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and served as a lieutenant in the British wit and embellished with science. As a solarmy under General Wolfe, at the taking dier and statesman he possessed a piercing of Quebec.--He served during the whole accuracy of mind, and fearless of censure of the French war of 1756, in the course from the short-sighted and presumptuous, be of which he was honoured with the friend- looked to the ultimate result, rather than to ship of generals Wolfe, Murray and Monc- the immediate consequence of his actions. ton, under whose directions he learned The resources of his mind were best devethe art of war. After retiring from the Bri- loped in difficult and adverse circumstances, tish army, he settled in Ligonier valley, and although fortune, in some instances, on the site of Ligonier old fort, of which he seemed determined to thwart his purposes, had been the first commandant.--In 1773, his coolness, his courage, and his penetraRichard Penn, lieutenant-governor of the tion, were above her reach. Providence province, appointed him prothonotary and seems to have designed, that the American register and recorder for Westmoreland revolution should disclose every species of county, which offices, with others, he held greatness, and the subject of this notice, afin December, 1775, when he received from ter toiling with unsubdued resolution against congress a colonel's commission in the con- disaster, and smiling upon adversity, fulfiltinental service. Although this appoint- ed his destiny by descending to the tomb a ment was without solicitation on his part, le GREAT MAN IN RUINS. The afflictive spectaassumed the duties of his new station with cle of his last days smiles the heart with sorpromptitude and alacrity, and he recruited row. The friend of Washington, the comsix full companies and marched them to the panion of his glory--he who by his counsel vicinity of Quebec by the first of the next iurned the tide of battle in the most gloomy May. In the compaign of 1776, he served period of the revolution-he who, in the in Canada, in company with Col. Wayne, winter of 1777, on the banks of the Deleunder the orders of generals Thompson and ware, looking on the broken army of liberSullivan, and his knowledge of the country, ty, beheld at his word the light of enthusigained in the previous war, as well as his asm gleam over the brow of missortune military experience, was of essential advan- he who, in 1783, before the intrenchments tage to the army. In the fall of the saine of York, standing by the side of the father of year he joined Gen. Washington in Jersey, his country, and participating his feelings, and first suggested that memorable ruse de saw the liberty of that country sealed by the guerre which terminated in the capture of surrender of its foes, closed his life in nethe Hessians at Princeton, and which reviv. glected solitude. ed the sinking spirits of the army and the On the summit of the Chesnut Ridge, which country. In the summer of 1777, be com overlooks the valley of Ligonier, in which manded Ticonderoga, which post being un the commencement of the revolution found fenable by the small forces under his com- him in prosperity; on this lonesome spot, ex. mand, was abandoned, which occasioned a posed to winter winds, as cold and desolating load of unmerited obloquy to be thrown as the tardy gratitude of his country, died ripon bim at the time. The military tribunal, Major General Arthur St. Clair. The trahowever, which investigated his conduct, veller, as he passed the place, was reminded pronounced, that although he lost a post, he of the celebrated Roman exile's reply, “ tell saved a state, and all the well informed have the citizens of Rome that you saw Caius Masince unequivocally approved his conduct. rius sitting among the ruins of Carthage." Jle was in the battle of Brandywine a volun. He is almost in the rear of the GALLANT teor, not having at that time any command. Band, in going to mortality's last sojourn.

When the army marched southward, he was left in Pennsylvania to organize and for. ward the troops of that state, in consequence Important Discovery.—David Meade Ranof which he arrived at Yorktown only a dolph has announced in the Richmond pashort time before the surrender of the Bri- pers, the discovery of a cement, made from tish army. From thence he went to the two certain fossils, mineral or volcanic subsouth with a reinforcement to Gen. Green. stances, which is found to be impervious to

After the peace he was a member of con- water and weather, and which grows harder gress, and president of that body, and in by time. He applied the cement between 1768, he was appointed governor of the two bricks on the 2d June, 1817, and after then North Western Territory. In 1791, he being in water fourteen months, the whole was again appointed a Major General in the mass appeared to be solid, the cement as army of the United States. In all the vari. hard as the brick. The same cement has ous stations and situations of his life after he been applied to the flat surface of brick became known to General Washington, he work, exposed to the weather, and the reenjoyed the especial confidence and friend- sult has been equally flattering. The discoship of that distinguished patriot.

verer concludes from the experiments he Gen. St. Clair, in his domestic relations, has made, that his cement is superior to the felt the tender sympathies of our nature, in real Dutch terras, since it will alike answer their fullest forcé. To social life he was much for works that are to be covered with valued as a friend. His conversation was water, and for cisterns, flooring and terrace instructive and interesting, enlivened by walks.

