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Was mockery at her fate-opposing prayer, Of th' axe athwart her eyesight, and the

blood And that was all. But she - Proud-hearted That sprung around her she endur'd: still kept Men,

The lily its unbroken stateliness, Ye vainly deem your privilege, your right, And its pellucid beauty sparkled still, Prerogative of your high-minded race, But all its odours were exhal'd-the breath, The glory of endurance, and the state

Of life, the tremulous motion was at rest ; Of strong resolving fortitude. Here I,

A flower of marble on a temple wall, A woman born melt and faint and fail, 'Twas fair lived not-glitter'd, but was cold." A frail, a delicate, dying woman, sit To shame ye.' She endur'd the flashing stroke



Further Discoveries in Natural History, 2. Vespertilio humeralis. R. (Black

made during a Journey through the shoulder bat.) Tail three-sevenths, upWestern Region of the United States. per incisores 2, remote, lower 6, body By Constantine Samuel Rafinesque, dark brown above, shoulders black, gray Esq.

beneath, wings, tail, ears and snout I

HAD the pleasure to address you in blackish, eyes under the hair, ears longer

July, ultimo, and to give you a sketch than the head, elliptical, auriculated. of my discoveries in ichthyology, con- Length 3 1-2 inches, breadth 11. chology, botany, &c. I have visited since 3. Vespertilio tesselatus. R. (Netted the lower parts of the Ohio, the Wabash, bat.) Tail half of total length, hairy Green River, Barrens, Prairies, and the above, upper incisores 2, remote, lower states of Indiana, Illinois, &c. where I 6, body fallow above, head pale, dirty have added much to my former disco- fulvoas beneath, with a faint fallow collar, veries. I shall proceed to enumerate shoulders white, wings hairy at the base, some of them, hoping that they may ma- with 2 hairy white spots above near the terially increase our real knowledge, and thumb, membrane blackish, netted of endeavouring to communicate many facts, fulvous internally and clotted of same exunder the least possible compass, as usual. ternally, shafts fulvous, nose bilobate,

The quadrupeds of North-America ears nearly concealed by the hair. have long ago attracted the notice of Length 4 inches, breadth 12. hunters and paturalists, but two exten 4. Vespertilio cyanopterus. R. (Blue sive tribes of small animals, had almost wing bat.) Tail one-third, 2 incisores totally escaped their notice, I mean the above, 6 beneath, body dark gray above, bats and the rats. Many obvious reasons bluish gray beneath, wings of a dark for this neglect will occur to you, but to bluish gray, shafts black, ears auricu. enlightened minds no being appears use- lated, longer than the head. Length 3 less or undeserving of notice. I have no inches, breadth 10. hesitation to assert, that these tribes are 5. Vespertilio melanotus. R. (Black equally extensive in our country with the back bat.) Tail one-third, brown above, squirrels, and that 24 species, at least, of gray beneath, body blackish above, bats might be enumeraied, and more than whitish beneath, wings dark gray, shafts 30 of rats. I know for instance, 6 or 7 black, ears auriculated, rounded. Length species of bats from New York and Penn- 4 1-2 inches, breadth 12 1-2. sylvania; Mr. Lecomte asserts that he has 6. Vespertilio calcaratus. R. (Spurred seen as many different ones in Georgia, bat.) Tail one-third, body dark brown and I have already detected 9 new spe- above, dark fallow beneath, wings black, cies in the western states; they princi- shafts rose-coloured, a spur at the iuner pally belong to the new genera Noctilio, side of the elbow, hind feet black. Length Atalapha, and Myopteris, but I shall con 4 inches, breadth 12. sider them, at present, as belonging to 7. Vespertilio monachus. R. (Monk the old genus Vespertilio, of Linnæus, I bat.) Tail one-fourth, hairy above, call them, therefore,

fringed laterally, body pale, fallow above 1. Vespertilio mystax. R. (Whisker and below, head and neck covered with bat.) Tail two-fifths of total length, up a longer fur of a dark red fallow, wings per incisores none, lower 6, 2 warts at the dark gray, shafts red, hind feet black, lower jaw, body entirely fallow, top of nose red, ears concealed in the fur. the head brownish, ears brown, auricu- Length 4 inches, breadth 12. lated, longer than the head. Length 5 8. Vespertilio phuiops. R. (Blackincbes, breadth 14.

