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principal object was the gratification of marble. The minute and lavish ortament
personal ambition—conquest was the aim of this building, the design of wbich is
of the Republic; the grandest mopuments remarkably poor, induces the author to
of the commonwealth are the Military refer it to a period at least as late as the
Ways, and the roads of Appius, Flaccus, reign of Severus; and the same reason
Albinius, and Flaminius, &c. worn as they operates with respect to a temple on a
are with the use of more than twenty cen- neighbouring hill, said to have been raised
turies, still remain to attest the energy to Honour and Virtue.
and persevering spirit of their construc Under the emperors architecture was
tors. Of the aqueducts of this period, only patronised, as it had been under the kings,
portions of the Aqua Martia remain, and as an art contributing to the personal
Mr. Forsyth seems to be of opinion that same and splendour of the sovereign.
the superb arcades which conveyed that Some of the finest works of this period
water to the Esquiline, are the works of were raised by the vilest characters that
Augustus. The convertibility of the Pa- ever disgraced humanity. The baths of
gan Temples to the purposes of the Catho- Caracalla are among the most extensive
lic religion has fortunately preserved some and sumptuous of the imperial edifices,
of those august edifices from destruction. and those of Diocletian are scarcely in-
Of these tbe Pantheon is the chief. The ferior in amplitude, or richness of deco-
doors are cascd in bronze. The light is ration. The Triumphal Arcbes, of Tra-
admitted through “one large orb” in the jan, Titus, Severus, Constantine, Gallie-
centre of the roof, and grand, indeed, in nus, &c. are generally heavy and taste-
the days of her glory, must have been the less in their design, and loaded with me-
interior aspect of the Pantheon, when retricious embellishments. The mauso-
the splendour of an unclouded and meri- lea of Augustus and Hadrian are grand
dian sun beamed into its sanctuary, and and awful even in their ruins, but the
shed its perpendicular and diffusive ra- prondest structure is the mighty Coliseum,
diance on the divine sculptures that seem- the united work of Vespasian and Titus.
ed to realise the seductive fables of an We admire, we are astonisbed at, the ma-
enchanting mythology. The tombs of the jesty of this stupendous edifice, but we
Servilii, Horatii, and Metelli would, at abhor the purposes to which it was devo-
first, appear to belong to the Republic, ted, and feel powerfully convinced of the
but the absence of name, epitaph, and imperfection of human virtue, when we
indeed, all mark whatever that can assist reflect that it was under the administra.
us in ascertaining the persons or age to tion of two of the best and wisest of her
which they belong, will not allow us to emperors, that Rome beheld the rise and
form any decisive opinion on their anti- completion of a structure, which, how.
quity ;-they are situated without the Ca ever we may admire it as a specimen of
pena gate, and from the aversion enter- national magnificence, can excite, with
tained in the early times to which they respect to the scenes it displayed, and was
are ascribed, to inhumation within the built to display, no other sentiments than
walls, it has been too arbitrarily decided those of horror and disgust. The feelings
that they were raised in the times of the of Mr. Forsyth on this subject are in such
Republic-Another sepulchre (the Cor- perfect unison with our own, that cot-
nelian) which has been classed with them, withstanding our resolution to refrain from
was, however, at length discovered in the farther quotation, we cannot resist the
heart of the city, a circumstance that, in temptation of giving his sentiments on
our opinion, at least neutralises the point. the cruel and sanguinary sports to which
None of the tombs belonging to the repub- both sexes and all ranks of the Romans
lican era, have the names of the buried in were so passionately addicted.
scribed upon them, with the exception of “ Every nation has undergone its revolu-
Cæcilia Metella's, built by Crassus. tion of vices; and, as cruelty is not the pre-

