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and of Tiras or the Thracians. The inhabitants of Asia Minor, near the site of Troy, would in their emigrations westward naturally pass through Thrace; then follow the course of the Danube, and of its several subsidiary streams, till they came to the sources of the Vistula, the Elbe, the Weser and the Rhine, which would conduct them to the northwestern parts of Europe. But whatever course they pursued, it is certain the Goths, at a very early period, occupied Scandinavia a general name of the country north of the Baltic, and hence the names Gothland, and Gottenburg, in Sweden. They were distinguished by historians, into Ostrogoths, [Eastern Goths) and Visigoths, [Western Goths.] From them are descended the modern Swedes and Danes, whose languages, at this day, demonstrably prove the fact of their common origin.

Another tribe or family nearly allied to the Goths, were the Teutones or Teutons, whose residence was on the south of the Baltic. These were the ancestors of the modern Ger

The Belgic tribes must have been more nearly allied to the Teutons, than to the Goths. The present German and Dutch languages prove this fact.

Tacitus informs us that of the Germans, those that bordered on the ocean were called Ingaevones ; those in the midland country, Hermiones ; and the others, Istaevones. De Mor. Germ. 2. The word Ingaevones is formed of two Teutonic words, Ing or Eng, a meadow or plain, and woner or wohner, to dwell. These then were inhabitants of the level country near the Elbe and Wesser, and along the sea coast. Their descendants were among the conquerors of Britain, in the fifth century, and from them England derives its present name; the land of the Angles, Engles. The Saxons probably occupied an interior situation in Germany ; but they composed a large proportion of the conquerors of Britain, and the Welsh still call the English, Saesons. The Danes, who afterwards conquered England, maintained the domin

mans.

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ion a few years; and considerable numbers of them settled in the country, particularly in the northern part; but their number was small compared with that of the Saxon inhabitants. They spoke the Gothic dialect, as the Angles and Saxons did the Teutonic; and they infused a portion of their dialect into our language. The Normans, [North men] who first conquered and gave name to Normandy in France, and whose prince, William, conquered England, were also of Gothic origin. But although William bestowed the best estates in England on his followers, and many of the nobility are descended from them, yet the number of Normans who settled in England was not sufficient to affect materially the character of the population. The influence of the Norman kings fortified by an act of parliament, enjoining the use of the Norman language in the courts of justice; was not sufficient to restrain the use of the Saxon or native language of the inhabitants, and after an experiment of three hundred years, the act was repealed.

We come then to the following conclusions. That the Gaels, in the Highlands of Scotland, are the remains of the primitive Celts, the direct descendants of Javan, or the Greeks ; that is, of the families that first migrated westward along the southern border of Europe ; perhaps the direct descendants of the Rodanim or Gauls.

The Welsh are the descendants of the Cimbri, from Jutland in Denmark, probably of Celtic origin, or a mixture of Celts and Goths.

The body of the English nation is from Teutonic ancestors, the Angles and Saxons, with a mixture of Danish blood; but the inhabitants of Cornwall, or the southwestern part of England are, to a considerable extent, of Celtic origin; their ancestors not having been expelled or exterminated by the Saxons.

The genuine descendants of the English in the United States, derive their origin then directly from the Angles and Saxons, of the north of Germany; and the Germans and

Goths are descendants from Gomer, and Ashkenaz, or from Tiras.

But here must be mentioned an important fact that seems to militate against the opinion, that the English and Germans are descendants of Gomer, or the Japhetic family that settled in Phrygia and the adjoining country. The fact is this ; it is demonstrably certain, from the existence of a great number of English and German words in the Persian language to this day, that Persia was once the seat of our ancestors. The same fact may be evinced from the sameness of dress and customs between the ancient Persians and the Celtic and Teutonic races in Europe. In regard to words, the fact is too clear to admit of a question. Thus God, father, mother, brother, daughter, name, bind, band, and hundreds of others, are now Persian words; and so is am, the substantive verb. The Saxon Chronicle affirms that the first inhabitants of Britain came from Armenia.*

