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and that of the sun. The danger to be ap- result. After bleeding, the Semicupium, or prehended is generally in proportion to the half bath of warm water, has sometimes pret runturally heated and excited state of the been attended with immediate relief. Stibody, the degree of coldness in the water, mulating cataplasms of mastard applied to and the quantity That is suddenly taken the region of the stomach are also highly When these circumstances concur in a high beneficial. On account of the febrile exdegree, the patient within a few moments citement that geperally takes place very after swallowing the water “is affected by soon in this disease, we cannot approve of a dimness of sight; be staggers in attempt the promiscuous administration of ardent ing to walk, and unless supported, falls to spirits and other heating remedies, except, the ground; he breathes with difficulty; a perhaps, where they are given at the very ratling is heard in his throat; his nostrils commencement. Occasional draughts of and cheeks expand and contract in every warm water, to which a little whey may act of respiration; his face appears suffused be added, would in general be found more with blood, and of a livid colour; his ex. useful, together with clysters of the same, tremities become cold, and his pulse im- or of warm milk and water. perceptible; and, unless relief be speedily Quinsies, peripneumonies, obstructions obtained, the disease terminates in death in and inflammations of the liver, and other four or five minutes." (Rush.) This descrip- parts of the abdomen, are some of the more tion includes only the less cominon, but remote and less immediately dangerous conmore violent and rapidly tragical effects sequences which flow from the free use of produced by a large and sudden draught of cold water, when the body is much heated cold water, when the body is greatly heated by exercise, labour, or esposure to the sun. In ordinary cases the patient is seized with acute spasons in the stomach and chest, at In the general bill of mortality for the tended with great oppression and inexpres- month of July, 330 deaths are recorded : sible anguish. The spasms are seldom per- from manent, but occur only at intervals, and Abscess, 1; Apoplexy, 5; Cancer, 3; sometimes with pains so excruciating as to Casualty, 5; Child-bed, 1 ; Cholera Morbe productive of syncope, or even asphyxia. bus, 12; Consumption, 58; Convulsions, In the intervals between the spasms, he is 29; Contusion, 1; Cramp in the Stomach, much relieved, and to appearance is some. 1; Diarrhea, 13; Drinking Cold Water, 9; times quite well.

Dropsy, 3; Dropsy in the Head, 10; Liquid laudanum has been considered the Dropsy in the Chest, 1; Drowned, 0; only certain reinedy for this disease. This Dysentery, 8; Epilepsy, 1; Fever, 1; Fe. given, as in other cases of spasm, in doses ver, bilious, 1: Fever, Hectic, 1; Fever, Inproportioned to the violence of the symp- flammatory, 3; Fever, Typhous, 41; Gravel, toms ; spirituous fomentations to the chest, 1; Hæmoptysis, 1; Hæmorrhage, 1; abdomen and extremities, or the warm bath, Hives, 2; Hooping Cough, 14; Inflammaif it can be readily obtained; clysters of tion of the Brain, 3; Inflammation of the spirits and water, or warm milk and water; Chest, 5; Toflammation of the Stomach, and rubbing the body with spirits of ammo 1; Inflammation of the Liver, 7; Inflania, or other stimulating embrocations, con mation of the Bowels, 3; Insanity, 1; Institute the means commonly resorted to in temperance, 3; Jaundice, 2; Killed or the treatment of this complaint. Where Murdered, 2; Locked Jaw, 1; Marasınus, the vital powers appear to be suddenly sus 2 ; Measels, 1; Mortification, 3; Old Age, pended, the same remedies are directed to 14; Palsy, 3; Pneumonia Typhodes, 2; be used which have been found so successful Scrophula, 3; Sore-Throat, 1; Spasms, I; in cases of persons apparently dead from Sprue, 1; Still-born, 3; Sudden Death, drowning.

3; Suicide, 1; Syphilis, 4; Tabes MeFor the purpose of allaying excitement senterica, 7; Teething, 7; Unknown, 4; and irregular action, as well as to prevent Worms, 4.-Total 330. local congestions, or to guard against their Of this number there died 69 of and uneffects where they have already taken place, der the age of 1 year; 31 between 1 and 2 it is frequently necessary, in addition to the years; 16 between 2 and 5; 11 between 5 above remedies, to employ the lancet, and and 10; 11 between 10 and 20; 37 between sometimes very freely, particularly in ro 20 and 30; 47 between 30) and 40; 48 bebust and plethoric habits. The head is very tween 40 and 50; 25 between 50 and 60; apt to be affected in this complaint, and in 13 between 60 and 70; 14 between 76 and consequence of a determination of blood 80 ; 7 between 80 and 90; and 1 between to that part, the brain becomes oppressed, 90 and 100 years. and there is reason to believe that a mortal

JACOB DYCKMAN, M.D. apoplexy has not uofrequently been the New-York, July 31st, 1818.