faced bat.) Tail one-third of total length,



naked, mucronate, body dusky bay above, 6 inches. Common name, black rat or pale beneath, face, ears and wings black wood rat, lives in woods on seeds and ish, 4 incisores in the upper jaw, 2 on nuts. each side, divided by a large flat wart, 9. Lemmus talpoides. R. (Mole lem. unequal, the outside ones larger and bi- ming.) Dark gray, belly whitish, tail lobed, 6 small incisores at the lower jaw. one-sixth of total length, ears small. Length 4 1-2 inches, breadth 13.

Length 4 inches, Vulgar name, ground 9. Vespertilio megalotis. R. (Big-eared mice or snow mice. It burrows like the bat.) Tail three-cighths of total length, mole, and burrows in winter between the body dark gray above, pale gray beneath, snow and the ground. It lives on roots, ears very large, duplicated, auricules &c. nearly as long. Length 4 inches, breadth 10. Lemmus alboriltatus. R. (White12 inches.

striped lemming.) Fallow, with 5 white The wild rats of the western states longitudinal stripes, the middle one ex. which I have already observed, amount tending over the head to the nose, tail to more than 15 species, of which 10 at truncate, one-sixth of total length. least are new, belonging to the genera Length 4 inches. A most interesting Musculus, Lemmus, Gerbillus, Spalar, small animal; vulgar name, pursing Cricetus, &c. they are,

The female carries her young 1. Gerbillus megalops. R. (Big-ere on her back, she has 6 pectoral teats; jumping mouse.) Body gray, belly white, she lives on corn, seeds, &c. eyes black, very large, ears very long, The singular fact in the natural his. white inside, snout black, tail longer than tory of the squirrels, that some of them the body, black with a white tuft at the castrate each other, has been doubted by end. Total length 5 inches, body only 2 many, but I have now received the testiinches, in the barrens of Kentucky, &c. mony of reputable witnesses, who hare

2. Gerhillus leonurus. R. (Lion-tail seen the operation performed; it is done jumping mouse.) Body fallow, ears very by the females, who upite, several long, white inside, tail as long as the against one male, in the season that they body, black, with a fallow tuft at the end. become troublesome to themselves and Length 6 inches, body 3.

their young : it is not done without a hard 3. Spainr trivillata. R. (Three-striped battle, which often lasts a whole day. mole rat.) Body fallow, with 3 large This fact may inculcate several moral brown stripes above, white underneath, lessons, one of which is, that we must ears small, acute. Length 7 inches, not despise all the vulgar opinions, but without any tail. In the woods, near put them to the test of experinent; it is brooks, &c.

by such a test that I am enabled to ac. 4. Cricetus fasciatus. R. (Brindled quaint you that the vulgar opinion constamiter.) Body fallow, brindled, with cerning the hogs devouring the rattleblack on the back, white underneath, legs snakes, is not true; they eat all the harn. and tail ringed of black, tail two-fifths of less snakes, but refuse to eat and even total length, ears oval, acute, pouches to come near a dead or a live rattlesnake hanging outside as bags. Length 8 or coppersnake; they even refuse to eat incbes. It burrows in the barrens. their flesh when boiled with corn and

5. Sorex melanotis. R. (Black-eared disguised, even the corn itself is refused. shrew.) Body pale gray, white beneath, There are at least 20 species of snakes ears erect, black outside, white inside, in the western states, many of which are neck and body elongated, tail nearly as new; I shall notice a few of them. long, gray. Length 5 inches. Vulgar 1. Coluber argentea. R. (Silver snake.) name, corn mice.