Now in the tenth of Genesis, Elam is said to be the son of Shem; and all authorities sacred and profane agree that Elam was Persia. In Genesis 14 we read of Chedorlaomer, King of Elam. Ezra and the prophets repeatedly mention Elam as an eastern country. Daniel expressly mentions Shushan in the province Elam. In 1 Maccabees, chapter 6, Elymais is said to be in the country of Persia; and the Elamites mentioned Acts 2, 9, were of that country, which was situated between Media and Mesopotamia. To these authorities may be added that of Strabo. Now if Elam belonged to the family of Shem, and the Persians were of that stock, how came the Celtic and Teutonic words mentioned

* In the Persian copy of the Scriptures, the first verse of Genesis runs thus. Dar awwal afrid Gode mar an ashman wamar an Zemin. In the beginning created God the heaven and the earth.

Dar is our word door. In Persian, it signifies a door or gate, and is the preposition in. Awwal, is Arabic. Gode is God, [Chode, Khode.] An is Celtic. Ashman or eshmen, is Hebrew, Arabic and Syriac. And Zemin, earth, is the Russian Zemlia,whence corruptly Zembla, in Nova Zembla, new land, that is recently discovered.

above in Persia ? For according to my recollection, these words and many others, which might be mentioned, are not found in any of the Shemitic dialects. The ancestors of the Russians or the Slavonic family occupied the country north of Elam, and may be said to have been in the neighborhood, yet the words mentioned, except mat, mother, are not in the Russian.

Now the great number of Celtic and Teutonic words, which, notwithstanding the lapse of more than three thousand years, remain distinct and unobscured, in the language of Persia, evinces, beyond a doubt, that the ancestors of the present races in the west of Europe, must have been inhabitants of Persia ; and must have formed a nation or large tribe, so numerous that the wars and revolutions of that country have not extinguished the race of their descendants, or blended them with other nations, so as entirely to extinguish their language.

Sir William Jones, in a letter to a friend, expresses his surprise at finding English words in Persia. But in his sixth discourse to the Asiatic Society, Researches, Vol. 2, he states the result of his inquiries into the ancient languages of Persia. From this it appears, that anterior to the conquests of the Mohammedans, two very different languages had been used in Persia, the Pahlavi and the Zend; the Pahlavi having a common origin with the Chaldaic, a branch of the Shemitic language ; and the Zend, from the same source as the Sanscrit. The Sanscrit or ancient language of India, it is agreed by all the gentlemen acquainted with it, is from the same stock as the Greek and Latin.

Hence it is certain that one part of Persia or Iran, was originally peopled by the race of Shem. The northern part, bordering on Media was the seat of the families from which the Teutonic nations descended. The number of Teutonic words in the language of that country, which have survived the revolutions of time, places this fact beyond all controversy.

In addition to this it may be stated, that the ancestors of the Celtic and Teutonic nations have, in their progress westward, left indubitable evidence of their migration through Asia Minor, in the names of rivers, mountains or cities, some of which may now be recognized, and more, in the writings of Strabo and I'liny, in their descriptions of that country.

If Elam of the stock of Shem ever possessed the seat of our ancestors, it is most probable that the ancestors of the Teutonic race had occupied the country before the Shemitic tribe, who may have conquered the country, and compelled a large portion of the prior inhabitants to migrate, leaving however the poorer classes or a numerous part, on the soil, who became the subjects of the conquerors. This is a difficulty in the history of men, which seems not to have occurred to any writer whose works I have read; I can only state the facts, and leave the solution to persons who have more knowledge of the subject, or better means of obtaining it,

than I possess.

The fact however that the ancestors of the inhabitants of Europe once accupied Persia, will serve to account perhaps for the common origin of the primitive language of Hindoostan, and of the Greek and Latin. The first families of the Hindoo race must have been of the same race as those of Greece, Italy and Germany; and must have migrated to the east from the same country, Persia.

Another inference is deducible from this fact; that the difference of complexion between the Hindoos, Greeks and Germans, must be entirely owing to climate, for if their ancestors spoke the same language, they must all have been of one family, and if of the same family, their complexion must have originally been similar.

I understand that the gentlemen in India, who have become well versed in the languages of that great Peninsula, comprehending the members of the Asiatic Society, and some of the Missionaries, agree that the numerous languages of that country are dialects of the Sanscrit or of one primitive

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