VIRGINIA.

INDIANA

The Pamunkey tribe of Indians, (in Virgiand, we are informed, has resided in that nia,) which was one of the confederacy of county nearly the whole of that time. He Powhatan, was reduced to ten or twelve has had 24 children, 14 now living, the men when Jefferson wrote his Notes; but it youngest 11 years old; and bas had upwards has since increased, so that it now consists of 300 grand children. His hearing and of near 200 persons; but most of them have sight are good. more Negro than Indian blood in them. The present chief is a member of the Baptist church. Two brothers of the name of Brad The Harmony Society, in this state, comberry, have lately married into the tribe, posed of German emigrants, is represented and settled among them; but a meeting has to be in a very prosperous condition. They been called to see whether they will permit have reaped during the season just gone by, them to stay. The elder B. is said to be 6000 bushels of wheat from one field. They worth several thousand dollars.

manufacture almost all kinds of things

they purchase freely what they want, and NORTH-CAROLINA.

pay very liberally--their beautiful church is The improvements in the navigation of completely finished—they have erected sethe river Roanoke, have given birth to seve- veral large brick houses, and have a flour ral new and thrifty villages. A well printed mill, thought to be exceeded by few in the newspaper is established at the new town United States; also, hemp and oil mills.-of Milton, which has also a post office, and They have been joined by a number from at which 1500 bhds. of tobacco were receive Germany in the present year. ed of the last crop. The Newbern bank has A setilement of Swedes is about to be an agency at the place, and another is ex- made in their neighbourhood—ihey appear pected from the state bank.

to be associated something like the Harmo

ny Society, and to have the means of prose-, SOUTH-CAROLINA.

cuting business to advantage. A few EnThe expenditures of the city of Charles- glishmen have purchased 32 quarter sections ton, for the year ending on the 31st August lying not far distant, to be immediately imlast, amounted to the sun of $ 193,720 84. proved. of this sum, $66,795 53 were expended in The Harmony Society had this year 400 the purchase of lands for public purposes, acres in wheat, 50 rye, 30 oats, 20 barley: and for making permanent improvements in 430 corn, 20 flas, 100 grass, and also raised the city. The expense of the city guard was hemp, peas and beans-and expect to make $27,599 09--poor bouse, $24,451 84-or- several barrels of wine from their vineyard. phan house, $20,075 09_marine hospital, $6,382 96streets and scavengers, $15,461

MICHIGAN TERRITORT. 27-city lamps and lighting, $14,969 45. A captive found.Gov. Cass, of Michigan All these expenses were defrayed without Territory, advertises for the relatives of John borrowing, viz. from $24,295 01, balance Taylor, who has lately escaped froin the Inin the treasury at the end of last year--direct dians on Red River, near lake Winepee. It taxes, $81,553 49—retail and tavern licen- appears that in 1790, when he was about ses, $11,995 20-vendue tax, $20,941 14 nine years old, he was stolen by the Indians and the remainder from city lots, rents, from the banks of the Ohio, and has been bonds and miscellaneous sources.

with them ever since. He speaks no English. The whites pursued the Indians, and

in a conflict, the chief, Black Fish, was killThe ordinary expenses of Savannah, for ed, which it is thought will lead to a discs. the last year, ending on the 21st of August very. last, amounted to the sum of $18,137 68.Among the incidental charges were $200

ILLINOIS TERRITORY. to sundry persons, for killing 400 dogs.-- By a census just taken, it appears that the The amount of the debt due by the city is, population of this Territory is sufficient to $63,500. The amount of income for the entitle it to be erected into a state. past year was, $48,772 85, viz. from direct taxes, $27,189—rent of city lots, $9,382licenses, $4,930—rent of exchange, $1,578 Death of Col. Daniel Boon. As die lived, 40-sales of lots, $2,360..

so he died, with his gun in his hand. It is stated that early in last month, Col. Boon

rode to a deer-lick, seated himself within a Longevity.-An extraordinary spectacle blind raised to conceal him from the game; was exhibited at the polls, during the elec- that while seated thus concealed, with his tion in Mount Sterling, in the person of Mr. old trusty rifle in his hand, pointed towards John Summers, one hundred and twelve years the lick, the muzzle resting on a log, his face of age, who appeared and exercised the to the breach of his gun, his rifle cocked, right of suffrage, having walked several his finger on the trigger, one eye shut, the miles for that purpose. He was born the other looking along the barrel through the 12th July, 1706, in Virginia, and has been sights--in this position, without struggle or a resideut of Kentucky about thirty years, motion, and of course without pain, he

GEORGIA.

