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minds of the Creeks, he was not neglect- to deliver the talk to him in their behall. ful of the use and application of weights. He met them, and in the assembly of the He made figures to illustrate the con women, was thus addressed : “Father, struction of steelyards, on a piece of pa we women are poor and foolish; but you, per. He explained this to one woman, as our great father, will excuse our poand after making her comprehend it, verty, and pardon our folly. When white handed it to another. And by ascer men have come into our nation, they taining the weight of hogs, and other have never studied the good of the women, things, which used always to be sold by por endeavoured to better their oppressed tale, and reducing them to chalks or quar- condition. All they have hitherto done is ter dollars, he made his learners under to make our situation more wretched. stand that a heavy hog was worth more They have employed every art to raise than a light one ; and by actually paying and shorten our petticoats, and have them in proportion to the weight, demon- thereby left us more exposed and naked strated to them the difference in value than they found us. But you, father, between things heretofore rated alike. commiserate our condition; you pity our This gave them great satisfaction, and nakedness and weakness; you say you made them more careful to fat their hogs. will instruct us to cover ourselves, and be The like happened in respect to corn. decent and warm; you will enable us to This was formerly sold by the varying support ourselves, so that we and our quantity of a basket full, till Mr. H. in children shall be in no danger of starv. structed them in the use of an established ing in the swamps. You come to lengthen and unvarying measure, the half bushel; our petticoats, and extend them over us taught them to reduce such a measure to from the hips to the ankles. Father, we a certain weight by the steelyard ; and will follow your advice: speak and we then again to calculate this weight in will obey." chalks or quarter dollars.

He by degrees encouraged them to At the same timc, as much pains was split rails, to make fences of them, to intaken as possible to instruct the boys and close their fields, and to till them with girls about the agent's house, and in bis their own hands; himself showing them fainily, in the practice of the English how, and by his example, convincing tongue. In like inanner the Indian chil. them that it was at once respectable and dren who lived with his negroes, were useful. Among the Creeks there was a taught to speak our tongue. But all this peculiar difficulty in overcoming the averwas accomplished by rote, and without sion of the men to labour. Inured alterthe sight or mention of a book.

nately to hunting, indolence and war, Progressing in these ways, the spinning they threw all the toil of domestic affairs

, and weaving of cotton increased rapidly. the carrying of burthens and the drudgery There were in 1805, twenty looms in the of life upon their females. It was there lower, and ten among the upper towns. fore a hard lesson to make the men work Of the former, twelve were wrought by at all; and particularly to assist the woIndians, and eight of them were con iep in their laborious occupations. The structed by Indians. Of the latter, three men, however, had learned by this time, were worked by natives, and three were built by them. Three of the looms in the the employments of the women and girls

that as game grew scarce in the forests, upper towns were kept agoing by wbite turned to much better account than their women for a toll which was fixed at every own, and that with their pigs, maize and fifth yard. The women on the Flint river cotton, the females had already rendered had then applied for fifty additional spin themselves in a good degree independent ping wheels. And such was the power of of the men.

It was now that the agent example prompted by interest, that some

advised the young women to refuse favors old men and boys learned to spin and to their sweethearts, and the married woseemed to take pleasure in the exercise. men to repel the caresses of their husIn the upper towns there was at that time bands, unless they would associate with a demand for five more looms and one them, and assist them in their daily labundred and fifty more spinning wheels. bours. This expedient though perliaps Several men of the half breed, had both not rigidly enforced, nor in all cases adconstructed looms and wove cloth in them, hered to, was however not without its efwith their own hands.

fect in breaking the ferocity of the masEncouraged by these prospects and culine temper, and reducing it to a milder successes, the women appointed a time and softer tone. and solicited a talk with the agent. They To enforce the necessity of industry, appointed one of their venerable matrons Mr. II. availed himself of the scantines