THE

AMERICAN MONTHLY MAGAZINE

AND

CRITICAL REVIEW.

No. VI...... VOL. III.

OCTOBER, 1818.

ART. 1. The Literary Character, illustrated by the History of Men of Genius, drawn

from their own feelings and confessions. By the Author of Curiosities of Literature.” 12mo. pp. 302. New York. Eastburn. 1818. THI NHE chief glory of a nation,” says at the professional enthusiasm that views

Johnson, « is its authors,” and the glory encircling the memory of an though to vulgar minds the profession of Ulpian, a Hale, or a Hardwicke, as surthat illustrious writer may seem to deduct passing that of individuals, equally dissomething from the value of his axiom, tinguished, it may be, but moving in dewe cannot persuade ourselves that a po- partments altogether different:-to the sition coming from the author of the Ram- architectural professor, whose whole life bler-one who occupied so eminent a is dedicated to the study of a science to station among the literati of his own which the most illustrious nations of antimes—will be encountered by the oppo- tiquity stand indebted for so large and sition of any whose opinion ought to be brilliant a portion of their fame, and an object of consideration. It is a laud- which holds out to all polished states some able pride which induces men of every of the surest means of perpetuating their liberal profession—the lawyer, the ar present greatness and renown-to the chitect, the physician, the artist, &c.- architect it may be rationally permitted to panegyrize the particular science or to consider his peculiar sphere of action art to the study and practice of which as the one most iotimately allied with the they have devoted themselves; it is a con- symbols of intellectual and national gransequence naturally resulting from that deur:-in such men as Hippocrates, exclusiveness of attention they have be- Harvey, Sydenham, Cruikshank, and stowed upon it, and which has not only Rush, the physician contemplates indirendered it more especially valuable viduals whose illustrious and laborious in their eyes from the difficulties and talents have won from nature the knowimpediments they have struggled with ledge of her profoundest secrets-the and overcome in its attainment, but has utility of the medical art is daily, hourly, likewise informed them with a larger almost momentarily, made apparent to knowledge and acuter perception of the him-and it surely will not be thought benefits to mankind generally of which marvellous should he assign the highest it is susceptible of being made the chan- rank to a profession illustrated by chanel or instrument. The lawyer may be racters so eminent, a profession of whose listened to with candour and indulgence importance he is a constant and expewhile he descants on the splendour and rjenced spectator : -and the artist, -a indispensible utility of a science adorned term we could wish to see consecrated by some of the greatest names on record to the professors of painting and statuary, -and we scarcely feel disposed to smile to distinguish them from the engravers of VOL. III.No. vi.

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stones, medallions and prints--to the ar- constitution, and by the inflexible rejectist, also, let us not be less liberal,--he tion of all the pleasures of society, has whose glowing and creative imagination, acquired a strength and subtility, which impregnated with the fire of genius, and elevate him, in the happiest instances of richly embued with the unperished and such acquisitions, far beyond the ordinary exquisite forms of classic antiquity, im- level of even cultivated intellect? He has parts life to the inanimate marble, or expatiated over an ampler surface—he has charms us with the magic of pictorial de. become familiarised with all the remoter sign, and the fascination of colour--and springs of whatever is sublime and beauwho his mind full of the lustre which tiful--of all that is intellectually grand or bis art sheds, and will ever shed, round splendid—of all, in fine, that approxithe proudest states, dwells with transport mates the human to a higher order of on names and topics connected with his beings. Of the professional characters profession-will not, assuredly, fail of we have enumerated, the lawyer may adour indulgence when, the recollection of vance high and legitimate pretensiors to the sublime geniuses who have graced it the esteem of his fellow-citizens ;-as a floating across his memory, he launches moralist by avocation-for law may be forth in its commendation, and elevates defined as neither more nor less than a it above all other pursuits. And thus is system of practical reasoning and moit with every one whose avocation relates rality,—his studies have deeply initiated to the nobler endowments of our nature;- him in the duties which civilized society in the tradesman and working mechanic imposes on its members—bis profession is it would, indeed, be not a little absurd eminently a public ope-he is a conserrato expect such a feeling, inasmuch as the tor of the general weal—and from his objects occupying their thoughts, time perpetual intercourse with various classes we had better said, are of a nature com of men, he acquires a practical knowledge pletely distinct from those connected with of the human character in all its shades intellect; but with respect to every pur- of good and evil, unattainable by any suit demanding the active co-operation of other process. In one respect, indeed, it mind, we conceive it will be usually has frequently occurred to us that the remarked that in the estimation of its profession of the lawyer assimilates him cultivators its supereminent value ac with the confessor of catholic countries, an quires a most implicit faith, and that they order of men who have always been celeare ever ready to speak its praises with brated for their knowledge of the world, an ardour and enthusiasm which, how. which is only another phrase for the firever it may excite the ridicule of the tues and vices of its members. The very vulgar, will always be met with the ut nature of his employment renders it nemost candour and indulgence by the more cessary for all who seek his assistance to refined and intelligent portions of the unbosom themselves to him with scarcely community.