MISSOURI TERRITORY.

KENTUCKY.

breathed out his last 90 gently, that when he the death of thousands, but it might have was found next day by his friends, although intuitively obeyed its old employer's mind, stiff and cold, he looked as if alive, with his and discharged itself. This hypothesis be gun in his hand, just in the act of firing. It is ing novel, we leave the solution to the conot altogether certain, if a buck had come rious. into the range of his gun, which had been

ART. 10. CABINET OF VARIETIES.

ALL TNE WORLD A KALEIDOSCOPE.

answer

up all the powers of its invention to koow in SHAKESPEARE informs us that all the what manner to expend the apparently ex

world's a stage;" divines have remarked, haustless treasure, all the world, except the that “all the world's a hospital of incura- child itself, must be perfectly convinced that bles;" and writers of other classes have he views his solitary coin through a kaleidogiven it such appellations as their judgment, scope, which has multiplied it in his imagitheir prejudice, or their fancy, suggested nation to an extent which the result cannot For my own part, I think that the world, possibly justify. The same remark may be with all its freaks, its inconsistencies, and applied to the thoughness spendthrift and its crimes, is but a Kaleidoscope; a proposi- the sanguine heir. And when, a young tion which, as my readers may find some dif- lawyer, just eating his way to the bar, sees ficulty in conceiving, I shall proceed with maces and woolsacks doating before bim; all due exactness to illustrate and apply. or a young divine, mitres and lawn-sleeves; Now, I am aware that, as an

or an apprentice, civic chains and titles; or at once to this proposition, it will be urged a youthful beauty, splendid equipages and that the Kaleidoscope is quite a new inven- establishments—all which every spectator tion; and that, consequently, I must have is well convinced there is not the most retotally mistaken the colour and cha- 'mote prospect of their ever enjoying-must racter of the world, before I could bave we not say that such characters employ a found or fixed such a resemblance. To this kaleidoscope, which though it may amase I shall only reply, that, without at all dis- their imaginations by its phantoms, has no puting Dr. Brewster's patent, or claiming power to regulate their judgment to a due the invention for any of those philosophers, perception of the illusions with which they dead or living, whose names have been are surrounded ? mentioned as the authors of the discovery, In short, imagine that every man keeps I think I can prove, by evidence the most his own kaleidoscope, fitted up and adaptsatisfactory, that the world both is and evered for his own peculiar poirers of via has been a Kaleidoscope, from the very days sion, and which will therefore seldom suit of Adam to the present time.

any other eye. One person, for instance, For what, let me ask, is a Kaleidoscope ? views every thing through the kaleidoscope It is a machine in which, by means of an of party; and it is astonishing with what optical deception, a few pieces of tawdry powers of optical deception this particular glass and tinsel acquire apparent symme- kaleidoscope is often furnished. I have seen try and beauty, adjusting themselves in instances of this in the late election. An ina ceaseless variety of novel and amusing dividual, for example, of Aagrantly immoral forms, and leading us to hope that each new habits ; or another of revolutionary and de change may be still more attractive than structive political principles; or another of the last. Such is also the world. Di- hopelessly wayward and inconsistent chavines, and moralists, sacred and profane, racter; or another of blind, indiscriminate bave all concurred to tell us that it is a scene unmeaning attachment to what is called of “vanity and vexation of spirit;"_but " the high" or “the low" party, instantly who, let' me ask, believes them? Seen becomes, when viewed through this kalelthrough the kaleidoscope of youth and inex; doscope, all that is consistent and worthy of perience, this same world is all beauty and approbation. The very darkest shades in his fascination. Its vagaries and incongruities character assume an apparent symmetry are forgotten, or perhaps even appear per- and beauty. Indeed, so powerful an instrufectly symmetrical and regular. It is impos- ment is a party kaleidoscope, that I never sible to convince men, till time or a Higher knew a bad man, or a bad measure, either Power convinces them, that all this scene in church or state, that might not be made of apparent delight and brilliancy is but an

to appear for a moment tolerably respectaoptical illusion, which the next moment may ble by its aid. destroy. Yet this fact is equally certain, The controversial kaleidoscope has much notwithstanding the incredulity of mankind: the same effect. I have known, for exampay, we often perceive it in the case of ano- ple, many a man, after taking up a system ther, when we cannot in our own. When, of religion which appeared, and justly so for example, we see a child surveying with to every other person, harsh, confused, and coger eye its first shilling, and summoning disjointed, expatiate upon the anity and

