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necessary; delivering the patient from the risk of those fearful reactions known as quininism, morphism, chloralism, bromidism, mercurialisation, etc.

Again in what physicians term "the expectant treatment" the simple Ozone water is perticularly efficacious. In any perceptible impairment or weakening of the nervous and muscular systems, its persistent use can be relied upon to restore health. Women anticipating the change of life will find it a proper remedy in their case. It exercises a restorative influence in convalescence after long and exhausting sickness, eradicating whatever susceptibility may exist for any relapse.

These results are all to be attributed, we cannot repeat too often, to the antizymotic quality of Ozone. It purifies the blood, arrests and prevents decomposition in the fluids and tissues of the body, assures the purity of the blood-forming material and invigorates the nervous and muscular structures. The various and complicated functions of the system are thus performed with uninterrupted regularity and the individual sustained in health. It is a corrective, aperient, alterative and purifier of the circulation. Its beneficial effects are speedily derived in all forms of intestinal disease, malarial or choleraic; also in rheumatism, and in short all disorders owing their existence to a depressed condition of the nervous system or a morbid state of the blood. It is equally efficacious as a lotion for open wounds, ulcers, eruptions of the skin, diseases of the eye and ear, blood-poisoning, and inflammations generally; in fact, all ailments characterised by morbid glandular secretions, or discharges from membranes or tissues. In cutaneous eruptions, whether contagious or non-contagious, its judicious and persistent use, under the direction of the physician and according to directions, can hardly fail to ameliorate and eventually to eradicate the disorder, however it may be seated.

Distinguished physicians have given the same testimony. Professor Mohl, of Heidelberg, in a recent lecture, declared the Ozone Therapeutics to be the greatest and most important characteristic in future medication. Professor Kuhne and Dr. Scholz also declare their conviction, derived from experience, that Ozone must and will be a permanent factor in the medical practice of the future.

THE GANGLIONIC NERVOUS SYSTEM: ITS RELATIONS TO THE VITAL FUNCTIONS AND MORAL NATURE. By ALEXANDER Wilder.

Whether we propose the study of the corporeal structure as philosophers, or simply as physiologists, we shall find the proper understanding of the nervous organism, its functions and relations to be essential for our purpose. We cannot afford to rest content with an imperfect or superficial apprehension, but must push our research to the very core of the matter. It is very incumbent upon us to learn all that is already known, and to endeavor earnestly to find out whatever else we may be able. The significance of this knowledge consists in the intermediate relation which this organism sustains between the psychic nature and the bodily frame-work. The union which exists through this medium constitutes the physical life. The moral and mental qualities are thereby brought out and carried into outward manifestation and activity. Man is thus the synthesis of the universe, including in himself the subjective principles of existence, together with the objective factor which they permeate.

It is a common practice of teachers and writers, accordingly, to treat of him as twofold, a body and soul. Knowledge is classified, accordingly, as physical or scientific, and metaphysical or beyond the province of phenomenal observation. All philosophy, moral and mental science, and whatever relates to causes and principles, are thus comprehended under the department of metaphysics, as being beyond the limits of sensuous knowing. They are the higher and more important, as pertaining to the actually real, and as furnishing the ground-work for the right understanding of things. The sentiment of optimism, that all the creation and events partake of good and are from it, is from the metaphysical source, evolved out from the interior depths of the mind. On the other hand, the views of life and action which are frequently denominated practical, have their ulterior origin in a gloomy notion that all things are controlled from the worst.

In order to redeem scientific knowledge from this morbific tendency, it is necessary to employ other modes of thinking. The method of phenomenal induction which is often praised as leading to exactness, is a faulty process of reasoning. Nobody ever discovered anything essential by it. There is a faculty of the mind which transcends these limitations, and even anticipates discoveries. "The spirit of man," says Bacon, "is as the lamp of God, wherewith he searcheth the inwardness of all secrets."

The influence of the mind, or to speak more precisely, the emotional conditions, upon the body, in causing and curing disease, is recognised by intelligent persons everywhere. That grief, fear and remorse exhaust the vital energy, and that hope and faith renew it, are well-known facts. "The great art of life," remarks a distinguished author, "is to manage well the restless mind." The unconscious and invisible physiological movements and processes are effects of which the soul is the producing cause. What is usually called nature and law in this matter, is but a name for these indications.