more reserve than the Italian or Spaniard And shall not the MAN OF LETTERS uses towards his priest, and though, unhe whose occupations more than those like the monk, the lawyer is not invested perhaps of any other class of society, with the power of absolution, he will, it are largely and intimately linked with he be a moral and conscientious man, those qualities and attributes which give not infrequently be enabled to frustrate to man his superiority over the brute the machinations of evil minds, and dicreation shall not the man of letters minish the pressure of unmerited misiorbe admitted to the same privilege ? tune. The advocate and his client-the Shall a profession so manifold in its confessor and his penitent-stand related departments, and in each so important, to each other, as far as regards the imbe unpermitted the claims to distinction portant and main result of such connexion freely granted to the practisers of sciences —pretty nearly in the same manner and which, however honourable and deserving ratio-with this essential difference, bow. they may be of the respect of mankind, ever, that, while the influence of the are nevertheless incalculably more limited priest, exercised over the fears of ignoin their range, than the almost boundless rance and superstition, tends to the field within which the literary character abasement, and, through the medium of pursues his researches ? Granting to the absolution, to the corruption of society, advocate, the architectural and medical the same knowledge which he attains professor, the artist, &c. their full title to through terror, and practises for decepthe admiration of the world, would it be tion, the lawyer acquires by means just to refuse our applause to him whose honourably and indispensibly connected mind, frequently at the expense of his with his profession, and uses for purposes

which we would willingly suppose equally what are the foundations on which reredounding to his credit. The architect poses the structure of their fame, or at -the physician-the artist, &c. also oc- least that portion of it which is most ilcupy eminent and brilliant stations in the lustrious, and which will be as fresh a intellectual and professional world-let thousand years hence, when the ruins of them all receive that legitimate and Athens, and Syracuse, and Rome, shall be liberal homage to which talent is entitled, hingled in dust with the ground on which which will always be cheerfully rendered they stand, as now. Is it not to their literaby their enlightened coutemporaries, and ture that those renowned states owe the which in after ages will shed round their transmission of their glory, and the presername and memory a magnificence sur- vation of those talents and virtues which passing that of kings. Yet let us not in built up and cemented the fabric of their our admiration of talents devoted to the grandeur and prosperits? Were we deuseful or brilliant arts, forget the supe- prived of the poems of Homer, and Hesiod, rior glory poured round the brows of a and Pindar, what should we know of the pation by the genius of its authors, nor early stages of Hellenic civilization, of be unjust to the merits of men, who in that memorable war wbich mixed in the silence of night, as amid the bustle of eternal conflict the arms of Greece and the day, rejecting the allurements of Asia, or of institutions which had no tripleasure, and scorning every lighter ob- vial share in the formation of the national ject, are consecrating the whole strength character of the people among and by of their matured and vigorous faculties to whom they were established ? It is in the building up a monument to their the divine strains of those immortal bards own and country's glory—a monument that we meet with the living pictures of that shall outlast the splendid but perish- the manners, improvements, exploits, and able labours of art, and when the dome domestic sports of their countrymen. and the statue have crumbled into dust, Nut so much to the exquisite genius of and the tints flown from the decaying can- their painters, sculptors, and architects vas, shall shed a strong radiance over the did the ancients trust the immortality of sepulchre of national greatness, and pre- their fame, as to the more lasting labours sent to remotest ages a triumplant and of their unrivalled writers. The physiogimmortal testimony of the power and nomy of Pericles might be preserved divinity of genius.

even for some few centuries--by the penPerhaps some of our more sober read- cil of Pananus, or the chisel of Phidias.--ers may conceive us a little enthusiastic but the memory of his wisdom, and those in our estimation of the importance and profound talents which raised his country lustre of the literary character, and ac- to supremacy among her sister statei cuse us of partiality towards a profession to carry down to future times the record of which we are, certainly, proud of be. of his intellectual features—this was the ing members, however humble. Were task of Thucydides :-and thus was it with it so, we do not think we should be very all the great or distinguished characters of open to censure. To the concessions we antiquity-marble and canvas were not the would make-which we have made to chief propagators and preservers of their others, literary men are assuredly also renown-had their trust been in these, entitled, and if the fact were otherwise slenderindeed would be our acquaintance than we have stated, our eulogium would with the heroes and sages of Greece and be no unwarrantable stretch of the privi- Rome.--Nothing, in truth, shows more lege accorded to science and art, nor strikingly the comparative ineficacy of would the courtesy of liberal minds feel the arts to confer immortality on those oppressed by the extent of our demands. whose actions they aim at perpetuating, But we are bold in affirming that our than the fact that almost all our know. panegyric is but co-equal with the merits ledge of their progress and chefs-d'autres, of its objects, and we would appeal in arises from the interest which literature support of our assertion, to the evidence has taken in their advancement and perwhich ages have left us. Time is the fection. This is unquestionably the case grand witness in questions of this nature, inasmuch as it respects the arts of antiand he is on our side. Let us, for a mo- quity, for the specimens of Grecian ment, turn our eyes to those nations and sculpture (of painting there are none) periods most distinguished in the page of that have survived the ravages of time history-those periods and nations to and barbarisın, though they show the which the veneration of the modern perfection to which the art had arrived world, with all its wonderful improve- in the time of the artist, are still too few ments, is yet fondly attached and see to give a complete idea of that universal