Entirely silvery, only 8 inches long. 6. Sorer cerulescens. R. (Bluish shrew 2. Coluber rubricella. R. (Red-breast mouse.) Body bluish above, white be- snake.) Black, breast red, length three neath, ears large. gray, tail gray, as long or four feet. Harinless. as the body. Length 4 inches

3. Coluber veloz. R. (Racer snake.) 7. Musiulus leucopus. R. (White feet Black, belly white, tail blue underneath, mouse.) Body brownish, fallow above, 8 feet long, slender, very swift. white beneath, bead fallow, ears large, 4. Coluber ichthyoplaga. R. (Fishing blackish, tail as long as the body, pale snake.) Dirty brown, with large irrebrown above, gray beneath, legs and feet gular spots of a dark brown. Length white. Length 5 inches.

5 or 6 feet. It lives on fish; a catfish 8. Misculus nigricans. R. (Blackish weighing 12 lb. has been found in the rat.) Entirely blackish, belly gray, tail stomach of one of them, longer than the body and black. Length 5. Crotalinus cyanurus. R. (Blue-tail

rattlesnake.) Yellowish, with large trans N. G. 22. Litholepis adamantinus. R.
verse brown bands, tail black above, Diamond fish or devil jack.
blue underneath, head fulvous, a black This last fish is the greatest wonder of
spot under the chin. Length 5 to 6 feet. the Ohio, it bears large flinty pentagonal
They sometimes eat and swallow whole scales, which are ball proof and strike fire
rabbits and turkeys.

with steel. This new genus differs from
I have added about 20 species to my Lepisosteus by its oblong shape, mouth
former catalogue of the fishes of the under the head, spout elongated, dorsal
Ohio, Wabash, Green River, &c. making and anal fins opposite and equal.
altogether nearly 60 species, all new and My new genus Dinoctus, differs from
undescribed except 5 or 6. I have also Accipenser, by having 2 dorsal fins and
discovered 4 new genera; here follows no abdominal fins. The Pogostoma dif-
their scientific and vulgar names, with fers from Sparus by having 2 dorsal fins
the descriptions of some of them. I and 6 barbs at the mouth.
mean to give their full descriptions, natu Anguilla laticanda. R. Black above,
ral history, and figures, in a paper which white beneath, head flat, tail rounded,
shall bear the name of Ichthyologia broad, dorsal fin and lateral line begin-

ning over the pectoral fins, reaching 4

feet in length. 1. Lepisosteus platostomus, R. Alliga Esox oitiatus. Brownish above, white tor fish.

beneath, two lateral blackish stripes on 2. Lepisosteus stenorhynchus. R. Gar- each side, anal and dorsal with many fish.

rays, this last before the anal. Length 3. Anguilla laticanda. R. Ohio Eel. from 3 to 5 feet. 4. Cyprinus fasciolaris. R. Mullet. Bodianus calliops. Green, with a late

5. Cyprinus trachiaphas. R. Brown ral black band, belly white, back and fins mullet.

with flexuose black lines nearly diagonal, 6. Exoglossum argentum. R. White dorsal fin along the whole back, first ray chub.

elongated, prickly, tail entire, eyes red. 7. Olmerus albula. R. Whitefish. Length 8 to 9 inches. 8. Bodianus calliops. R. Bride perch. Respecting botany, I proceed in my 9. Pogostoma leucops. R. New genus. investigation of the vegetation of the

Western states, and in the inquiry of the 10. Erox vittatus, R. Jack pike. geographical range of plants, the results 11. Erox fasciolaris. R. Salinon pike. of which may appear in a Chloris Occi

12. Catostomus amisopturus. R. Perch dentalis. I have already seen nearly 800 buffaloe.

species of plants in Kentucky, Ohio, In13. Catost amblodon. R. Black buf- diana, Illinois, while scarcely 200 were faloe.

stated to grow there. I have collected 14. Catostomus velifer. R. Sailor fish. many rare plants, and several new genera

15. Glossodon chrysops. R. Gold-eye and species. I have also seen drawings herring.

of the famous scarlet and yellow dye of 16. Clupea chrysochloris. R. Golden the Osages and Missouri Indians, which shad.

is kept by them as a great secret; it was 17. Silurus pallodus. R. White catash. sold for a valuable consideration to the

18. Silurus cerulescens. R. Blue cat gentleman who has liberally made it fish.

known to me. The scarlet dve is the 19. Glanis limosus. R. Mud catfish.

root of a species of trillium, the yellow 20. Accipenser heptipus. P. Browo dye is probably a new species of menissturgeon.

perinuno, or a new genus: both dye N. G. 21. Dinuctus truncatus. R. readily with allum, and afford a most Blunt pose sturgeon.

beautiful and permanent colour.


