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ties, are described; and the regular questions which are there considered, relative to the state of the Society, are exhibited, pp. 27–29. Various prevalent errors

are noticed and cor. rected; among which is this, that the society makes good the losses which individuals suffer on conscientious scruples. In these meetings, there is no division, or sumning of numbers for and against a question; the sense of the meeting is ascertained by the opinions delivered, and depends principally on the weight of character by which any sentiment is supported. There is no distinction whatever among the niembers, except that which the silent respect of public opinion bestows; and there is no president, or recognized officer, whó leads the discussions in this assembly. The whole government is considered as a kind of theocracy, in which there is not, however, any visible representative of the Supreme Authority. Under this head, the penal code of Pennsylvania, and its beneficial effects, are described.

Under the title of Peculiar Customs, Mr. C. defends their dress, plain furniture, language, address, maphers, customs connected with meals, marriages, funerals, occupations, settlement of differences, and poor laws. There is much interesting discussion in this part of the work. The following is a description of the Quaker-grace, with its justification:

• When they are all seated at table, they sit in solemn silence, and in thoughtful position, for some time. If the master of the family, during this silence, should feel any religious impression on his mind, whether of praise or thankfulness, on the occasion, he gives utterance to his feelings. Such praise or thanksgiving in him is considered as a devotional act, and as the Quaker-grace. But if, after having waited in silence for some time, he feel no such religious disposition, he utters no religious expression. The Quakers hold it better to say no grace, than to say that, which is not accompanied by the devotion of the heart. In this case he resumes his natural position, breaks the silence by means of natural discourse, and begins to carve for his family or his friends.' Vol. I.

p.

380. This principle, which also operates to their rejection of regular religious services, is obviously founded on the assumption, that religious feelings cannot be excited, even instrumentally, by the will, by external circumstances, or by the recurrence of particular times and seasons. We cannot help thinking, that the man who sits down to his ample repast, day after day, without any impressions of gratitude and piety, must be grossly deceived, if he imagines that his religion will stand the final scrutiny, according to the standard of the Gospel. It is unlucky, that Mr. Clarkson should find it necessary to admit, that expressions of devout thankfulness at a family meal are very rare indeed among the Quakers. The feelings proper to such an occasion, are, of course, equally rare. This peculiarity may be

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deemed characteristic of the Quaker system. For all their tenets, perhaps, there are plausible and striking arguments; but the soundest arguments may be perverted to erroneous conclusions, by reasoning inconsequently, or assuming that what is true partially, is true' universally.

We quote the following anecdote, with the importan comment, as highly deserving attention from every pious reader:

• I was one afternoon at a friend's house, where there happened to be a clergyman of the Scottish church. He was a man deservedly esteemed for his piety. The company was large. Politics had been discussed some time, when the tea-things were introduced. While the bread and butter were bringing in, the clergyman, who had taken an active part in the discussion, put a question to a gentleman who was sitting in a corner of the

The gentleman began to reply, and was proceeding in his answer, when of a sudden I heard a solemn voice. Being surprised, I looked round, and found it was the clergyman, who had suddenly started up, and was saying grace. The solemnity, with which he spoke, occasioned his voice to differ so much from its ordinary tone, that I did not, till I had looked about me, discover who the speaker was. I think he might be engaged from three to four minutes in the delivery of this grace.

I could not help thinking, during the delivery of it, that I never knew any person say grace like this man: nor was I ever so much moved with any grace, or thought I ever saw so clearly the propriety of saying grace, as on this occasion. But when I found that on the very instant the grace was over politics were resumed; when I found that no sooner had the last word in the grace been pronounced, than the next, which came from the clergyman himself, began by desiring the gentleman before mentioned to go on with his reply to his own political question ; I was so struck with the inconsistency of the thing, that the beauty and solemnity of his grace

all vanished. This sudden transition from politics to grace, and from grace to politics, afforded a proof that artificial sentences might be so frequently repeated, as to fail to re-excite their first impressions ; or that certain expressions, which might have constituted devotional acts under devotional feeling, might relapse into heartless forms.' Vol. I. pp. 383, 384.

