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(doubtless identical with Kupole) was originally a deity of vegetation. For here Kupalo is represented by a bundle of plants specially associated with midsummer in folk-custom ; and her influence over vegetation is plainly signified by placing her vegetable emblem over the place where the harvest is brought in, as well as by the prayers for a good crop which are uttered on the occasion. This furnishes a fresh argument in support of the view that the Death, whose analogy to Kupalo, Yarilo, and the rest has been shown, originally personified vegetation, more especially the dying or dead vegetation of winter. Further, my interpretation of the gardens of Adonis is confirmed by finding that in this Prussian custom the very same kind of plants is used to form the gardens of Adonis (as we may call them) and the image of the deity. Nothing could set in a stronger light the truth of the theory that the gardens of Adonis are merely another manifestation of the god himself.
The last example of the gardens of Adonis which I shall cite is reported from Sicily. At the approach of Easter, Sicilian women sow wheat, lentils, and canary-seed in plates, which are kept in the dark and watered every two days. The plants soon shoot up; the stalks are tied together with red ribbons, and the plates containing them are placed on the sepulchres which, with effigies of the dead Christ, are made up in Roman Catholic and Greek churches on Good Friday, just as the gardens of Adonis were placed on the grave of the dead Adonis. The whole custom-sepulchres as well as plates of sprouting grain—is probably nothing but a continuation, under a different name, of the Adonis worship.
§ 5. Attis The next of those gods, whose supposed death and resurrection struck such deep roots into the religious faith and ritual of Western Asia, is Attis. He was to Phrygia what Adonis was to Syria. Like Adonis, he appears to 1 See.p. 107 sq.
ceremonies in the Greek Church, see 2 G. Pitrė, Spettacoli e feste popolari R. A. Arnold, From the Levant siciliane, p. 211.
A similar custom (London, 1868), i. 251 599. is observed at Cosenza in Calabria (Vincenzo Dorsa, La tradizione greco κήπους ώσίουν επιταφίους 'Αδώνιδι, latina, etc., p. 50). For the Easter Eustathius on Homer, Od. xi. 590.
have been a god of vegetation, and his death and resurrection were annually mourned and rejoiced over at a festival in spring. The legends and rites of the two gods were so much alike that the ancients themselves sometimes identified them.' Attis was said to have been a fair youth who was beloved by the great Phrygian goddess Cybele. Two different accounts of his death were current. According to the one, he was killed by a boar, like Adonis. According to the other, he mutilated himself under a pine-tree, and died from the effusion of blood. The latter is said to have been the local story told by the people of Pessinus, a great centre of Cybele worship, and the whole legend of which it forms a part is stamped with a character of rudeness and savagery that speaks strongly for its antiquity. But the other story seems also to have been firmly believed, for his worshippers, especially the people of Pessinus, abstained from eating swinc.3 After his death Attis is said to have been changed into a pine-tree. The ceremonies observed at his festival are not very fully known, but their general order appears to have been as follows.5 At the spring equinox (the twentysecond of March) a pine-tree was cut in the woods and brought into the sanctuary of Cybele, where it was treated as a divinity. It was adorned with woollen bands and wreaths of violets, for violets were said to have sprung from the blood of Attis, as anemones from the blood of Adonis ; and the effigy of a young man was attached to the middle of the tree. On the second day of the festival (the twenty
1 Hippolytus, Refut. omn. haeres. v. 9, p. 168, ed. Duncker and Schneidewin ; Socrates, Hist. Eccles. ii. 23, SS 51 599. p. 204.
? That Attis was killed by a boar was stated by Hermesianax, an elegiac poet of the fourth century B.C. (Pausanias, vii. 17); cp. Schol. on Nicander, Alex. 8. The other story is told by Arnobius (Adversus nationes, v. 5 $49.), on the authority of Timotheus, an other. wise unknown writer, who prosessed to derive it “ex reconditis antiquitatum libris et ex intimis mysteriis.” It is obviously identical with the account which Pausanias mentions (1.c.) as the story current in l'essinus.