White eye.


Description of certain Military Sites, in capnon shot. It is well situated for a

the neighbourhood of New-York, fa- covering work, but is too far from, and mous during the Revolutionary War; too much elevated above the river, to be and an Account of the Heights of the of essential service in commanding the Pallisado Rocks, and of the Highlands, channel. To have manned it completely as seen by Passengers in the Vessels would have required a garrison of about navigating the Hudson between Nero- 700 men. There were several batteries York City and Albany. In a Letter below the fort, nearer the river, which from Captain Alden Partridge to Dr. might have annoyed ships considerably Mitchill, dated New-York, August 29, while passing them. I am convinced, 1818. Read to the Lyceum of Natural however, that the river cannot be deHistory, August 31, 1818.

fended by batteries at this place. It is DEAR SIR,

too broad, and the channel too straight feel in the cultivation and diffusion be exposed only to a cross-fire, which of useful knowledge generally, and espe would not be much regarded. On a cially that which relates more particu- craggy precipice, about half a mile to larly to our own country, I take the the northeast of Fort Lee, and at an elevaliberty to present you with a summary tion of 301 feet above the river, was situaccount of my late pedestrian excursion ated another small work called Fort Conup the North River as far as the village of stitution—and sometimes the ten-gun Haverstraw, for the purpose of deter- battery. This work is so completely di. mining from barometrical and thermo- lapidated, that I found it impossible to metrical observation, the altitudes of the trace its outlines or determine its figure. several most prominent heights and emi- I left the site of Fort Constitution about Dences within that distance; and from twelve o'clock, and directed my course thence to Judge Pierson's manufactory northerly, along the summit of the steep on the Rammapoo-to ascertain in like rocks, (or palisades,) which I continued manner the altitudes of the high grounds for about ten miles, repeating my obserin that vicinity. I left New-York at vations with the barometer, on the most seven o'clock on the morning of the 24th prominent points, and occasionally deinstant, crossed in the horse-boat to Ho- scending to the river for the purpose of boken, whence I directed my course to repeating the observations at high-water Fort Lee, where I intended to commence mark. The prospect from the more elemy observations. I arrived at Fort Lee vated parts of these rocks, is very beautia little after ten o'clock. Of this work, ful. The city of New York is clearly so celebrated at a very interesting period distinguished at the distance of nearly of our revolutionary contest, scarcely a twenty miles. The sound is seen stretchvestige now remains. The parapet is al- ing far away to the eastward, and we look most levelled with the common surface of down upon all the intervening country the ground, and the ditch, which must as upon a map. A considerable part of have been very shallow, is nearly filled Long-Island is also distinctly seen. To up. The outlines of the fort, however, the westward, the descent is generally can be traced. It was a square, fortified very gradual, into a well-cultivated counwith four bastions. The dimensions of try. I arrived near the lower cluster about its several parts, which I measured, four o'clock, when I left the summit of the were as follows, viz. each curtain 36 rocks, directing my course to the upper yards in length-each face of the bas- cluster, and from thence to the village of tions, 14 yards each flank, 6 yards, and Tappan, which I reached (in the rain) the diameter of the work, from either cur. a little before sun-set. This village is tain to the opposite one, 60 yards-gorges celebrated as being the place where Maof the bastions the same as the faces. It jor Andre, adjutant-general of the British is situated on a commanding eminence, army, was confined, tried, and executed nearly half a mile from the river, and at as a spy, during our revolutionary war. an elevation of 311 feet above high- I took my quarters for the night at a pubwater mark. The ground falls off lic house, kept by Mr. Dubey, postabruptly in front, next the river; but on master of the place, who soon informed the other sides the slope is gradual. As me that was the same house in which far as I could discover, it commands the Andre was kept a prisoner. He also country on every side within the range of showed me įthe room in which he was