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congruity of his scheme, and point out, often derive much practical advantage from
with no ordinary self-complacency, how discovering how mich he has been deceived
perfectly the tints were blended and the by mere impression, and how little real
parts adjusted to each other. A good Cal. worth and reality there often is in many of
vinistic or Arminian kaleidoscope can per- the most gay and glittering scenes which
form wonders in this way; though, unlucki- pass before his enraptured eye. On the
ly, as but one person can look through the other hand, the gloomy and unhappy will
same aperture at the same time, and in ex find not less advantage in adopting the same
actly the same disposition of the objects, it process. It was, perhaps, but one sombre
seldom happens that the kaleidoscopist can object that gave the melancholy tinge to the
impart to others the exact views which whole kaleidoscope, and which being taken
have made so great an impression on his away, or a few more cheerful objects thrown
own mind. Two forms or colours which in, the general appearance would be mate-
appear perfectly to suit each other in one rially improved. Why, then, constantly
position, become displeasing the moment select the most distressing appearances, and
ihat aspect is changed; and it is often quite place before the eye the most dark and
impossible, even for the individual bimself, lowering hues, when, notwithstanding all
to recover the original position which so the miseries ever existing in the world, there
much delighted his imagination. Indeed, is an infinity of brighter shades, and more
having found, by repeated experience, in- cheerful objects, with which we may law.
numerable inconveniences in managing fully enliven our sphere of vision. Indeed,
Calvinistic and Arminian kaleidoscopes; the mixture and succession of dark and
and, particularly, having discovered that light, of grave and cheerful, is always so
although in some positions each will do uncertain, and oftentimes so rapid, in the
very well, in others it will present objects kaleidoscope of life, that it would be worse
in very disgusting forms, and with very un- than folly, in any thing human, to rejoice
natural distortions; I have been induced in without sorrow, or to sorrow without re-
my own practice to blend the two instru- joicing. The very next turn may change
ments, or rather to select from each the the whole scene: the liveliest images may
best and fairest gems, and to combine them succeed to the most melancholy, or the
as well as I was able in order to form a third, most melancholy to the liveliest; disorder
which, though not altogether perfect, seems and deformity may give way to symmetry
to answer my purpose tolerably well. I and beauty, or beauty and symmetry to
have found the same plan useful also in deformity and disarrangement. To hope,
many similar cases.

therefore, in adversity, and to be humble
Having thus endeavoured cursorily to in prosperity, to correct our views of life,
prove that “ all the world's a kaleidoscope," and to be prepared for the approach of
I trust your readers will not objeet to my death, is not less the advice of Reason than
stating the moral advantages which I think of Scripture. (Christian Observer.
they ought to derive froin the discovery.
The chief benefit that occurs to my own
mind, is the importance of being aware of
the illusions to which we are subject, and

A very interesting and important disco-
the necessity of adjusting our kaleidoscopes ar:d projection of light, by Mr. Lester, en-

vory has lately been made on the increase
as well as we possibly can for the purpose
of our true happiness and welfare. For gineer. As this discovery will form a new
this end I would recommend every man

cra in optics, a record of its history must
frequently to open his kaleidoscope, and prove interesting to the scientific world,
examine its contents. An apparently small and, as such, we shall briefly lay before our
alteration will often produce a most in- readers the following account of it by a
portant and beneficial change in the cha: correspondeut.
racter of the images which lie before bim. India Docks for the purpose of applying

Mr. Lester being engaged at the West-
Does he, for instance, view the world as
one bright and glaring scene; thus both ne-

his new mechanical power, The Convertor,
glecting a better world, and preparing him to cranes, by which the labour of winches
self for innumerable disappointments in is performed by rowing, &c. on taking a
this? Let him convince himself of the il.

view of the immense spirit vaults, he was
lusion : let him view, in their simple form, forcibly struck by the inefficient mode
and colour, and magnitude, those objects adopted to light those very extensive and
which have so greatly enraptured his eye, wonderful depots," which is by a cast-iron
but wbich, upon minuter inspection, will cylinder of about two feet in diameter, and
prove to be but beads and baubles, shreds liro feet deep, placed in lieu of a key-stone
of finery, and fragments of variegated glass; ders are closed at their tops, and each' fur-

in the centre of each arch ;--these cylin.
of which the only wonder is, how they nished with five plano-convex lenses (bull's
could appear for a moment, or uoder any
possible illusion, so interesting and splendid One of which is nearly an acre and an half
to a rational and immortal being. The in area, and is supported by 207 groined arches
young and gay and sanguine observer, will apd 207 stone pillars.
Vol. II.-No. vi.