3 Pausanias, vii. 17 ; Julian, Orat. v. 177 B, p. 229, ed. Ilertlein.
4 Ovid, Metam. X. 103 sqq.
6 On the festival see especially Mar. quardt, Römische Staatsverwaltung, iii.? 370 $94.; Daremberg et Saglio, Dictionnaire des Antiquités grecques et romaines, i. col. 1685 sq. (article
• Cybèle "); W. Mannhardt, Antike ll'ald. und Feldkulte, p. 291 599. ; id., Baumkultus, p. 572 sqq.
Julian, Oral. v. 168 c; Joannes Lydus, De mensibus, ir. 41; Arnobius, Adiers, mariones, v. 7 and 16 sq. ; Firmicus Maternus, De errore projan. relig. 27
third of March) the chief ceremony seems to have been a blowing of trumpets. The third day (the twenty-fourth of March) was known as the Day of Blood : the high priest drew blood from his arms and presented it as an offering. It was perhaps on this day or night that the mourning for Attis took place over an effigy, which was afterwards solemnly buried. The fourth day (the twenty-fifth of March) was the Festival of Joy (Hilaria), at which the resurrection of Attis was probably celebrated—at least the celebration of his resurrection seems to have followed closely upon that of his death." The Roman festival closed on the twenty-seventh of March with a procession to the brook Almo, in which the bullock-cart of the goddess, her image, and other sacred objects were bathed. But this bath of the goddess is known to have also formed part of the festival in her Asiatic home. On returning from the water the cart and oxen were strewn with fresh spring flowers.”
The original character of Attis as a tree-spirit is brought out plainly by the part which the pine-tree plays in his legend and ritual. The story that he was a human being transformed into a pine-tree is only one of those
1 Julian, l.c. and 169 C.
consecrarunt, et ut satis iratae mulieri 2 Trebellius Pollio, Claudius, 4; facerent aut ut paenitenti solacium Tertullian, Apologet. 25. For other quaererent, quem paulo ante sepelierant authorities see Marquardt, l.c.
revixisse jactarunt. Mortem ipsius 3 Diodorus, üi.
59; Firmicus [i.e. of Attis) dicunt, quod semina Maternus, De err. profan. relig. 3; collecta conduntor, vitam rursus quod Arnobius, Advers. nat. v. 16; Schol. jacta semina annuis vicibus + recon. on Nicander, Alex. 8; Servius on duntur" [renascuntur, C. Halm). Virgil, Aen. ix. 116; Arrian, Tactica, Again compare id., 22: “Idolum sepelis. 33. The ceremony described in Fir: Idolum plangis, idolum de sepultura promicus Maternus, ch. 22 (“nocte quadam feris, et miser cum haec feceris gaudes "; simulacrum in lectica supinum ponitur and Damascius, l... την των ιλαρίων et per numeros digestis fletibus plan καλουμένην εορτήν όπερ εδη την εξ gitur. . . Idolum sepelis. Idolum άδου γεγονόταν ήμών σωτηρίαν. This last plangis," etc.), may very well be the passage, compared with the formula in mourning and suneral rites of Attis, to Firmicus Maternus, op. cit. 22. which he had more briefly referred in
θαρρείτε μύσται του θεού σεσωμένου: •
έσται γαρ ημών εκ πόνων σωτηρία, On the Hilaria see Macrobius,
, Saturn. i. 21. 10; Julian, Orat. v. makes it probable that the ceremony 168 D, 169 D; Damascius, Vita described by Firmicus in this passage is Isidori, in Photius, Bibliotheca, p. the resurrection of Altis.
On the 345 A 5 $49. ed. Bekker.
6 Ovid, Fast. iv. 337 sqq. ; Am. resurrection, see Firmicus Maternus, mianus Marcellinus, xxiii. 3. For De errore profan. relig. 3: “reginae suae other references see Marquardt and amorem (Phryges) cum luctibus annuis Mannhardt, ll.cc.
