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§ 1. Killing the Divine King, pp. 1-59.—The high gods mortal, pp. 1-5;

human gods also mortal and therefore put to death in their prime, before

decay sets in, p. 5 sq.; common men for the same reason prefer a violent

death, pp. 6-8; the Chitomné, the Ethiopian kings of Meroe, and other

African kings and chiefs put to death, especially on any symptom of bodily

decay, pp. 8-13; in South India kings kill themselves after reign of twelve

years, p. 14 sq.; mitigation of this rule in case of king of Calicut, p. 15;

kings regularly succeeded by their murderers in Bengal, Passier in

Sumatra, and among the old Slavs, pp. 15-17 ; substitutes put to death

for Sultan of Java, p. 17 sq.; Dorian kings liable to be deposed every eight.

years, on sign of falling star, p. 18 sq.; falling stars feared, pp. 19-21,

regarded as souls of dead, pp. 21-23; mock king put to death every year

at Babylonian festival of the Sacaea, probably as a substitute for the real

king, pp. 24-26; king of Ngoio killed after reign of one day, p. 26; in

Cambodia and Siam king abdicates annually and is replaced for a short

time by a temporary king, pp. 26-30; temporary king at the beginning of

each reign, p. 30 sq.; these temporary kings perform magical functions and

sometimes belong to the royal stock, pp. 31-34 ; members of royal families

liable to be sacrificed at Alus and Orchomenus in Greece, pp. 34-38;

kings and also common people sacrifice their children among the Semites,

pp. 38-40; references to the custom in Scripture, pp. 40-43; probably

the victims were the firstborn, pp. 43-47 ; this confirmed by tradition of

origin of Passover, pp. 47-50; children, especially the firstborn, sacrificed

by other peoples besides the Semites, pp. 51-55; thus king probably

allowed to sacrifice first his son and afterwards a criminal instead of him.

self, p. 55 sq.; soul of deceased transmitted to successor, pp. 56-59.

§ 2. Killing the Tree-spirit, pp. 59-70.–King of the Wood probably killed

formerly at end of set term, p. 59 sq.; pretence of killing leaf-clad repre-
sentatives of tree-spirit (the Pfingstl, the Wild Man, the King) every year

at Whitsuntide in Germany and Austria, pp. 60-65; tree-spirit killed
annually lest he should grow old and feeble, p. 65 sq.; resemblance of
these modern mummers to the King of the Wood, p. 66 sq.; a mock
human sacrifice often substituted for a real one, pp. 67-70.

§ 3. Carrying out Death, pp. 70-115.-Death and burial of the Carnival repre-

sented in eff or by living person in Italy, Spain, France, Austria, and

Germany, pp. 71-81; ceremonies of the same sort in Greece and Esthonia,

p. 81 sq.; pretence of resurrection, p. 82; effigy of Death carried out

and thrown away or destroyed in Lent, pp. 82-86; “Sawing the

Old Woman” at Mid-Lent, pp. 86-89, practised by gypsies on Palm

Sunday, p. 89 sq.; effigies of Lent with seven legs rent in pieces, p. 90 sq.;

carrying out of Death followed by a pretence of bringing in Summer, which

is represented by a tree, branches, a puppet, or a living person, pp. 91.94 ;

in these customs the effigies of Death and the Carnival probably repre-

sented originally the dying or dead tree-spirit or spirit of vegetation,

pp. 94-99; contrast between vegetation in winter and spring represented

by dramatic contest between actors who play the parts of Winter and

Summer, pp. 99-103 ; struggle between representatives of summer and

winter among the Esquimaux, p. 103 sq.; funeral of Kostrubonko, Kupalo,

Kostroma, Yarilo, and other vegetation-spirits in Russia, pp. 105-107 ;

in these ceremonies sorrow mixed with joy, affection with fear, p. 107 ;

Albanian ceremony of throwing Kore into a river, p. 108; the fair of

Rali in India, p. 108 sq.; the foregoing ceremonies magic rites intended

by means of sympathetic magic to secure the revival of vegetation in

spring, pp. 110-113; analogous ceremonies performed by the Central

Australian savages at the approach of the rainy season, pp. 113-115.

$ 5. Attis, pp. 130-137. - Attis a Phrygian deity of vegetation, his death and

resurrection annually celebrated, pp. 130-132 ; originally a tree-spirit, but
also identified with the corn, pp. 132-134 ; his priests probably slain in

the character of the god, pp. 134-136; Hyacinth perhaps another
embodiment of the flowery spring, his death annually mourned at
Amyclae, p. 136 sq.

