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the water thus obtained, is by the opera I will next notice Mr. Linaker:~He, jn of its gravity below the surface under in attempting to realize the doctor's ideas, the stern of the vessel; whereas, in mine, exbibits a want of talent seldom found the water is discharged at the stern, on in a good practical mechanic. His exthe surfuce, and produces propulsion by periments appear to me to be a series of the combination of the three following blunders; his first method is precisely the operations :
one recommended by Dr. Franklin, and, 1st. By the effect produced by remov as far as it goes, resernbles mine. But ing from the bous of the boat the pressure instead of confining the water as I do, in of a part of the water displaced by the a set of trunks adapted to that purpose, in gravity of the vessel.
such quantity as to make it equal to a 2d. By increasing that pressure by the solid substance, and then cause the engine weight of the water discharged on the to push inclined plungers against il, as surface at the stern.
firmly as a boatman would push against 3d. By the re-action of the water when a whurf or pier-head, when putting off, discharging, on the side of the trunk op- and causing the vessel to recede from the posite to the discharging orifice.
water, as the boat does from the wharf, The union of these three forces gives with a velocity equal to the whole force of motion to the vessel, and her speed will the engine, a desideratum hilherto not be in proportion to the quanuty of water deemed allainable. Mr. Linaker operates raised, and the velocity with which that upon the water as a yielding substance, operation is performed. --Thus it appears by “ drawing it in at one end of a tube that the venerable Franklin was the first and delivering it out of the other, by to originate this “negative” principle of means of a lifting pump working horizon. the application of power, and the re. tally.” Thus, besides the loss of power jection of its immediate use," as applied sustained by the yielding of the water, in to navigation and the “opening of a new Mr. L's. experiment, the progress of the era in one of the inost important arts yet boat was impeded by the resistance of the practised by mankind,” (vide, Mr. Bus- water ahead, into which the boat was adby's Essay, page 14,) commenced in the vancing, operating against the bucket decline of his long and highly useful life. frame, in its forward motion, in propor* It would be impossible (continues Mr. tion to its resisting surface, and the speed Busby,) for me to detail the successive of the vessel-a sufficient cause for not gradations of idea that led to the concep pursuing this method any further." tion of a discovery, great in its conse In his second method he proposes, as quences. Impeded by inental inertia, it an improvement, to draw the water in at came slowly at first, and with reluctance, the stern instead of the bous of the boat, but once in motion, it advanced with the by means of a forcing pump in a perpenaccelerated impetus of truth, and bore dicular position, (an inclined one would conviction before it."-Astonishing! A have been better,) and by some arrangeYankee with a “Catalogue of Schemes” ment of bis valves, he has given Dir. before him, would not have taken half Busby an opportunity to say, very truly, the trouble.
that it had “an effectual tendency to imAgain, (page 16,) “Every attempt, pede the boat's progress.” What else therefore, not excepting my own, has could have been expected! heretofore been made on a false basis If Mr. Linaker had, in this last opera. namely, that of operating upon the water, tion, employed more than one pump, of with a view to benefit from the resistance suitable dimensions, and placed in an isiof its inertia.”
clined instead of perpendicular position, Again, (page 20,) “ It is a fact some- drawing in the water from the bous in. what remarkable, that the idea of this stead of the stern, and exhibited a me
negative' application of power seems thod of operating on this water as on solid never to have suggested itself either to columns, in rotation, with the full force the ancients or inoderns; the Phæni- of the engine, I confess there would have cians, the Egyptians, the Tyrians, the been a strong analogy between such a Carthaginians, and the Romans, had plan and my direct application of power. their biremes and triremes, &c. all mov- How could Mr. Busby, who professes so ing by operation against the inertia of much discerament, confound two plans su the water. The Italian gondolas are still evidently different! navigated on a similar principle,” &c. &c. I could go into many particulars, to Why not tell us plainly the important show the difference between my plans, truth that the ancients did, and the mom and those which Mr. Busby chooses to derus do--ROW THEIR BOATS,
call analogous; but it would too much