transparent attempts at rationalising old beliefs which meet us so frequently in mythology. His tree origin is further attested by the story that he was born of a virgin, who conceived by putting in her bosom a ripe almond or pomegranate. The bringing in of the pine-tree from the wood, decked with violets and woollen bands, is like bringing in the May-tree or Summer-tree in modern folk-custom ; and the effigy which was attached to the pine-tree was only a duplicate representative of the tree-spirit or Attis. At what point of the ceremonies the violets and the effigy were attached to the tree is not said, but we should assume this to be done after the mimic death and burial of Attis. The fastening of his effigy to the tree would then be a representation of his coming to life again in tree-form, just as the placing of the shirt worn by the effigy of Death upon a tree represents the revival of the spirit of vegetation in a new form. After being attached to the tree, the effigy was kept for a year and then burned.3 We have seen that this was apparently sometimes done with the May-pole ;* and we shall see presently that the effigy of the corn-spirit, made at harvest, is often preserved till it is replaced by a new effigy at next year's harvest. The original intention of thus keeping the effigy for a year and then replacing it by a new one was doubtless to maintain the spirit of vegetation in fresh and vigorous life. The bathing of the image of Cybele was probably a rain-charm, like the throwing of the effigies of Death and of Adonis into the water. Like tree-spirits in general, Attis appears to have been conceived as exercising power over the growth of corn, or even to have been identified with the corn. One of his epithets was “very fruitful ”; he was addressed as the “reaped green (or yellow) ear of corn," and the story of his sufferings, death, and resurrection was interpreted as the ripe grain wounded by the reaper, buried in the granary, and coming to life again when sown in the ground. His worshippers abstained from eating seeds and the roots of vegetables, just as at the Adonis ceremonies 1 Pausanias, vii. 17; Arnobius, Adr'.
4 Vol. i. p. 205 sq. nationes, v. 6; compare Hippolytus, 6 Hippolytus, Rif. omn. hacres. v. Refut. omn. haeres. v. 9, pp. 166, 168. 8 and 9, pp. 162, 168 ; Firmicus 2 See above, p. 93.
Maternus, De crrore prof. relig. 3. 3 Firmicus Maternus, De errore prof. • Julian, Orat. v. 174 A B.
women abstained from eating corn ground in a mill. Such acts would probably have been deemed a sacrilegious partaking of the life or of the bruised and broken body of the god.
From inscriptions it appears that both at Pessinus and Rome the high priest of Cybele was regularly called Attis. It is therefore a reasonable conjecture that the high priest played the part of the legendary Attis at the annual festival.? We have seen that on the Day of Blood he drew blood from his arms, and this may have been an imitation of the selfinflicted death of Attis under the pine-tree. It is not inconsistent with this supposition that Attis was also represented at these ceremonies by an effigy ; for we have already met with instances in which the divine being is first represented by a living person and afterwards by an effigy, which is then burned or otherwise destroyed. Perhaps we may go a step farther and conjecture that this mimic killing of the priest, accompanied by a real effusion of his blood, was in Phrygia, as it has been elsewhere, a substitute for a human sacrifice which in earlier times was actually offered. Professor W. M. Ramsay, whose authority on all questions relating to Phrygia no one will dispute, is of opinion that at these Phrygian ceremonies “the representative of the god was probably slain each year by a cruel death, just as the god himself died.” 4 We know from Strabo that the priests of Pessinus were at one time potentates as well as priests ; they may, therefore, have belonged to that class of divine kings or popes whose duty it was to die each year for their people and the world. The name of Attis, it is true, does not occur among the names of the old kings of Phrygia, who seem to have borne th names of Midas and Gordias in alternate generations; but a very ancient inscription carved
1 Duncker, Geschichte des Aller. thums, i. 456, note 4; Roscher, Ausführliches Lexikon d. griech. u. röm. Mythologie, i. col. 724. Ср. . Polybius, xxii. 20 (18). In two letters of Eumenes and Attalus, preserved in inscriptions at Sivrihissar, the priest at Pessinus is addressed as Allis. See A. von Domaskewski, “Briefe der Atta. liden an den Priester von Pessinus,”
Archaeologische-epigraphische Vittheilungen aus Oesterrcich. Ungarn, viii. (1884), pp. 96, 98.
? The conjecture is that of Henzen in Annal. d. Inst. 1856, p. 110, referred to in Roscher, 1.c.
3 Vol. i. p. 209, vol. ii. pp. 30, 62 sq.
+ Article" Phrygia" in Encyclopuedia Britannica, 9th ed. xviii. 853.
5 xii. 5. 3.