On the subject of dress, it may be remarked, that the Quaker dress is not positively enjoined by the society ;. it was the customary dress of the times, when first adopted, and was also the cheapest. Any dress equally neat and cheap, and not assumed for the sake of worldly conformity, might, according to the Quaker principles, be used by their members.

It is a good remark of Mr. C., that these peculiarities 66 make the world overseers of the conduct of the Quakers." This is a beneficial consequence, without doubt; but it cannot be urged in favour of Quakerism generally, because in a Quaker community it would cease to apply.

Mr. C.'s statement and defence of the Quaker thee and thou, and their refusal to give flattering titles, is sensible; and if it do not procure proselytes to their dialect, it must, with every considerate reader,defend them from illiberal censure.

We hasten, however, to the most important part of the work, which treats on religion; on this it depends, whether the admission of error shall be harmless, or the perfection of apparent beauty an abomination. It should not be concealed, that, during our examination of the religion of the Quakers, as delineated in this portraiture, we have been very desirous, and almost resolved, to believe, that their advocate, with equal earnestness of intention, has not here the same skill to defend them, as on the questions of manners and discipline. Theology is evidently a subject in which he is not, the most profound adept. But as it is no part of our duty to defend the Quakers for him, we must, in our remarks, consider his picture as accurate.

The doctrines of the Quakers are classed under the following heads : -The Influences of the Holy Spirit; Human Redemption ; Qualifications of Ministers; Conduct of Worship ; Baptism, and the Lord's Supper.

The grand doctrine of the Quakers concerning the Holy Spirit, is thus stated :

• The Quakers believe, that, when the Almighty created the universe, he effected it by means of the life, or vital or vivifying energy, that was in his own Spirit. 5 And the earth was without form, and void; and darkness was upon the face of the deep, and the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters.

· This life of the Spirit has been differently named, but is concisely styled by St. John the evangelist, the Word; for he says, “ In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. All things were made by him, and without him was not any thing made, that was made.

• The Almighty also, by means of the same divine energy, or life of the Spirit, which had thus created the universe, became the cause of material life and of vital functions."

• He created Man also by the same power. He made his corporeal and organic nature. He furnished him also with intellect, or a mental understanding. By this latter gift he gave to Man, what he had not given to other animated nature, the power of reason, by which he had the superiority over it, and by means of which he was enabled to guide himself in his temporal concerns.

• But he gave to Man at the same time, independently of this intellect or understanding, a spiritual faculty, or a portion of the life of his own Spirit, to reside in him. This gift occasioned Man to become more immediately, as is expressed, the image of the Almighty. It set him above the animal and rational part of his nature. It made him know things not intelligible solely by his reason. It made him spiritually-minded.'

• As long as he lived in this divine light of the Spirit, he remained in the image of God, and was perfectly happy ; but, not attending faithfully and perseveringly to this spiritual monitor, he fell into the snares of Satan, or gave way to the temptations of sin. From this moment his condition became changed.... he became dead, as it were, in consequence, as to any knowledge of God, or enjoyment of his presence.'

• It pleased the Almighty, however, not wholly to abandon him in this wretched state, but he comforted him with the cheering promise, that the seed of the woman should some time or other completely subdue sin, or, to use the Scripture language," should bruise the Serpent's head;" or, in. other words, as sin was of a spiritual nature, so it could only be overcome by a spiritual conqueror : and therefore that the same Holy Spirit, or Word, or Divine Principle of Light and Life, which had appeared in creation, should dwell so entirely; and without limit or measure, in the person or body of some one of his descendants, that sin should by him be entirely subdued.'