swell this article for an ordinary commu- the “ matters of record” alluded to, for nication-those who may feel desirous to I confess myself to bave been a total investigate the subject, can examine my stranger to them, and if he can give some essay, and draw their own conclusions. others from his “ Catalogue," particular
Mr. Busby has also referred to the Re- ly if they can touch or be assimilated to pertory of Arts, of 1815, for a description my plans, he will in this respect confer an of an " Air Engine patented about four additional favour—the “ zeal" of my years since in England.” Although I have friends cannot half so much help me. searched diligently that volume, and others By the preceding account it would apthat immediately preceded and follow ed pear that the “negative” method sugit, I find no other allusion to the subject gested by Dr. Franklin, has not, hithertban an account of experiments made to, been put in practice; that my two with condensed air, but not rarefied, which " negative” modes of propulsion are si. did not succeed for reasons already given milar in principle to bis, though more in my essay. But as he says, the “ in- perfect in thrir application, and made genious Mr. Murray, of Leeds, England,” without having any precious knowledge was engaged, for many years in similar of his suggesti •ns; that Mr. Busby's mepursuits, I take it for granted that the thod being similar to one of mine, though ** Air Engine" alluded to, was like Mr. not quite as perfect, is of course precisely Murray's, and I find in Dr. Rees' Cy- the same application of the doctor's princlopedia, under the article Sleam Engine ciple, and was efiected subsequent lo his that this gentleman has obtained a pa- knowledge of this imporlant fact, and that tent for a new air pump, but (says the the wheel which I none employ, is a simple writer of the article) “ as the ingenious instrument, baving found by experience inventor does not adopt it in the steam that the compound wheel, such as Mr. engines wbich he makes, we may pre- Busby uses, was too lulky, and that acsume it is not of great importance.” cording to a well known axiom in meHence it clearly appears, that Mr. Mur- chanics, that whatever was gained by its ray's air pump was only intended as an complication, one-third of it was lost by improved auxiliary to the steam engine, mere friction. Hence my present wheel and not an “ Air Engine" as “ a pri- baving only sir paddles instead of eight, mum mobile," which Mr. Busby appears the usual number, and being so circuinto consider it.
stanced in its inclined position, as to admit Mr. Busby further states, that “many the motion of the vessel to be reversed expensive experiments (some of which or suspended at pleasure, without stopping he witnessed) have been made in England the engine, has an advantage his wheel under the superintendence of the first does not appear to possess. As it respects mathematicians and mechanicians, but my second and most perfect application of finally the idea was abandoned.” Now the “negative” principle, by means of inI hold him in candour bound to state, struments denominated plungers, operatwhether these were arial experiments, ing upon the combined principles of the with a view to improvements in acrosta- lifting and forcing pump, Mr. Busby has tion, as the aeronaut M. Montgalfier observed a profound silence. How far seems to have been concerned in them, and with what justice he has by this proor such as relates particularly to my sysé cedure, denied this application of the lem. I want to know what kind of air doctor's principle, the surprising advanthese great men experimented with, whe- tage be has ascribed to his own imperther common atmospherical air in its na fect method, will, I trust, appear on retural, compressed or rarefied state, and if ference to his essay; and with that intencondensed, how many atmospheres; if tion, I am constrained to say to him, that gases were employed, what kind, and " out of thy own mouth 1 will judge under what peculiar circumstances; whe- thee,”—Luke. “By the removal of the ther these gases were condensed or rare water from within the raceway, (says Mr. fied, when used, and whether they were B.) the resistance (to the boat's motion) erpended ; as in the case of steam, or al- has been entirely removed, while the externately expanded and contracted, and ternal pressure beneath the inclined plane not expended ; and also, what kind of in- of the raceway remaining unimpaired, struments or engines were employed, and urges it forward,” page 17. Again, the what were the peculiar results. He wit- object is nuw obviously to remove the wa. nessed them, probably recorded them, ter froin within the raceway as freely as and doubtless possesses sufficient know. possible--the action of the water wheel ledge to unfold them. I must, however, will then reduce the resistance alcad while give Mr. Busby credit for referring me to the pressure astero remains undin, ished,
motion must ensue,” page 19. Again, other instruments for raising water-they
JÕHN 1. STAPLES. we know, are generally preferred to all Flushing, July 29th, 1818.