Near the tornbs on the Appian Way is sent vice of ours, we can all humanely esa small temple ascribed to the Republic, ecrate the purpose of amphitheatres, now dedicated to the god Rediculus. It was that they lie in ruins. Moralists may tell as built of red and yellow brick, and the re

that the truly brave are never cruel, but this mains are so fresh that it appears as if it monument says 'No.' Here set the conbad been destroyed but a short while af- querors of the world, coolly to enjoy the ter its erection. The adhesion also of the tortures and death of men who had never

offended them. Two aqueducts were scarce. materials is so intimate, that “ each of its ly sufficient to wash off the human blood pudy pilasters appear like one piece,”and which a few hour's sport shed in this imthe sculpturing of the cornice is executed perial shambles. Twice in one day came with a delicacy egual to that of the finest the senators and matrons of Rome to the

butchery; a virgin always gave the signal We wish to leave our readers in good for slaughter, and when glutted with blood. humour, and we know no better way of shed, those ladies sat down in the wet and accomplishing so desirable an object, than streaming arenea to a luxurious supper. “ Such reflections check our regret for its by the concluding this article with a few

of Mr. Forsyth's animated reflections upon ruin. As it now stands, the Coliseum is a striking image of Rome itself :-decayed

Naples. vacant-serious-yet grand;-half gray and

« To a mere student of nature, to an artist, half green-erect on one side and fallen on the other, with consecrated ground in its be happy among people who seldom affect

to a man of pleasure, to any man that can bosom—inhabited by a beadsman; visited virtue, perhaps there is no residence in Euby every cast; for moralists, antiquaries, painters, architects, devotees, all meet here rope so tempting as Naples and its environs.

What variety of attractions!-a climate to meditate, to examine, to draw, to mea

where heaven's breath smells sweet and sure, and to pray."

wooingly-the most beautiful interchange The extent to which this article has of sea and land—wines, fruits, provisions, grown compels us, however unwillingly, in their highest excellence-a vigorous and to come to a conclusion. Our extracts; tions and processes—all the wonders of vol.

luxuriant nature, unparalleled in its producample as they are, afford only a slight canic power spent or in action-antiquities notion of the inpumerable beauties of different from all antiquities on earth—a thought and expression with which this coast which was once the fairy-land of delightful volume abounds,--the variety of poets, and the favourite retreat of great its subject matter-or the union it fur

Even the tyrants of the creation nishes of sound judgment with a style al- loved this alluring region, spared it, adorned most poetical, and which adapts itself, as it, lived in it, died in it. This country has it were by instinct, to every change of to- subdued all its conquerors, and continues to pic, and at once introduces the reader to subvert the two great sexual virtues, guara most lively and intimate acquaintance dians of every other virtue,-the courage with every thing in Italy that can in any

of men and the modesty of women." way be interesting to him.



Art. 3. Observations on the Geology of the United States of America; with some Re

marks on the Effects produced on the Nature and Fertility of Soils, by the Decom. position of the Different Classes of Rocks, and an Application to the Ferlility of every State of the Union, in reference to the accompanying Geological Map. With two Plates. By WILLIAM MACLURE. 8vo. pp. 128. Philadelphia. 1817.

EVERAL years ago Mr. Maclure the importance of knowing the strength Society of Philadelphia, some observa- the means and dispositions of our neightions on the geology of the United States; bourss astronomy from the exigences of he has now somewhat enlarged and cor- shepherds and navigators; physics from rected his former memoir, increasing it the need of becoming acquainted with at the same time with an attempt to apply the phenomena which surround us, as geology to agriculture, in which he is well to avail ourselves of their co-operahighly commendable, as we have no doubt tion, as to avert some of the dreadful that his endeavours will be found practi- disasters of which they are sometimes cally useful, even by those who do not the cause; cosmony from the cravings of entertain any high idea of scientific re nature, which instigate us to learn what searches. Every science is connected animals, plants, or minerals may be made with the wants of mankind; and many subservient to our use, or afford us food, sciences are indebted for their origin to raimnent, weapons, tools, &c. those wants, which increase in proportion All the divisions of knowledge to which to civilization and refinement. Agricul. we have given the names of arts or ture sprung from the inadequacy of pa sciences, have, therefore, a common oritore's spontaneous supplies of food for a gin-our wants! a common object-our large population, and has but lately be uses! a common view-our improvement! come a science; medicine sprung from These selfish motives are those which gothe natural desire of relieving our pains vern the majority of mankind; but phiand lengthening our lives; geometry from losophy refines and elevates them. This the necessity of ascertaining the extent common origin and object of the sciences and limits of our fields; geography from has often led to the belief of their identity, Vol. III.-No. 1.