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of provisions to give them an exhortation. and eren 2000 heads. They had become
Soine instances had been reported of chil. very much attached to this kind of stock,
dren dying of hunger, and particularly, and took great pains to procure them.
of two little girls, as he was on his way to These creatures are computed to double
a conference with the chiefs. At the con- their numbers every three years. Their
ference, the subject was inentioned by owners exchange them with the Geor-
Mr. Cornells the interpreter, and after gians for cloths. Butter and cheese have,
some observations made by the chiefs, becu made at more than an hundred
Mr. Il, stated that these events had made places. In 1804, these arts were rapidly
a serious impression upon his mind, and increasing: The men had also become
on the way to the conference he had put acquainted with the tanning of hides into
the question to himself, who killed these leather; and the making of the latter into
little girls ? This answer immediately ob- saddles.
truded itself; “You Mr. Hawkins, you They also had negro slaves to work for
murdered these little girls. You Etau them. The African temperament which
Haiyo, Oche Hayo, and Tushipmeggee bends to servitude nnder the dominion of
Tellico, you murdered these little girls. the black and white man, submits also to
You chiefs and rulers of the nation, you the sovereignty of the red-man. Several
murdered these little girls. In all coun- of the more wealthy Indians hold a num-
tries it is the business of the rulers to ber of such domestics. They were ra-
direct the labour of the community so pidly acquiring a knowledge of real es-
as to support the people, and if they ne- tates, and of the utility of holding their
glect to do it, they are answerable for the lands and improvements in severalty. In
consequences. If a bear, or any man, red evidence of which, it may be mentioned
or white, had attempted to murder these that a number of them were growing so-
little girls you would have risked your lives licitous about deeds and titles.
individually or collectively to save theirs. One remarkable fact concerning their
And yet you would not exert yourselves progress in calculation is well worthy of
to destroy this enemy called hunger.” notice. In teaching them the use of the

The presenting the subject in this dress steelyard, they necessarily became accaused some serious conversations among quainted with arithmetical cyphers. By the Indians, and the result was that they a little practice, not more than other perwould sow wheat, and exert themselves sons are obliged to take, they learned the to destroy the enemny called hunger. use of these signs in auding, subtracting, Preparent to this they had in 1804, coina multiplying and dividing numbers, and mitted to the earth one hundred and became ready and correct calculators. seventy-six bushels of seed; this af- And this they accomplished without being forded an excellent crop, and was instru. able to read a single letter. The symbolsmental in saving several lives. The of numbers being signs of ideas, were acagent furnished the seed from his own quired with equal ease by persons of all stock. The wheat crop is ripe in May. languages, while letters or alphabetical And the corn crop, wbich in favourable characters being signs of simple sounds, seasons is also exceedingly good, comes can be comprehended by the porsons only to maturity in June.

who are conversant in the tongue which The speaker of the nation has his farın they are intended to explain. A Muskain good fence, staked and ridered. He gee Indian therefore, is exactly in this cultivates his whole crop with the plough. state of advancement; he can sum up an Last year be planted about one hundred invoice, or bill of parcels, by virtue of his and afty peach trees, and sowed three knowledge of figures, but lie cannot read bushels of wheat. He had also begun a word nor line of the writing on account the culture of cotton, and had a fine field of his total ignorance of letters. of it; likewise a promising show of Thus they begin to find the usefulness, corn, potatoes, pumpkins, ground peas ard and suffer the want of literature. The beans. He had nine females of his fami- inconveniences and disadvantages of this ly employed in spinning, and a looin in situation rendered the older class, and his house with a spring shuttle. The like especially those who had property, desira was done by several other of the inost ous of procuring a better education for considerable men, who employed the their children. And under the operation plough in agriculture, and clothed them- of this conviction, they begun to admit selves in homespun.

schoolmasters, to make their idle and... Neat cattle were owned in large num- vagrant boys submit to restraint, and to bers by the Indians. Several of them receive regular_instruction in reading have berds amounting to 100, 500, 1000, and writing the English language. VOL. 111.-No. v.