ART. 5. LITERARY AND SCIENTIFIC INTELLIGENCE.
ler, James Tallmadge, jun. Robert BoVHERE has recently been established dus, Pierre C. Wyck, John Pinmises to render itself of great public uti. H. Bowne. lity. It is entitled “the New-York Cor. Charles G. Haines, Corresponding Seresponding Association, for the promotion cretary. of Internal Improvements.” The objects Henry Post, jun. Treasurer." of the institution are thus stated :
The following are the queries contain" This association has for its object the ed in the circular issued by the society :acquisition and diffusion of all useful in “1. What roads or canals have been telligence connected with the inland opened in your county, or in your state
, trade and navigation of the country. Its to encourage internal trade and navigafounders have indulged the hope, that by tion? opening an extensive correspondence with “ 2. What roads and canals are now gentlemen of the first distinction through- opening? out the union, and by imbodying and “ 3. What roads or canals are contemsending forth, in a comprehensive form, plated ? the information which might be thus “ 4. What roads or canals might be acquired, great and permanent benefit opened to promote internal trade and pacould be rendered to the American peo- vigation, and to what probable extent ple, and much incitement given to that would any such improvements effect these noble and munificent spirit of enterprise, two sources of industry and wealth? in relation to internal improvements which “ 5. What is the extent, character, now distinguishes every quarter of the and course of trade in your immediate United States.
vicinity ?” Officers of the Association.
The following is the circular of the De Witt Clinton, President.
College of Physicians and Surgeons of the Samuel L. Mitchill, and Cadwallader University of the state of New-York. D. Colden, Vice-Presidents.
City of New York, August 18th, 1818 Committee of Correspondence and Public persons resident at a distance, relative to
Inquiries being frequently made, by cation.
the course of studies and requisites for Thomas Eddy, Chairman ; William graduation, in the College of Physicians Bayard, Theodorus Bailey, Sylvanus Mil. and Surgeons of the University of New
York, as also concerning other matters dissertation on some medical subject. interesting to the students who resort to He is publicly examined on the same, in this school of medicine, the trustees of the College Hall, the first Monday in the college, with a view of removing the April, and may publish, with the approinconvenience of answering so many in bation of one of the professors, either in dividual applications, and of gratifying the English, French, or Latin languages. those whom it may concern, have order The degrees are conferred by the presied the present Circular to be published dent the next day, at a public Comfor general information.
mencement. The College opens, annually, on the From the provision thus made, it will be first Monday in November, and the seve seen that the various courses of lectures ral courses begin, successively that week, delivered in the College are so arranged, after the introductory lectures of the re as to constitute a complete system of medispective professors. The session closes cal education. The board of trustees, the last day of February.
however, think it incumbent on them to Lectures in the Forenoon.
state, that it has been their unremitted Theory and Practice of Physic, by Dr. endeavour to increase, as far as practicaHosack, from nine to ten o'clock, daily. ble, the means of instruction, and to ren
Principles and Practice of Surgery, by der the advantages enjoyed by the Col. Dr. Mott, from ten to eleven, daily. lege, at least equal to those of any other
Anatomy, Physiology, and Surgery, by similar establishment in the United States. Dr. Post, from eleven to twelve, daily. The anatomical museum, of large extent, Lectures in the Afternoon.
has been augmented by some rare and Natural History, including Mineralo valuable preparations, and very important gy, Botany, and Zoology, by Dr. Mitchill, additions have been made to the chemical from one to two, daily.
apparatus and laboratory. The cabinet Chemistry and Materia Medica, by of natural history has also been greatly Dr. M.Neven, from five to six, daily. enriched by numerous specimens, native
Obstetrics, and the Diseases of Women and foreign; and in the illustrations of and Children, by Dr. Hosack, from four the geology and mineralogy of the Ameto five, on Mondays and Thursdays. rican states, is peculiarly rich. Measures
Clinical Practice of Medicine, by Dr. have recently been adopted by the trusHamersley, from four to five, on Wednes. tees in order to provide a library for the days and Saturdays.
students of the University. Institutes of Medicine, and Forensic It is proper surther to state, that alMedicine, by Dr. Francis, from four to though the most liberal and extensive five, on Tuesdays and Fridays.
system of medical and philosophical inGraduation.
struction has thus been provided, the exIt is expected that a candidate for pense of education to the candidate for graduation shall bave attained the age of medical honours is not increased beyond twenty-one years.
that of any other College in the union, On or before the first of February, the as the courses are not made indispensably canditate shall make known bis name and necessary for graduation, and the student intention to one of the professors, by is at liberty to attend any course or whom he will be informed of the time and courses he may think expedient: the proplace of examination. This first examina- fessors insist upon the attainments of the tion is by the board of professors only; candidate, and not upon the number of it is private and confidential.
courses, nor the number of years he may A second examination is held before have attended at the University. The trusthe board of trustees, to whom, on this tees confidently believe their plan of eduoccasion an appeal lies, and before whom cation satisfactory, and they indulge the there is offered an opportunity of redress, hope that nothing will be wanting to fulfil if a candidate thinks himself in any wise the just expectations and liberal views of aggrieved.
their patrons, the honourable the legislaThe names of those who have been ap- ture, and the regents of the University proved by the trustees are forwarded to of New-York. the regents of the University, who return
By order, an equal number of diplomas, under the SAMUEL BARD, M. D. President. signature of the chancellor. They are JOHN W. FRANCIS, M. D. Registrar. afterwards signed by the president of the We upderstand that Mr. GEORGE FRECollege and the professors.