Maclure's Obserrations on the Geology of the United States. Mas, as if they were all concentrated in a uni- many different facts elsewhere! Mr. Maversal science. This hypothecis cannot clure mentions that those animals whose now have many adherents, since the dif- boues bave been found in northern cliferent scientific pursuits have been so mates, while they (or their congenerous well illustrated and distinguished; yet species) are now found only in tropical cvery one must be aware of the intimate climates, might have been migratory, as connexion which exists between all the the wild Buffaloe of America is at this sciences. For instance, botany and geo- time ;-he might have added, that most inetry, which appear so widely distinct, of them being different from the not liv are yet so far connected that botany must ing species, were probably (as the mamborrow part of its language from geome- moth of Siberia was to a certainty) cotry, and geometry some of its forms from vered with a thick fur suitable to the clibotany.

mates they dwelt in. Yet to account for In a peculiarly improved stage and ex: this simple fact, a supposition has been tended state of the sciences, the veces- advanced, that the equator was sity of dividing them into minor sciences where the poles are now, and vice versa! or branches begins to be felt, and such a If the mutation of the poles could only division usually takes place shortly after- be supported by this false reasoning, every wards. It is to such a period that we are supposition of the kind would fall to the indebted for the new science of geology, ground. Fire and water were, till lately, or the knowledge of the solid part of the considered as the only agents acting over earth. This science was for a long time the earth,—now galvanism is allowed to blended with natural history, mineralogy, have also its share; bat electricity, magastronomy, cosmogony, mythology, his- netism, light, gases, air, frost, comprestory, to which it is more or less connected, sion, and animal and vegetable agency, &c. without properly belonging to cither; but have certainly also their share; whereit has in recent days been raised to the dig- fore every theory founded upon a simple nified station of a separate science, and can or single agent, becomes an erroneous already number among its votaries such system. men as Curier, Werner, Hutton, Patrin, Our author adopts Werner's classificaLametherie, &c. in Europe, while in the tion of rocks; but he is not satisfied with United States many enlightened men do his distinctive names of primitive and sepot disdain to cultivate it for the benefit of condary; he might have added his transi the present generation and of posterity. tion, which denomination is certainly illu

Among the latter Mr. Maclure stands sive. The fact is, that there are but four consicuous for zeal, assiduity, perspi- formations of rocks and earths, all of cuity, liberality, utility, and an early at which, even granite, are stratified; they tention to this important subject. It is are the crystallized, the deposited, the not by the size of his work that we must volcanic, and the organic formations; the judge of its value; but hy its intrinsic first originates in crystallizations, the se. merit. We believe that in the small cond in depositions, the third in emisnumber of pages of his volume, more es- sions, and last in organic remains; sential facts and useful truths are dis. if a fifth formation was to be added, it closed than in many thick volumes of ought to be the agglomerated formation. yure. We shall endeavour to collect such The transition formation belongs to all of them as our limits will allow, and such the format!ons in various instances, and that a tolerable idea of the value of his the alluvial to the deposited formations. observations may be formed; and the few All these formations often happen to be imperfections which we may have occa- blended, which destroys altogether the sion to notice, will but slightly invalidate theories of universal separate formations, its real merit.

