid before him in abundance. Şeldom was there an appeal made to the judgement of any other man. It was like “ tak. ing counsel at Abel, and so they ended the matter." Yet he was no dictator. When he had patiently heard the case, and candidly given
his opinion, he would usually say, ' Consult other friends, and thea judge for yourself.' Such a degree of majesty attended him, plain as he was in exterior, that if he sat down with you but a few minutes, you could not help feeling that you had a prince or
a great man in the house. It would sometimes appear to strangers that he was deficient in that winning grace which accompanies softness and sweetness of manner ; but those who were most intimately acquainted with him, are fully prepared to say, there was in general, the greatest delicacy of genuine politeness in his conduct. Many young ministers, (and among them the writer of these lines,) will long deplore their loss. Never surely can we forget how readily he granted us access to him at all times how kindly he counselied us in our difficulties--how faithfully he warned us of our dangers !— With a' mournful pleasure we shall often recollect his gentleness in correcting our mistakes—his tenderness in imploring the divine benediction upon us-his cordial congratulations when he witnessed our prosperity! pp. 47. 48. Art. XVIII. Future Punishment of Endless. Duration. A Sermon, preached at a Monthly Association, &c, Dec. 11, 1806. By Robert Winter,
8vo, pp. 36. Price, ls. Jordan, &c. THE doctrine which is maintained in this discourse, is well
known to be obnoxious not only to the general body of those who assume the title of Unitarians, but likewise to many individuals who have stronger pretensions to that of Christians. Toward the close of the last century, it was violently controverted on both sides of the Atlantic: and few ages have elapsed, since the promulgation of the gospel, in which efforts have not been used to set aside, or to palliate, a tenet, so revolting to the natural feelings of the human heart. The friends of divine tevelation, have, consequently, defended this doctrine on different grounds, according to the different modes in which it was attacked. Mr. W. had the advantage of choosing his own ground in its support, though restricted by the nature of his engagement to a narrow space. We think him, on this account, judicious, in resting his arguments solely on the manner in which the sacred writers have stated the doctrine : but we are apprehensive that he bás inadvertently given some advantage to oppoñents, by depreciating every other mode of vindicating it. Reason, though insufficient to discover many of the truths that are contained in the sacred scriptures, must, if not biased by de. praved affections, approve them when revealed, as agreeaħle to its own genuine dictates.
The Christian always has right reason on his side; and therefore needs not fear to encounter his adversaries with a weapon', of which, though they prefer it in the contest, they really do not understand the
uses: From the scriptures Mr. W. demonstrates, that a state of con. scious and miserable existence is reserved for the unbelieving and disobedient after death, that it then immediately com
mences, that it will be openly awarded to them at the last-day, that it will be their final condition, and will be of endless duration. The last two propositions are hardly discussed with that precision, which their real distinction deaianded. The only difference that we can conceivę between a Gual condition of misery, and its endless duration, lies in supposing the former to terminate in annihilation.
The meaning of the term aww205, necessarily required such investigation as was compatible with a public discourse ; and: Mr. W. has fully demonstrated it to have the same force when applied to the punishment of the wicked, as to the happiness; of the righteous. When, however, he says, that "eyen the eternity of God cannot without dilliculty be proved, if this term do not signify eternity,” he appears to us to express him-, self unguardedly.. Neither that doctrine, nor the immediate subject of bis discourse, nor any other revealed truth, in our: judgement, rests principally on the precise meaning of a single term of the original scriptures. It is on their connected serise, and prevailing tenor, that we rest our hope of salvation, and by: this we would direct our, conduct. The interpretations which Mr. W. gives to Ron. xvi. 25, Titus i. 2. Philemon 15, are ingenious; but we think that any of them might be relinquished without injury to his main argument.
While we have thought it necessary, on a subject of so much importance, to suggest the comparative weakness of a few posi-tions in Mr. W.'s discourse, we feel our obligation to hin for the ability amd the zca! with which, on the whole, he has stated, vindicated, and appliel, the doctrine he was wexpectedly invited to discuss. We do not recollect'any performance, that, in so small a compass, treats of the subject in so 'satisfactory and so profitable a manner.
Art. XIX. The Mechanic's Assistant; or Universal Measurer ; containing a
Collection of Tables of Measures, Weights and Powers of most of the Articles which are applicable to the following Trades and Businesses: Timber Merchants, Architects, Surveyors, Joiners, Carpenters, Stone Masons, Bricklayers, Glaziers, Plaisterer3, Slaters, Engineers; Milla : wrights, Ironmasters Founders, Smiths, Forgemen, Rollers and Slitters of Iron, Braziers, Plumbers, Pumpmakers, Paviors, Brewers, Li. * quor Merchants, Farmers, Millers, and Husbandmen. By W. Roberts.
Leeds. Baines. 12mo, pp. 48. Price 28. 6d. THE tables in this small collection will be found useful to most
of the classes of men for whom it is designed. We could wish that the data, however, on which some of the calculations are made, had been better expirined. The tables for bricklayers' work will puzzle“ mechanies and artificers not conversant with figures," and must, for want of further information, be nearly
unintelligible and useless. The standard to which the measures are reduced in tables 1 and 2 is said to be the rod of 16 ft. sq.; but the thickness of this rod is not stated; and instead of i i bricks which is the standard of reduced brickwork, it
appears to be 3 bricks thick. In the first column of the table, also, the thickness of the given wall advances by bricks, instead of half bricks. In the table which gives the weight of stone according to its cubical content, the species of stone is not mentioned. We are also inclined to prefer aliquot parts to decimals, for practical purposes. The prefatory instructions on the use of the 'sliding rule, will be acceptable to those who possess that convenient instrument; but it would have been an improvement to explain the mode of constructing these tables, arithmetically, as well as by the sliding rule. The tables, on the whole, are printed with respectable correctness : we have not room to point out the inaccuracies we have noticed, but recom. mend Mr. R. to submit his work to some professional man, who may suggest certain corrections, and improvements on matters with' which the author is less immediately conversant. The work in its present state deserves the patronage of the public; but we should give our recommendation with much less scruple, to a revised, and perhaps enlarged edition. Among other defects, the omission of a table of contents, is, in our opinion, deserving of censure. ARr. XX. Etching's representing Fragments of the Antique Grecian
and Roman Architectural Ornaments ; chiefly collected in Italy, before the late Revolutions in that Country, and drawn from the Originals. By Charles Heathcote Tatham, Architect, Imperial Folio. Plates 24. Price 11. 5s. Boards, Gardiner, London. 1806. IT must be admitted,” says Mr. Tatham, “ that the selection of good
ornament in the decoration of buildings, claims no small part of the attention and study of those who wish to display taste and judgment in its application.”
But, in spite of taste and judgement, Fashion will assume the prerogative of determining what shall be esteemed good ornament; and like those beings, whose anxiety is rather to be active than to be useful, immediately reverses her own decrees, declaims against the discarded faa vourites, and supersedes them by really good ornaments, of a nature totally different. Who are the sufferers by these capricious changes ? The an, swer to this question would be a severe rebuke on human occupations ; for how much of the powers of society is wasted upon trifles, while there are so many wants to relieve, and calamities to prevent! The oppressed, the ignorant, and the miserable, are injured, by every misapplication of time and talent, But if we adyert simply to the common calculations of pro. priety, there are many advantages derived from the changes of taste in articles of luxury. The persons who lead the fashion have no reason to complain ; they who follow it, enjoy as many gratifying sensations, as