60

1

NEW DISCOVERY IN OPTICS.

eyes) of Messrs. PeHatt and Green's patent, principles :-Let a candle or any other light which are admirably adapted to the con be represented in a mirror at a given dis. veying of light in all situations, except down tance from the flame, and the eye of tive a deep tube or cylinder, where the refrac- spectator be placed so as to view its refier. tion they produce, in consequence of their tion nearly in the cathetus of incidence. convex forms) betwixt the angles of inci Let bila mark the quantity of light repredence and relection, prevents the rays

sented in the mirror, and such will be its from being projected into the place intended true quality when forming a zone of repre. to be lighted. This refraction throws the sented dame of double the diameter of the light upon the concave sides of the cylinder, distance betwixt the real Name and the where it is principally absorbed, instead of mirror. keeping the angles of' incidence and reflec If a candle be placed before a mirror, its tion equal

finne will be represented; and is a thou: From these observations, Mr. Lester con sand nirrors are placed in a given circle cluded, that a lens might be so constructed round a candle, the candle will be repre. as to prevent this refraction, and com sented a shousand times, and each repretoenced a course of experiments for that sentation equal in brilliancy, if the anirrors purpose. Be succeeded by obtaining the are at equal distances from the flame. Supproper angle of the incidental rays with a pose that the thousand mirrors were united mirror, and finding the scope of the cylin in such a forin as to bring all the representder sufliciently copious to admit the relect- ed flames into one flame, of equal briled rays into the vault, provided the retrac- liancy witli the real tlanie of the candle. tion of the lens did not intervene. The For the same law of nature by which the same angle produced by the mirror he en flame is represented a thousand times in as deavoured to retain upon the sides of the many iniriors so united, it would be reprelens, by giving it a different form, a peculiar sented in one fiame if the mirror be made part of which he intended to foliaie. But of a proper form, and placed in a proper having met with insurmountable difficulties position to receive the rays of light that in this process, he coneluded, from the strik

emanate from the candle in the direction ing appearance of silvery light upon the in- of the angle of this peculiar formed mirror. terior surface of that part he intended to As the light of a small candle is visi'le silver, that metal would represent the light at the distance of four miles in a dark night, by retaining that iom, and, brought down what must be the diameter or circumference below the edges of the lens, might produce of that zone of fame be that is prodved the desired effect. In his attempt to ac by this discovery from one of the gas lights complish this purpose, by hoiding the body in the streets of London? Thus two lamps in a vertical position between the eye and or stations would be sufficient to light the a candle, a flash of light was instantly pro- longest street, when its pasition approaches duced, by representing the flame of the to a right line, as the diameter of tbe zone candle magnified to the size of the whole may be made of the same diameter as the of the inner surface of this piece of nietal, street; and as the rays of light that are itiand gave an increased light upon the wall creased by this invention diverge irom the opposite to hiin. After this discovery, he luminous hody, all parts of the street would had several pieces of metal formed, retain- be filled with light. Many are the minor ing the same angle, but of rarious diaineters, advantages that will be derived from its and found to his great surprise, that, al application to domestic purposes, for writthough their area were greatly increased, ing, reading, and working by candle or lamp the representation of the Game still filled light. This, like Dr. Grekister's kaleidusthem without the least diminution in the cope, is another instance of the effects to quality of the light, but with an increased be produced by mirrors. light against the wall, in proportiou to the It appears that the great impediment to increased area of the surface of the metal.* improvement and discovery in this branch How far this power and effect may extend, of the science of optics, bias arisen from is not at present ascertained; but it is be- the difficulty of foiling glass to the various lieved that a zone of light of the same qua- forms necessary, in lieu of which we have lity and effect may be provlnced to an in- been compelled to use metallic subistances conceivable extent. Some idea may be These difficulties once removed, a vast field formed of the powerful and important re of important discovery will be opened on sults that may be derived from this disco. the nature and effect of light. May not very, by reasonius philosophically on its many of the phenomena that are observed

in the air, such as halos round the sun, be * This invention is not confined solely to light, produced by this principle, the rays falling but the increase of het kerps pace with the in

upon a denser medium than air, and thus crease of lighi, and both in the ratio of the area

producing a zone of light ? &c. of the surface.

The further particulars of this important The apparatus is so constructed as to be discovery we hope to lay before our readers placed upon a canile, and sinks down with the in a future number. Hame, without cither flooding or waste.

[Philosophical Magasine.

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