• He did not entirely cease from bestowing his Spirit upon his posterity: or, in other words, he continued to them à portion of that Light, which enlighteneth every man that cometh into the world. Of the individuals, therefore, who succeeded Adam, all received a portion of this Light. Some, however, enjoyed larger portions of it than others, according as they attended to its influences, or according to the measure given them. Of those, who possessed the greatest share of it, some were the antient patriarchs, such as Noah and Abraham ; and others were the antient scriptural writers, such as Moses and the prophets.' pp. 113–117.

To most readers of theology, Mr. C.'s statement of the Quaker doctrine, concerning the influences of the Holy Spirit, will appear confused and unsatisfactory, if not evasive'; for though, in the progress of the discussion, it is agreed that this Spirit is distinct from the light of reason, such quotations are given from the writings of heathen philosophers, as will lead many to suspect that the Spirit of the Quakers is the Conscience of other men. On this subject, we could have particularly wished an explicit s'atement, that we might have enjoyed the pleasure of repelling the calumny, that Quakerism is only refined deism.

When Mr. C. attempts to prove the universality of these influences, by the words of the apostle, “the manifestation of the Spirit is given to every man, to profit withal,” we appeal to his good sense, and impartial judgement, on examining the original, whether he has not put upon it a meaning which it was never designed to speak. What, but attachment to a systeni, would suggest any other idea from the phrase, than that, as the Holy Spirit was variously dispensed to different persons, it was given to every one of them, not for vain ostentation, but for profitable uses. The necessity of these divine influences, however, is so well argued, and so ably supported by quotations from the best divines, that we are, upon the whole, inclined to hope, that the true scriptural doctrine of the Holy Spirit was designed to be taught, and that we have to lament some obscurity of views, rather than any material error, or intentional evasion.

(To be concluded in our next Number.)

Art. VIII. Lives of Cardinal Alberoni, and the Duke of Ripperda, Mi

nisters of Philip V. King of Spain. By George Moore, Esq. 2 vols. in 1. 8vo. pp. 335. price 7s. Faulder, 1806. TH CHESE two lives have no natural connection ; and on this

account probably, Mr. M. has nominally divi led his volume. But they have a considerable similarity, as relating to individuals who, with very different qualifications, reached the highest offices, and in their day “kept the world alive."

However we may condemn many of the measures, and the general policy of Alberoni, he certainly possessed extraordinary and admirable talents. His enterprises were planned upon a grand scale, and the failure of some of them resulted more, perhaps, from incapacity in the instruments, than from want of ability in the contriver. We are inclined to think, that if he had been less precipitate, if he had reserved his means, and waited for a more favourable opportunity, he might have succeeded in producing considerable alterations in the state of Europe and America.

These remarks will not be considered as involving any approbation of Alberoni's character, or any acquiescence in the principles on which the common notions of greatness are founded ; but while millions of murders make a hero, and while he is the greatest man, who conceives and executes the boldest designs, without regarding the waste of life and happiness, and the real worthlessness of the object, so long will the deadly laurel flourish round the tomb of Alberoni.

As for Ripperda, it is difficult to consider him in any other character than that of a madman. Possessing wealth and consideration in his native country, he quitted it, obtained,

upon false pretences,” the highest preferment under a foreign government, was soon precipitated from the pinnacle of prosperity, and after changing and rechanging his religion, and assuming all possible shapes, completed his eventful and instructive life, by dying in a semibarbarous land, a victim to the delusions of a depraved heart, and a feverish imagination.

As we have had occasion, in another part of our Review,* to give a general outline of Alberoni's administration, we shall confine ourselves to the circumstances of his origin and rise to power.

Julius Alberoni was the son of a gardener in Placentia. His busy, officious, pushing disposition, attracted the notice first of "a Spanish priest," and afterwards of “ some Bar abite friars ;" by the first, he was taught to read and write, and the rudiments of the Latin tongue," and from the latter he received additional instruction and the appointment of Bellringer to the Cathedral.

* See Review of Marmontel's Histoire de la Regence. Vol. II. p. 954.

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