The distinction between moral and mental endowments is universally admitted. We are to conceive of the soul as the essential selfhood, but nevertheless as not exactly identical with mind or spirit. Sometimes it is not easy to make this distinction, but generally the spirit is considered as as an entity transcending the soul in its nature and province. The Supreme Being is essentially spirit rather than soul. That entity in man which assimilates to the Divinity is denominated spirit by the Hebrew writers, and mind (noos) by the Greeks. The relation of the mind to spirit, soul and intellect are pretty well illustrated in these two passages: "There is a spirit in man and the inspiration (NaSaMA) of the Almighty giveth them understanding." "And the Lord God formeth man-dust of the ground-and He breatheth into his nostrils the breath (NaSaMA) of lives and man becomes a living soul" (NaPhaS). The understanding is the logical or reasoning faculty, and not the pure or intuitive reason. It nevertheless is an outcome or descent from the higher principle. The soul as contrasted with the body is

spirit or spiritual; but of itself it is the individuality as distinct from the higher, diviner principle. "In other words," says Professor George Bush, "the soul is that principle in man that constitutes his true personality; and this is but another form of saying that the soul is the man himself, as a living, thinking, feeling, active being. Sir William Hamilton also says: "I define psychology, the science conversant about the phenomena of the mind, or conscious subject, or self, or ego." Heyne is perhaps a little more explicit. He explains the word psychic or psychical as describing the human soul in its relations to sense, appetite, and the outer visible world; and psychological as pertaining to the spiritual or rational faculties which have to do with the supersensible world. He is tolerably correct.

I must protest totally and unqualifiedly against the use of the term psychology to denote displays of weird and curious phenomena. The other definition, to signify the condition and peculiar manifestation of insanity, is equally objectionable.

It is not always easy to keep rigidly close to distinctions of meaning. While, for example, mind properly signifies the spiritual nature, we are obliged by everyday usage to understand by it also the understanding or rational faculty. Such disorders as insanity in its various types, and many which betray nervous derangement, are usually classed as forms of mental aberration, although the moral element is in a degree overlooked.

The psychical nature is two-fold; one division is intellectual and perceives; the other is moral and feels. The latter is closest to the physical life, the former to the spiritual. The two are constantly in operation side by side, so to speak; and at times are not in harmony with each other. We feel and desire in one direction, when sometimes we are convinced the other way. Pleasure and pain belong to the emotional nature; happiness and unhappiness to the other.

PSYCHIC PHYSIOLOGY.

It is almost unnecessary to state that so far as relates to the physical nature, the whole mental and psychic portion of

our being is assigned to the nervous system. I repudiate, however, the proposition that emotion, thought and intellection are merely products of that part of our structure. The soul has not grown out of the physical nature like a mushroom out of a dunghill. It made the external nature and is not made by it. The faculty of intellection, expressed by thought, speech and act, is the soul's patent of nobility from the eternal world. Having this patent, the spirit of man goeth or aspireth upward, while that of the beast goeth downward to the earth. Because such is the intuitional nature of man he has a brain and outlying nervous structure superadded to the vital and organic system, made by the fashioning energy of the mind, which no animal has. The form of the body follows and is shaped by the direction of the soul. Hence as bramble-bushes do not produce grapes, nor are produced from seeds of grapes, so the human soul is never formed in association with a body or nature other than human.

The nervous system, like the psychical nature, is two-fold. There is the cerebro-spinal axis, consisting of the brain, the commissures and other fibres, the sensorium, spinal cord and nerves; and the sympathetic or ganglionic system, consisting of the various ganglia of the viscera and spinal region, with the prolongations and cords which unite them to each other and to other parts and organs. The origin of the sympathetic system, as fetal dissections abundantly prove, is the great semilunar ganglion in the region of the diaphragm. It is the part first formed as the common centre, from which the rest of the organism proceeds, differentiating into the various tissues and structures. That it is the central point of the emotional nature is apparent to anybody's consciousness. The instinct of the child and the observation of the intelligent adult abundantly confirm this.

A ganglion is a collection of nervous cells and molecules, which are regarded as elaborating and giving off nervous force. The sympathetic system is denominated the ganglionic, because it consists distinctively, to a prominent degree, of ganglia and nerve-structure of that character. The chief ganglion is denominated semilunar from its peculiar shape. That

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