since suppositions must yield to facts; We

agree altogether with our worthy and strata vary from the thickness of a author, when he states the fallacy of the sheet of paper to the immense thickness mumberless presumptive theories of the of several thousand feet, so far as they earth, which have so often been set up. have been penetrated or seen. While we have scarcely studied one The uniformity of the formations in the fourth part of the surface of the earth, United states, and the regularity of their and while the interior of our globe is to- dispositions, strike every observer who tally unknown, all speculative theories has witnessed the disparity and irreguinust be considered as the novels of geo- Jarity which are exhibited in the formaIngy rather than its history. How many tions of Europe. Mr. Maclure traces an sif them have even been founded upon a able parallel between the two continents, few local facts, which are belied by so and describes next the outlines and limits

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of the formations, rocks, mountains and found all over our deposited and agglostrata of our continent, being the result merated soils, or alluvial, limestone, sandof nearly thirty different excursions across stone regions. He ornits the alluvial their nucleus, which runs from northeast found in Ohio and New-England, &. to southwest. He describes the whole in The regions north of the lakes are a blank general results, disdaining minute inves- in bis map; they are probably of primitigation of insulated rocks and detached tive or granitic formation. The present masses; yet if there are some of such, great lakcs of North-America, and those which inay throw light upon the approxi- which have to a certainty existed elseinating formations, why should we neglect where in ancient times, have had more them altogether? We shall not follow influence on some parts of the soil than him through his leading remarks, and his he is aware of. He has not mentioned divisions; a single glance at his map will any volcanic soils and rocks in the United convey a better idea of his principles, the States; yet there are certaiwly some, results of which are, that nearly all the which he has classed, with the Werberia ? New-England states, the northern part school, among transition and secondar): of New-York, and a broad stripe as far but the trap, wake, coal, and clay forma an Georgia, are primitive; that the allu- tions, which are found in many parts, are vial formation extends from Long-Island here, as in Europe, evidently of volcanic, to Louisiana, from the Atlantic to the or einitted formation. Volcanoes do not granite up the Mississippi as far as the alway's emit fire and lava, nor heap up inouth of the Ohio; that the linestone, mountaias and craters; they often vomii or secondary formation, extends all over water and mud, and, when they are cor the western states, as far as the lakes, vered by water, their smoke and ashes including most of New-York, and that it form, under the water, strata of various is divided from the primitive by a transi. substances: such have been the ancient tion region. A formation of sandstone submarine volcanoes of Connecticut, Newexists in the primitive, in New-York, Ma- York, Pennsylvania, Virginia, Alabama, ryland, Connecticut, &c.

&c. Notwithstanding the able researches of The second plate of this work contains our author, we cannot but regard his re- five transverse sections of the United sults, as well as those of Volney, as mere States: 1. across lake Champlain and attempts towards the knowledge which the White Hills; 2. from Plymouth tu he means to convey; we know of several lake Erie; 3. from Egg-Ilarbour to Pittsinstances in which the limits assigned to burg; 4. from Cape Henry to Abingdon; some formations are not altogether cor- 5. from Cape Fear to the Warm Springs rect, nu can they ever be coinpletely They give a tolerably good idea of the known, but after a series of long, minute succession of formations; but we hope, local observations all over the United that by leading cach formation to the States; and even then, how are we to level of the sea, it was not meant to in. know when those limits are absolute or ply that they really reach it, else wę relative? We would advise observers to should ask bow. was it known to be so? notice the angle of inclination of the We np.v proceed to the second part of strata at the place of their disappearance, this work, or the practical part thereof, whence 4 probable calculation may be wherein the author relaies, with much made of their further depth and extent. propriety in the preface, how various are A long period must elapse before we can the practical results to be derived fruia acquire a complete knowledge of the soil the study of geology; it is by such a study we inhabit; we must sink wells and shafts, that we are safely guided in our search for dig mines and coal-pits to great depths, çoal, salt, gypsun, limestone, sandstone, ere we can assert which is the predomi; millstones, grindstoucs, whetstones, mainant formation in the strata we tread ble, clay, inarl, slate, ores, &c. "For inupon; but we must especially collect and stance, those who should search for coul describe all the organic reinains of our in a primitive region, or under graviiv, soil, if we ever want to speculate witis would lose their time and money: those the sinallest degree of probability, on the who mistake pyrites and mica for ores, forination, respective age, and history of find soon their delusion to their cust. It our strata. Mr. Maclure has altogether will teach you to pave turnpikcs wita omitted these accessories or auxiliaries, quartz, which will wear two years, inwhich have received, with much pro- stead of limestone or any soft stone, which priety, the name of medals of nature: will not last three months. When clay he says little or nothing of the number contains too mucb calcarious matter, it Jess animal repains, shells, polyps, &c. cannot make good bricks, and when lime

stone contains too much argillaceous mat- east of the Hudson and lake Champlain; ter, it cannot make lime.