46

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Great solicitude however, was expres- Cherokees to the seat of the national gosed on this subject by the chiefs. Several vernient; they were all men of property, of their young men had been educated and lived, when at bome, on enclosed and from home, among and by the white peo- cultivated farms. They were clad after ple, and had returned into the nation, our manner, in homespun cloth of their completely ruined for all the purposes of own spinning, dyeing and weaving. And usefulness at home. They had acquired several of them speak our tongue. I such a contempt for the Indian life and have seen letters written by Cherokee manners, that they violated the customs girls of the half-breed, as well expressed, of their forefathers, and disobeyed the and in as good a hand as our young lerulers. Losing public confidence in this males write. manner, they were suffered to wander I might relate to you what other meaand prowl through the nation, without sures had been adopted to instil into the being taken notice of, or suffered to bave minds of these people more correct noa share in its government. There was tions and practises of civil and criminal no small analogy between these youths, law, than the barbarous and bloody policy and those of our own nation who go to they formerly pursued. The agent had Europe for instruction. They but too progressed so far as to take punishment often acquire foreign manners and habits, out of the hands of the irritated indiconceive a dislike for their country, its vidual, and inflict it upon the offender by inhabitants and institutions, and often the public arm. And he had instituted a times mar their own bappiness, and turn court of law, where substantial justice out useless to the public. So an Indian was speedily obtained by a trial upon the lad, educated among white people, has naked merits of the case. never in any instance been known to say The influence of music was tried with one word in recommendation of the remarkable benefit among the Cherokees. wheel, the loom or the plough, of useful The young women had clothed themselves arts, or domestic manufactures, or, in handsomely, after our manner, in cotton short, of any thing conducive to the ge-' fabrics of their own manufacture. They neral welfare. On the contrary, their then were qualified to dance to the times discourse principally turns on the extra- of the violin. Care was taken to teach vagance in which they lived, and the dis- the steps, figures and gestures of the sipations in which they shared ; but they white people. They soon became active utter not a sentence on the condition of and graceful dancers. This had a surthe greater part of their species, and of prising effect upon the young men. For the human race who are doomed to live they were excluded from the company, by labour. But education in their own unless they would dress themselves in a country, of the kind which their state of decent manner. The attire and the ocsociety requires, and to the degree called casion obliged them to behave themselves for by their actual need, will gradually properly. And thus were their manners creep in and be followed by the most sa softened and refined. lutary changes in their situation.

On surveying the efforts of theological In many of the villages, particularly of missionaries er er since the settlernent of the Lower Creeks, the natives had al our country, it is truly lamentable that ready made considerable progress in the they have done so little. Generally silver-sinith's business. Ornaments of speaking, their labours, even those of the silver, such as spurs, broaches, rings, sil- early and zealous Jesuits, have been lost ver beads, ornaments for the ears and or misapplied. Many of our considerate nose, armbands and wristbands were and contemplative men bare altogether manufactured to a considerable extent. despaired of either civilizing or cbris.

Considerable steps had also been taken tianizing the savages. "It now appears in the gun-smith's art, particularly in what is the cause of so many and such stocking the pieces, and doing some of lamentable failures. We discern wherethe work about the locks.

fore, with such mighty efforts, so small an 'These are some of the leading features amount of good has been done. of Mr. Fawkins' inode of treating these Missionary individuals and societies uncivilized tribes, and leading them on have begun the work at the wrong end. from rudeness toward refinement. In- They have attempted to instil the dec. deed, the business of civilizing Indians, trines of a sublime religion, before they however problematical it may once bave introduced arts and manufactures, and seemed, was deemed to have been in a before they to jed man, and made bin a train of successful progress. There settled and domestic animal. And wlule came in 1805 a deputation of eighteen they proceeded in this way, they eitber

totally failed, or made but trifling progress permitted to enter, and again our names -whereas, if they would employ the were written, and also from whence we same amount of capital, and zeal, and came. These trifling matters arranged, talent in humanizing the wild hunters of we were conducted by our guides to the the forest, their condition would instantly City of London Inn ; the refreshment improve; their tribes be preserved from offered to us was soups. To English teaextinction; by degrees the useful arts of drinkers, this appeared rather unseasonaagriculture and manufacture would gain ble, but we had made up our minds to an establishinent; and upon this founda- conform to every custom, and not to tion every kind of improvement might be make trifles difficulties. The accommoerected.