§ 8. Demeter and Proserpine, pp. 168-222.— Myth of Demeter and Proserpine,

p. 168 sq.; annual death and resurrection of Proserpine represented in her

rites, p. 169; Demeter interpreted by Mannhardt as the Barley-mother or

Corn-mother, p. 169 sq.; the Corn-mother in modern superstition,

p. 170 sq.; the Corn-mother present in the last corn cut at harvest,

pp. 171-173; the last sheaf also called the Harvest-mother, the Great

Mother, the Grandmother, the Old Man, the Old Woman, pp. 173-176;

in Scotland the last sheaf sometimes called the Cailleach or Old Wife,

pp. 176-178, in Wales the Hag (Wrach), p. 178 sq., and among the

Slavs the Baba or Boba (Old Woman), p. 179 sq.; the Harvest Queen in

England, p. 181; the spirit of the corn as Mother-corn or Old Woman

present in last corn threshed, p. 181 sq.; pretence of birth on harvest-

field, p. 182 sq.; Harvest-Child, Kern-Baby, the Mell, p. 183; last sheaf

called the Maiden in some parts of Scotland, pp. 184-186; the Oats-bride,

the Wheat-bride, p. 186 sq.; corn-spirit sometimes represented in Scotland

simultaneously as an old and a young woman (Cailleach and Maiden),
pp. 187-190 ; analogy of these harvest customs to spring customs previously
described, p. 190 sq.; marks of a primitive ritual, p. 191 sq.; the spring
and harvest customs in question bear these marks, p. 192 ; this supported
by analogy of harvest customs in other parts of the world, p. 192 599.;
Peruvian Mother of the Maize, p. 193 sq.; Mexican harvest customs,
p. 194 sq.; the Mother-cotton in the Punjaub, p. 195; harvest custom
among the Berbers, p. 195 sq. ; securing the “ soul of the rice " in Borneo
and Burma, pp. 196-198; the Rice-mother and Rice-child among the
Malays, pp. 198-201; marriage of Rice-bride and Rice-bridegroom in
Java, p. 201 sq.; among the Mandan and Minnitaree Indians the goddess

of the corn personated by old women, p. 203 sq. ; the spirit of the corn

sometimes represented simultaneously in male and female form by a man

and woman, p. 204 ; this representation based on idea that plants are

propagated by the intercourse of the sexes, p. 204; intercourse of the

human sexes resorted to or mimicked as a sympathetic charm to promote

the growth of the crops, pp. 204-209; continence sometimes practised for

the same purpose, pp. 209-211 ; illicit love supposed to blight the crops,

pp. 211-214 ; suggested origin of Lent, p. 214; why profligacy and con-

tinence should both be supposed to affect the crops, pp. 214-216; Demeter

and Proserpine originally the Corn-mother and the Corn-maiden, pp. 216-

218; why the Greeks represented the com in duplicate as mother and

daughter, pp. 218-222.

§ 9. Lityerses, pp. 222-261.-Death and resurrection of Adonis, Attis, Osiris,

and Dionysus probably originated in simple rustic rites at harvest and

vintage, p. 222 ; some of these rites known to us, p. 223 ; Maneros,

Linus, and Bormus plaintive songs or cries uttered by reapers and

vintagers in Egypt, Phoenicia, and Bithynia, p. 223 sq.; similar song

called Lityerses sung at reaping and threshing in Phrygia, p. 224; story

how Lityerses wrapped strangers in sheaves on the harvest-field and cut off

their heads, p. 224 sq.; parallels to the legend in modern harvest customs,

p. 225 599.; reaper, binder, or thresher of last corn, as representing the

corn-spirit, wrapt in com, beaten, drenched with water, etc., pp. 225-229;

corn-spirit killed at reaping or threshing, p. 230 sq.; corn-spirit repre-

sented by passing stranger who is seized and wrapt in corn, p. 232 sq.;

pretence made of killing a stranger or the master himself on the harvest-

field or at threshing, pp. 233-235; passing stranger treated at the madder-

harvest as the spirit of the madder, pp. 235-237 ; human beings killed to

promote the fertility of the fields in America, Africa, India, etc., pp. 237-

241 ; human sacrifices for this purpose among the Khonds, pp. 241-246 ;

analogy of these savage rites to harvest customs of Europe, p. 247 sq.;

both in Europe and in Phrygia human beings formerly slain at harvest as

representatives of the corn-spirit, pp. 250-252; in Phrygia the victims may

have been priestly kings, p. 250 ; relation of Lityerses to Attis, p. 250 sq.;

the Bormus song probably a lamentation of reapers over slain corn-spirit,

P. 252 ; the Linus song probably sung by vintagers and reapers over the

dead spirit of the vines and the corn, p. 252 sq.; Linus perhaps the

rustic prototype of Adonis, p. 253 ; Adonis or Tammuz perhaps once

represented by a human victim, possibly by the mock king of the Sacaea

at Babylon, p. 253 sq.; Osiris as the slain corn-spirit represented by red-

haired men whose ashes were winnowed, pp. 254-257 ; ancient harvest

cries (Maneros, Linus, Lityerses, Bormus) announced the death of the

corn-spirit, p. 257 sq.; modern harvest cries (Devonshire “crying the

Neck,” etc.), pp. 258-261.