middle states, whose territories extend The theory of the decomposition of west of the mountains or natural limit; rocks is treated with great ability and and southern states, where slavery preperspicuity; it is worth while for every vails ; while the western states will soon enlightened agriculturalist to become ac be divided in three natural districts, quainted with it: the results are, that north of the Ohio, south of the Ohio, and the best soils for agricultural purposes west of the Mississippi, whose features are those proceeding from the decompo- and interests will also assume their own sition of wake, limestone, lava, luffa, &c. peculiarities, the presumable result of that the worst are those resulting from which will be a happy balance of indiviclay, salt, sand, quartz, &c. that alluvial sible interests. and transition formations partake of such We wish that a hint of Mr. Maclure's formations as they have been washed might meet the eyes of some of those who from; that vegetable mould is the com- direct among us the education of youth. mon manure of nature, that gypsum is He insinuates that we may reasonably the next, marl and clay, of sand, and hope that, ere long, some portion of time vice versa, &c.

will be appropriated, in our colleges and In the last chapter Mr. Maclure enters universities, to studies of evident utility, at length into an investigation of the pro- and that the knowledge of substances, bable effects which the decomposition of their properties and their uses, will be rocks may have on the nature and fertility permitted, in some degree, to encroach on of the soils of the different states of North- the study of mere words, or the smatter. America, when such soils are in their pris- ing of dead languages. His hopes begin tine state, since, when covered with vege- to be partly realized, and the utility of the table and animal manure or mould, their study of our soil, our waters, our minerals, fertility lasts as long as such mould remains. our fossils, our plants, our animals, &c. is In result it appears that Pennsylvania and becoming daily more evident; let us hope New-York possess the greatest quantity that these studies will soon be taught of good lands among the Atlantic states, every where, together, at least, with those while all the western states enjoy an equal of a less permanent and general utility. fertility, being all situated in the lime- We shall conclude in the words of this stone formation. All the alluvial region author,-" The earth is every day mouldfronting the ocean appears to possess a ing down into a form more capable of propeculiar character, the soil being almost ducing and increasing vegetable matter, every where light, dry and sandy, or the food of animals, and consequently proswampy; this soil, when mixed with marl, gressing towards a state of amelioration which is generally found under it, formos a and accumulation of those materials, of good cultivable ground. It is probable that which the moderate and rational enjoycotton, the staple produce of this region ment constitutes great part of our comfort south of the Chesapeake, will, at a future and happiness. On the surface of such period, be found suitable to the whole re an extensive and perpetual progression, gion, and cultivable as far north as Long- let us hope that mankind will not, nay, Island, and on those Hempstead plains, cannot, remain stationary." now thought almost unfit for cultivation, These remarks bear evidence that our as were forinerly thought the pine barrens worthy author is gifted with a philanthroof South-Carolina.

pic and philosophical mind. The style Mr. Maclure indulges sometimes in di- and the details of his work bear the stamp gressions in which some happy thoughts of the same modest, unassuming, and plain are discernible : his great division of the philosophy, and give the author a title to states, into states east and west of the Al- the highest reward of a good citizen, the Teghany, is quite natural, and the proba- gratitude of his countrymen ; and should ble consequences of their respective fea- his labours be rewarded with the praise lures are truly delineated. Happily the that greeted his predecessor Volney, we Atlantic states are divided also naturally doubt not be will feel his anticipations in three districts; New-England states, fully realized.

C. S. R.


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