dation was very good a night's rest re

freshed us after the fatigues of our voySketch of a Journey to Paris in the Au- age, and we were anxious to see every tumn of 1802, during the peace of first place we went to was the custom

thing worthy of notice in Calais. The Amiens ; in a series of Original Letters, written from memory, bya Lady, in 1810. house, where we were treated very po

litely; (as this is not often the case, I DEAR II.

thought fit to observe it,) we afterwards We left Dover at about twelve o'clock, wenito the police office, were our passports on Thursday morning, the 26th of August, were signed. The day being uncommon1802, and, in less than two hours, arrived ly serene, we were advised to visit the in sight of the harbour of Calais, but Tour de Guet, a high building, similar to were not able to land until eleven at night, the monument in London, from which we on account of the deficiency of water. clearly observed the white clitls of old The sea was extremely rough, and the England, and though the pleasure arising beating against wind and tide rendered from novelty had made me leave it without our voyage tedious and unpleasant; al- a single regret, yet the reflections that a though, I must confess, I was much amus- few days would take me still farther from ed with the different characters in the my native land, rather depressed: my vessel, the greater part of whom, were spirits : but new objects whichi attracted going to see France, and judge of the my attention every moment, soon made French, by a few hours ramble round me forget my sorrows, and almost that Calais, when (if I judge not too harslily.) such a place existed. The town of Catheir astonishment at every thing differ- lais is not extensive, but strongly fortient from what they had met with in fied. The form I conceive to be someEngland, must have precluded all possi- what triangular; the citadel is large, and bility of impartial judgment and observa- secured by fosses filled by the sea. The tion. When our vessel, which was named population appeared great, and it is a pity the True Briton, made the harbour, we that destructive war should so much bave were obliged to cross a great number diminished the commerce of a place, of others before we could land ; this ef- which seems so well situated for its purfected, we were surrounded by waiters poses. The houses are tolerable, soine from the different inns, with lanterns, very good, the streets wide but badly each soliciting us to go to their master's forined. Many of the buildings have sufhouse. Some officers of the customs also fered much from the revolution, and some requested our attendance, and we entered of the inhabitants themselves were sinka miserable place, somewhat resembling ing under the evils it had caused them. a barn, near the pier; here our names were The beautiful editice of Notre Dame, written in a book, and our small parcels still remains, notwithstanding the various examined, and we were desired to attend changes it underwent at that period. In again on the following morning, to be pre- ona part, religious cereinonies were persent at the opening of our trunks. I formed, and in another was erected a temshould here observe, that the weather ple to reason. On every public building was extremely unfavourable, the night was the motto of “ Liberté, Egalité, and was dark, the streets dirty, and it rained Fraternité." I should now imagine, l'Emvery fast; the inhabitants had sought perenr Français, would be the only inshelter in their respective homes, and scription, as liberté and Egalité are unthe town appeared deserted and gloomy. known to Buonaparte, such a molto must We at last arrived at the great gate, be as inconsistent as the inscription at which we knocked, and were asked which was printed at the head of thetr on the other side, “who we were,'