§ 10. The Corn-spirit as an Animal, pp. 261-318.-Com-spirit conceived as an

animal which is present in the corn and is caught or killed in the last

sheaf, pp. 261-263 ; corn-spirit as wolf or dog, pp. 263-266, as cock,

pp. 266-269, as hare, p. 269 sq., as cat, p. 270 sq., as goat, pp. 271-277,

as bull or cow, pp. 277-281, as horse, pp. 281-283, as pig, pp. 284-288 ; sacramental character of harvest supper, divine animal slain and eaten by harvesters as embodiment of corn-spirit, p. 288; parallelism between conceptions of corn-spirit in human and in animal form, p. 288 sq.; why corn-spirit is conceived as an animal, p. 289 sq. ; Dionysus as goat and bull probably still a deity of vegetation, pp. 291-294 ; ox as representative of spirit of vegetation in the Athenian bou phonia, in an African sacrifice, and a ceremony observed by the Chinese in spring, pp. 294-298; the corngoddesses Demeter and Proserpine conceived as pigs, pp. 299-303; the horse-headed Demeter, p. 303; Attis and Adonis embodied in pigs, p. 304 sq.; the pig originally a sacred animal of the Jews and Egyptians, pp. 305-310; the pig perhaps formerly an embodiment of the corn-god Osiris, p. 310 sq.; red oxen as embodiments of Osiris, p. 311 sq.; the sacred Egyptian bulls Apis and Mnevis, origin of their worship uncertain, p. 312 sq.; the horse perhaps an embodiment of Virbius as a deity of vegetation, pp. 313-315; sacrifice of the October horse, as embodiment of the corn-spirit, at Rome, pp. 315-318.

§ 11. Eating the God, pp. 318-366.-New corn eaten sacramentally in Europe,

pp. 318-321; new rice eaten sacramentally in East Indies, India, and Indo-China, pp. 321-325; eating new yams on the Niger, p. 325; Caffre festival of new fruits, pp. 325-328; festival of new corn among the Creek, Seminole, and Natchez Indians, pp. 329-335; preparation for eating sacred food by purgatives, fasting, etc., pp. 335-337 ; sacrifice of first-fruits, p. 337 ; dough images of gods eaten sacramentally by the Mexicans, pp. 337-342; flesh of a man who represented a god also eaten sacramentally by the Mexicans, p. 342 sq.; at Aricia loaves perhaps baked in the image of the slain King of the Wood and eaten by the worshippers, p. 343 sq.; the Compitalia, p. 343 sq.; effigies offered to ghosts and demons as substitutes for living people, pp. 344-352 ; belief of the savage that he acquires the qualities of animals and men by eating their flesh, inoculating himself with their ashes, or anointing himself with their fat, pp. 353-365 ; hence his reason for eating a god is to imbue himself with

the divine qualities, p. 365 sq. § 12. Killing the Divine Animal, pp. 366-448.— Hunters and shepherds as well

as farmers kill their gods, p. 366 ; Californian sacrifice of the great buzzard, p. 366 sq. ; Egyptian sacrifice of the ram of Anmon, p. 368 sq. ; use of skin of divine animal, p. 369 sq.; annual sacrifice of the cobracapella in Fernando Po, p. 370 sy. ; Zuni sacrifice of the turtle, pp. 371. 374; worship and slaughter of bears by the Ainos, pp. 374-380, the Gilyaks, pp. 380-386, the Goldi, p. 386, and the Orotchis, p. 386; the respect of these peoples for the bear apparently inconsistent with their custom of killing and eating them, p. 387, but this inconsistency not felt by the savage, who draws no sharp distinction between himself and the animals, pp. 387-389; the savage hunter dreads the vengeance of the animals he has killed or of the other creatures of the species, p. 389; hence he spares dangerous and useless animals, p. 389, such as crocodiles, pp. 389-393, tigers, pp. 393-395, snakes, etc., p. 395 sq.; and in killing

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