DERIC Busby intends giving, in the course By the 20th of March, the candidate of the present month, in this city, a pubsball deliver to one of the professors a lic Lecture on Poetical Literature. The
productions of Mr. Moore and Lord Byron able moment of a general pacification, wil, we learn, constitute the subject- and must excite the attention of all mari. matter of the discourse, which will be time powers, in proportion to the unexaccompanied by illustrative readings from ampled extent to which commercial the most admired effusions of those fas- rights were prostrated during the late cinating writers. Mr. Busby's recita- eventful wars, and the desire of regenetive powers are, we are told, peculiarly rating a system at once so perfect and vivid and discriminating; and we have universally in force as the Consolato del no doubt that in the composition of the Mare. By the work before os, the auLecture his literary talents will be dis- tbor has acquired the praise of having plaved to advantage.
attempted this system on the most solid The third hall-volume of Mr. Dela. foundation. Without doubt it is already plaine's Repository is in a state of consi- in the hands of all our readers to whom derable forwardness, and will shortly be the German language is familiar; and we put to press. As the object of this work indulge a bope ere long of seeing it at is to perpetuate the glory and virtues least in the English and French. Comof those illustrious men who fought and mercial Law bas never before been counselled for the liberties of America, treated with more perspicuity and sys. we cannot avoid recommending it warin tem, and compiled from such a variets of Is to the patronage of the public. Mr. authentic documents, and references to Delaplaine has, we understand, been judicial authorities-no author before has anxiously solicitous to render the present enriched the subject with more just redumber worthy of the support we trust marks drawn from extensive professional be will receive, and, by securing the as- experience, and an universal acquaintsistance of the most eminent graphic and ance with the works of the later English literary talents in the country, justified and other European systems of legal jubis claims to public approbation.
risprudence-not only as it is at this day At the late annual commencement of developed, but also as the principles of Union College in this state, the degree equity and justice, and the general inof LL. D. was confered on David Ho- terest of commercial nations require it to BACK, M. D. F. R. S.
be established. We are assured we do Dr. Hos Ack's new System of Nosology not say too much, but merely anticipate is nearly printed, and will be published what a more circumstantial review will early in October next, in one volume, confirm and support. Inestimable adranoctavo.
tages must arise to maritime commerce, The Board of Trustees of the College from an observance by all the maritime of Physicians and Surgeons of the Uni- powers of the privciples upon which the versity of New York, have recently adop- work is established; for the neglect and ted measures for the purpose of estab- disregard of them has produced incallishing a Medical and Philosophical Li- culable mischief. The intelligent author, brary for the more immediate advantage in a general review of maritime law, bas of students who resort to that school for brought together with unwearied indus. instruction.
try, with critical learning and profound E. J. Coale, of Baltimore, has recently judgment, all that might be deemed usepublished a translation of Jacobsen's ful and applicable to the subject from Laws or THE SEA. The following no- practical jurists, among the Italians, tice of the work is taken from the Ham- French, English, Dutch and Germans, burg Journal of Politics and Literature: and particularly from his long professional
“We refer the atieption of the public experience, and a correspondence with to a work of high interest, entitled, “Laws men learned in the subject of mariume of the Sea, in relation to Maritime Come jurisprudence. The work merits the merce during Peace and War, by Frede- consideration of all commercial governrick J. Jacohsen, Advocate. Altona. 1815.' ments, and should be in the possession of Most of our readers will pot fail to recol. every respectable merchant and mariner. lect the author's former treatise on the Above all, the decisions of the great practical sea-laws of the English and Admiralty Judge, Sir William Scott, are French in relation to neutral property. herein adverted to, and the grounds of The extensive importance of the con- his decisions estimated according to their tents, and the excellence of the execu• high value. The author's own opinions tion of that work, were universally ac- and wishes, which are advanced with a knowledged. The author's present work, commendable modesty, are as just as they of equal excellence and merit, but of are philanthropic. If, as we conceive, higher import, is presented at the favour wars are idevitable, may bis labours be