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or pigmy,' which occurs in the Book of Taliessin, poem vii. (p. 135) = Gogon py pegor
I know what (sort of) pigmy
There is beneath the sea.
I know their kind,
Each in his troop. Also the following lines in the twelfth-century manuscript of the Black Book of Carmarthen: see Evans' autotype facsimile, fo. 9':Ar gnjuer pegor
And every dwarf j ssit j dan mor.
There is beneath the sea, Ar gnjuer edeinauc
And every winged thing
The Mighty One hath made,
And were there to each
Thrice three hundred tonguesNjellynt ve traethaud.
They could not relate kyuoetheu  trindaud
The powers of the Trinity. I should rather suppose, then, that the pigmies in the water-world were believed to consist of many grades or classes, and to be innumerable like the Luchorpáin of Irish legend, which were likewise regarded as diminutive. With the Luchorpáin were also associated Fomori or Fomoraig (modern Irish spelling Fomhoraigh), and Goborchinn, ‘Horse-heads.' The etymology of the word Fomori has been indicated at p. 286 above, but Irish legendary history has long associated it with muir, 'sea,' genitive mara, Welsh mor, and it has gone so far as to see in them, as there suggested, not submarine but transmarine enemies and invaders of Ireland. So the singular fomor, now written fomhor, is treated in O'Reilly's Irish Dictionary as meaning 'a pirate, a sea robber, a giant,' while in Highland Gaelic, where it is written fomhair or famhair, it is regularly used as the word for giant. The Manx Gaelic corresponding to Irish fomor and its derivative fomorach, is foawr, 'a giant,' and foawragh, 'gigantic, but also 'a pirate.'
· See the Revue Celtique, i. 257, and my Hibbert Lectures, pp. 92-3.
I remember hearing, however, years ago, a mention made of the Fomhoraigh, which, without conveying any definite allusion to their stature, associated them with subterranean places: - An undergraduate from the neighbourhood of Killorglin, in Kerry, happened to relate in my hearing, how, when he was exploring some underground ráths near his home, he was warned by his father's workmen to beware of the Fomhoraigh. But on the borders of the counties of Mayo and Sligo I have found the word used as in the Scottish Highlands, namely, in the sense of giants, while Dr. Douglas Hyde and others inform me that the Giant's Causeway is called in Irish Clochán na bh-Fomhorach.
The Goborchinns or Horse-heads have also an interest, not only in connexion with the Fomori, as when we read of a king of the latter called Eocha Eachcheann', or Eochy Horse-head, but also as a link between the Welsh afanc and the Highland water-horse, of whom Campbell has a good deal to say in his Popular Tales of the West Highlands. See more especially iv. 337, where he remarks among other things, that 'the water-horse assumes many shapes; he often appears as a man,' he adds, and sometimes as a large bird.' A page or two earlier he gives a story which illustrates the statement, at the same time that it vividly reminds one of that part of the Conwy legend which (p. 130) represents the afanc resting his head on the lap of the damsel forming one of the dramatis personæ.
Here follows Campbell's own story, omitting all about a marvellous bull, however, that was in the end to checkmate the water-horse :
'A long time after these things a servant girl went with the farmer's herd of cattle to graze them at the side of a loch, and she sat herself down near the bank. There, in a little while, what should she see walking
1 The Four Masters, A. M. 3520. RHYS
towards her but a man, w
was in her heart? Now whe er the houses she gave a glane Where de her friend com
Teine form belongs also mo the dame of the Lowlands of
iegend oi ina
and a lid put on the well, i me beas.
guard. In the sequel she E is in the
"st forth and formed Lough proizably to look
-d, p. 382 above. What DETRIOS as that other
'these stories one is not horas ears, and
-re originally represented Labrad Lor! in bu
water where each of them TE Teducei almost u
of Undine at her unmere her ears alon
the procession she myscenough from the V
'ite figure deeply veiled, mate ore detects the
ling at the grave, where Nae Cornwall, ax:
seen save a little silver bably the same name in the
er out of the turf and by rate Morc, Marc, or
grave :-Da man sich
liremde verschwunden; name as the Welsh Maror, than march, 'a steed or charger.
to quoll ein silberhelles s not stated to have had borse's a ranz umzogen hatte ;
**** selte und rieselte fort, called Conaing are representes en Chirinen Weiher, der feath Erin as the naval aan
estise which would seeri : Irae te to be treater
! Gilla Decair may
itin. Fomorach, and e. But shott ni tataguse me back most of
mount. Then towards Corka.c and his horse
Thus Finn's risoners to an quest of them „reat perils, he - 1b Unda,' and
the number ation of the whole Joyce's Old
. 107 Tacras das calier, The ey larution Labrust More, and thus be kodu Lowe? Contato Low disproged in the fie
en called Lorare la antes pertraps as a Lagenda 3. 7o; al Diamond
towards her but a man, who asked her to fasg his hair [Welsh tteua). She said she was willing enough to do him that service, and so he laid his head on her knee, and she began to array his locks, as Neapolitan damsels also do by their swains. But soon she got a great fright, for growing amongst the man's hair, she found a great quantity of liobhagach an locha, a certain slimy green weed that abounds in such lochs, fresh, salt, and brackish. The girl knew that if she screamed there was an end of her, so she kept her terror to herself, and worked away till the man fell asleep as he was with his head on her knee. Then she untied her apron strings, and slid the apron quietly on to the ground with its burden upon it, and then she took her feet home as fast as it was in her heart? Now when she was getting near the houses, she gave a glance behind her, and there she saw her caraid (friend) coming after her in the likeness of a horse.'
The equine form belongs also more or less constantly to the kelpie of the Lowlands of Scotland and of the Isle of Man, where we have him in the glashtyn, whose amorous propensities are represented as more repulsive than what appears in Welsh or Irish legend: see p. 289 above, and the Lioar Manninagh for 1897, p. 139. Perhaps in Man and the Highlands the horsy nature of this being has been reinforced by the influence of the Norse Nykr, a Northern Proteus or old Nick, who takes many forms, but with a decided preference for that of 'a gray water-horse': see Vigfusson's Icelandic-English Dictionary. But the idea of associating the equine form with the water divinity is by no means confined to the Irish and the Northern nations : witness the Greek
'In another version Campbell had found it to be sand and nothing else.
* As to this incident of a girl and a supernatural, Campbell says that he had heard it in the Isle of Man also, and elsewhere.