," official papers when I was at Paris, viz. and "what was our business ?" Having “ Buonaparte Emprreur de la Repubreceived sa!isfactory answers, we were lique Français.” When we returned to

our inn, we were informed that dinner The first place we arrived at worthy of was ready, and we were placed at a long particular attention was Bologne, from table called the table d'hôte. To each whence we had a delightful sea view. person was placed a bottle of wine and a There was a small fleet of dat bottomed decanter of water, and a piece of bread, boats in the harbour. It was market day which I thought alone sufficient for a and the town was extremely gay. We rereasonable person's dinner. The first mained there near twobours, and observed course consisted of soups, the second of several buildings which had been much roast and boiled, the third of made dishes, injured by cannon balls during the time of and the fourth of vegetables, which are Nelson's command off Bologne. The dress never eaten with the meat. We had af- of the market and inferior class of wo. terwards an elegant dessert, and music men throughout Picardy, is very strange. was playing during our repast in an ad- They wear large caps, short jackets

, and joining room ; the charge was three livres, wooden shoes, and a very large gold cross, or two shillings and sixpence English suspended from the neck.' This last they money, for each person. I observed in consider as a necessary appendage to the ipd.yard, after dinner, a curious car their dress, and would make the greatest riage, on which was written Paris-Dili- sacrifice, in order to obtain so valuable gence, though from its appearance, it and indispensable an ornament. Hunger ought rather to have borne any other had made us rather anxious to return to name. I exclaimed “ I am glad I am the inn, and after having taken a farenot forced to ride in such an one," when well of the English cliffs, which, froin a gentleman who was with us, said “ that the clearness of the weather, we could is the coach in which you will proceed, plainly discern, and having received a so pray do not condemn it.” It was ne summons from our smart postillion, with cessary to mount a ladder in order to get bis immense jack-boots, we re-ascended into it, thus you can easily judge of its the Diligence, which contrary to the height, the width is in proportion, and name it bore, proceeded but slowly. there are only two small panes of glass, We were told at Abbeville, that this called windows. Disgusted with the ap- town was formerly well fortified and carpearance of this vehicle, I dreaded the ried on a great trade, but that the revonext day's journey. After having paid a lution had reduced it from its former state few visits to some persons, for whoin we of opulence to poverty, and that the inhad letters, we returned to the inn, and babitants were sinking fast under the retired at an early hour, that we might misery which oppressed them. We only be ready to depart at four o'clock the remained at this place till the horses next morning.

L. M. B. were changed, therefore, I can give but a

very imperfect account of it. We stopSuppose us scated in the Paris Dili- ped three hours at Amiens. I was much gence-having just left the inn-vard, pleased with this town—it has a cathewhere we had nearly been stunned with dral, the gothic architecture of which, the repeated cries of "bon voyage! has been very generally admired. The heureux voyage.” Our party consisted city is large and tolerably clean, the streets of my mother, myself, the lady to whose are wide, and I observed one or two house we were going; a daughter of good squares: I was told there were sexMr. Smith the artist, a lively little girl, eral. The inns and aitendance were who, to make use of a French expression much better here than at Abbeville

. ! had beaucoup d'esprit ; and an Italian cannot compare the villages of France to gentleman, who really was a most sensible those in England; instead of that air of and agreeable companion, and having cleanliness and comfort so frequently frequently travelled from England to seen among the English cottagers, the dire Paris, was enabled to point out to our no effects of the revolutionary horrors are tice, many things which we might other too visibly manifested. These scenes wise have passed without observing. Next, could not afford us any pleasure, and pity was an inanimate English lady, whose fa- was, at last, all we could offer, for our culties seemed absorbed in apathy; and charity was supplicated as continually as lastly, a lady who talked incessantly, but we passed through them, while each tale I must add, though I do not wish to be of wae seemed more affecting than the thought severe, her conversation was last, and thougb they extolled the libera

: neither edifying nor agrecable. In the lity of mi-lord Anglois, bad our purses Cabriolet were three gentlemen. On the been

ever so long and abundantly filled, roof was the guide-the horses were har. they must have been

exhausted long be Dessed with thick ropes.

fore every petitioner could bare been

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