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confined, and told me it was in very in the morning to ascend to the high nearly the same state as at the time of Torne, a lofty summit west of the village his confinement. The dimensions of this of Haverstraw, and about one mile and a room by accurate admeasurement, I found half therefrom. The ascent is steep, and to be as follows, viz. length 18 feet 6 1-2 in some places difficult; I, however, inches, breadth 11 feet 7 1-2 inches, reached the top in safety,—visited both height 7 feet 5 inches. The north wall the north and south peaks, making the is of stone; on the other three sides it is necessary observations on each—enjoyed enclosed by brick walls. It has one win a noble prospect-descended to the landdow on the west side, from which the ing-repeated my observations at highplace of his execution can be seen, and water mark, and returned to my lodgings one door at the south end, opening into a in about two hours from the time I passage about 8 feet wide, which crosses started. About nine o'clock I left Hathe house from east to west.

verstraw for Rammapoo, (distance 18 August 25th. Weather very rainy and miles,) where I arrived about one o'clock. unpleasant-1, however, started about I presented the letters of introduction eight o'clock, to visit the place of Andre's with which yourself and Mr. Hopkins execution and burial. This is on a beau were so good as to furnish me, and was tiful and commanding eminence, about received by Judge Pierson with all that half a mile west from the village oi Tap- politeness and hospitality which, from pan, at an elevation of 123 seet above your previous account of him, I had been the floor of the room in which he was led to expect. His two sons inmediately confined, and 200 feet above tide-water volunteered to accompany me to the in Hudson's river. The place is distinctly sunimit of the TORN mountain, (the most marked at a distance by iwo small cedars elevated peak in the vicinity,) distant about 8 foot bigli, one of which has grown from his house about one mile and a half. out of the southeast corner of the grave, We started about two o'clock, and in one and the otier on the north side nearly hour were at the highest summit. The opposite the centre. The grave can be prospect from this elevation is grand. In plainly distinguished it has a small head a clear day New-York can be distinctly and foot stone, but without any inscrip- seen from it, and although when we were tion, and is encompassed by a small en on it, the weather was cloudy, yet we closure of rough stones loosely placed could distinctly see SNAKE TULE the upon each other. I have been thus mi- rear of Hoboken landing. After having nute upon this subject, because I con made the necessary observations, we ceive that every circumstance connected commenced the descent of the inountain, with it, cannot fail of being interesting and returned about four o'clock. I left 10 Americans. Having remained at the the hospitable mansion of Judge Pierson grave until I was completely drenched in his carriage (which he politely offered), with rain, I returned to my lodgings, and attended by his son, who accompanied about ten o'clock took up my line of me about four miles; the road then bemarch for the Sloat (so called), where I coming bad, I left the carriage, walked arrived about 11 o'clock, when the storm on four miles, and took up quarters for having considerably incrcased in vio- the night. lence, and beating directly in my face, August 27th. I started at sunrise and I concluded to halt. I waited until about walked on twelve miles, which brought one o'clock, when the rain abating in me again to Tappan village-where, after some degree, I renewed my march for paying a second visit to the place of AnNyack landing, where I arrived about dre's execution, I took breakfast. I left four o'clock. Here I repeated my obser- Tappan about 9 o'clock, and directed my rations at high-water mark, and imme. course for the summit of Closter moundiately after commenced climbing the tain, a little south of the territorial line Verdrideker Hook mountain. The ascent between New-York and New-Jersey, is very steep, but I got to the top without which I reached about one hour and much difficulty. The prospect was very a balf, and recommenced my observafine. After visiting both of its summits, tions. I then continued my course I descended on the north side, and direct- southerly, along the summit of the rocks, ed my course to the village of Haver repeating my observations on the most straw, which I reached about sunset, prominent points, until I arrived at Bomwith, I believe, not a dry thread in my pey's Hook, about two miles above Closclothes. Here I took up my quarters for ter dock. As there appeared to be no the nigbt.

peaks elevated much above the common August 26th. I started about five o'clock range between this place and where I left VOL.1!!.--No, VI.

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