diffusion throughout Greece, of the taste We have indulged ourselves to such which is generally spoken of as confined length upon the train of reflections to to Athens; and were it not for the pains which the words of Johnson, and the taken by the Greek and Roman writers work before us, gave birth, that we are to transmit to posterity memorials of their compelled to deal in rather a summary countrymen's excellence in arts, as well with the pleasing volume of Mr. D'Isas in arms and legislation, we might now raeli. It is an enlarged republication of have to lament our very imperfect ac a tract that we recollect to have pequaintance with their general and ardent rused many years since in England. cultivation of them. Literature has al- The motives which induced the ingenious ways been the firm ally of every thing author to bring it again forward, will be connected with the glory of the coun- best described in his own words :tries in which it has flourished, and bas provided for the productions of art, and

" I published, in 1795, ' an Essay on the the discoveries of science, a temple Literary Character;' to my own habitual which lightning cannot scathe, nor the and inherent defects, were superadded those thunderbolt level with the dust, nor the of my youth; the crude production was,

however, not ill received, for the edition earthquake heave from its foundations- disappeared; and the subject was found to and now that the press extends its Bria- be more interesting than the writer. ræan support to the friends of the muses,

" During the long interval which has we have little reason to apprehend the elapsed since the first publication, the little destruction of her treasures from any of volume was often recalled to my recollecthe causes which, previously to its in- tion by several, and by some who have vention, had contributed to mutilate or since obtained celebrity; they imagined destroy them and we have reason to that their attachment to literary pursuits suppose that it will eternally continue had been strengthened even by so weak an the proud and noble prerogative of let. concurred with these opinions :-a copy

effort. An extraordinary circumstance bas ters, to gather up in their silent but glo- which has accidentally fallen into my hands, rious march, the memorials of contem- formerly belonged to the great poetical geporary genius, and to bear down to future nius of our times; and the singular fact that ages the record of all that art and science it was twice read by him in two subsequent have accomplished to illustrate the past. years, at Athens, in 1810 and 1811, instantly Indeed, it will be evident to the least re- convinced me that the volume deserved my flective mind, that the productions of the attention. I tell this fact assuredly, not painter and sculptor, depending for their from any little vanity which it may appear existence on materials subject to all the to betray, for the truth is, were I not as licasualties of nature and accident, would beral and as candid in respect to my own be gradually obliterated from the memory, could not have been gratified by the present

productions, as I hope I am to others, I and abandoned by the admiration of so- circumstànce; for the marginal notes of the ciety, were it not for the protecting band noble writer convey no flattery—but amidst and embalming influence of literature. their pungency and sometimes their truth, How strikingly is this evinced by the the circumstance that a man of genius could, brightest periods of modern art--the and did read, this slight effusion at two difage of the Medici-and that of Louis ferent periods of his life, was a suficient XIV. To what chances bave the chefs- authority, at least, for an author to return d'ouvres of those times, so honourable to it once more to the anvil; more knowledge, the arts, been exposed! And how pro- will now fill up the rude sketch of my

and more maturity of thought, I may hope, bable is it that the course of events which have already and repeatedly placed youth; its radical defects, those which are

inherent in every author, it were unwise for the capitals of Italy, Germany, and

me to hope to remove by, suspending the France in the power of exasperated work to a more remote period. enemies—may, and, perchance, at no “ It may be thought that men of genius very distant period, involve in destruction only should write on men of genius; as if the works of Michael Angelo, Titian, it were necessary that the physician should and Rembrandt; of David, and Canova. be infected with the disease of his patient. But their memory will not perish, and it He is only an observer, like Sydenham, will be the task of the muse and the who confined himself to vigilant observa. historian, to inform all ages of the con

tion, and the continued experience of tractributions made by the illustrious of their ing the progress of actual cases (and in his times to the splendour and glory of their tion of actual remedies. He beautifully

department, but not in mine) in the operacountry, and to waft down to latest pos« says Whoever describes a violet exactlý terity the tidings of their mighty achieve as to its colour, taste, smell, form, and other ments.

properties, will find the description agree

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