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(Dropsy,) 1; Hydrothorax, (Dropsy of the dials, tonies, or drugs thrown into the alChesi,) I; Scrophula, (King's Evil,) 1; Tu- ready oppressed or polluted stomach, will mor, 1 ; Hernia, 1: Exostosis, 1; Vermes, either be ejected, or will have the effect of (Worms,) 4; Syphilis, 4; Urethritis Virulenta, increasing the general irritation, and aggra. 3; Paraphymosis, 1; Contusio, (Bruise,) 6; vating the very symptoms they were inStremma, (Sprain,) 2; Fractura, 1 ; Vulnus, tended to relieve. 6; Abscessus, 2; Ulcus, 8; Strophulus, 2; During the few hot days at the conclusion Psoriasis, 1 ; Erythema, 2; llerpes, 2; Sca: of this month, several persons among the bies et Prurigo, 14; Porrigo, 3; Eruptiones labouring poor, and particularly strangers Varia, 4.

lately arrived from the northern parts of The weather of this month has been ge- Europe, and who as yet were unaccustomed nerally fair, and the temperature more ele. to the occasional intense heats of our clivated than usual:-winds chiefly between mate, suffered from the imprudent use of southeast and southwest. The quantity of cold water. Some perished; but the greater rain has been small, not exceeding 2' 1-2 part were recovered by the internal use of inches on a level; what did fall was princi- laudanum and brandy, by spiritous fomenpally in refreshing showers, sometimes at. tations to the region of the stomach and tended with lightning, seldom with thunder. bowels; and in cases where there was ang On the 28th the mercury in Fahrenheit's excitement or determination to the head, thermometer stood at 90° in the shade, on by the use of the lancet. the 29th at 92°, and on the 30th it attained Some cases of bilious yomiting, of choto the height of 93 1-2 degrees. On ten lera, and of diarrhea have been observed. other days it was between 81 and 86o. The These, to a limited extent, are doubtless thermometrical range of this interval has salutary, being an effort of nature to free been from 55 to 92 1-2 degrees. Average the stomach and bowels from a quantity of temperature for the whole month 73o. colluvies or offensive materials. Greatest variation in twenty-four hours 210. Lowest temperature at 7 o'clock in any one The New-York Bills of Mortality for June morning 55°, highest 76°; lowest tempera- report 219 deaths; from ture in any afternoon 65°, highest 93 1-20; Abscess, 2; Apoplexy, 2; Asthma, 1; lowest temperature at sunset of any day Cancer, 1; Caries, 1 ; Casualty, 1; Child42°, highest 89°-Barometrical range from bed, 1; Cholera Morbus, 2; Consumption, 29.58 to 30.08 inches. The season, which 42; Contusion, 1; Convulsions, 8; Cramp at the commencement of this month was in the Stomach, i; Diarrhea, 2; Drinking deemed backward, is now sufliciently ad- Cold Water, 5; Dropsy, 3 ; Dropsy in the vanced, and vegetation in general presents Chest, 4; Dropsy in the Head, 10; Drowe: a highly luxuriant aspect.

ed, 9; Dysentery, 1; Dyspepsia, 1; Ery. During this interval, the city has been on sipelas, 1; Fever, 1; Fever, Intermittent, the whole healthy. The effects of disease 2; Fever, Remittent, 2; Fever, Typhous, on the human constitution have offered 41; Fistula in perineo, 1; Fracture, 1; Gralittle that is remarkable. Since the com- vel, 1; Hæmorrhage, 1 ; Hives, 1; Hoop. mencement of summer, infiammatory affec- ing Cough, 9; Hysteria, 1; Infanticide, 2; tions of the organs concerned in respiration Inflammation of the Chest, 8; Inflammahave much declined; but pertussis still con- tion of the Bowels, 5; Inflammation of the tinues to prevail among children, and fevers, Liver, 2; Insanity, 3; Intemperance, 1; particularly of the remittent and typhoid Locked Jaw, 1; Mortisication, 2; Nervous kind, have been more common than in the Disease, 1; Old Age, 2; Palsy, 1; Pneupreceding month. The cases of typhus, monia Typhodes, 1; Scalded, 1; Scrophula, which occurred during the vernal period, or King's Evil, 1; Small Pox, 1; Still-born, were mostly of the mild sort, denominated 13; Sudden Death, 1; Suicide, 2; Tahti typhus milior; but in this month the com Mesenterica, 3; Teething, 2; Ulcer, 2; Ca: plaint has shown symptoms of degeneracy, known, 3; Worms, 3.- Total 219. in some cases wearing from its commence Of this number there died 47 of and 03ment the physiognomy of danger.

der the age of 1 year; 10 between 1 and 9 Attention to the stomach and bowels con years; 11 between 2 and 5; 3 between a stitutes an important step in the manage and 10; 14 between 10 and 20; 96 betwech ment of typhous fever. On the invasion of 20 and 30; 38 between 30 and 40; 40 bethe complaint, an emetic, followed by a tween 40 and 50; 19 between 50 and 6); warm sudorific, and in a few hours by a 6 between 60 and 70; and 6 bet seen 70 proper aperient, commonly has the effect of and 80. disarming the fever of its severity; and, in

JACOB DYCKMAN, M.D. some instances, totally extinguishes the dis New-York, June 30th, 1818.

Without this preliminary step, cor

ease.

THE

AMERICAN MONTHLY MAGAZINE

AND

CRITICAL REVIEW.

No. V.....VOL. III.

SEPTEMBER, 1818.

ART. 1. Rambles in Italy ; in the years 1816-17. By an American. 8vo. Pp. 371.

Baltimore, Maxwell. 1818.

NEX
TEXT to Forsyth, this is one of the he dwells with almost enthusiastic delight

most pleasing publications we have upon the magnificence of her architecbeen hitherto presented with on the fallen, túre, and the prodigies of genius which but still lovely land to which it relates ; embellish her cities and palaces;-while and certainly, 'the interest with which we the exquisite softness and beauty of her have perused it, has not been diminished climate, elicit from him frequent and by the reflection that it is the offspring of rapturous acknowledgments, and seem to native taste and talent. It is, in truth, have shed over his composition, a congehonourable both to the American press nial balminess ;-while he is ever ready and character, and well calculated to to pour forth the most lavish praises on rescue both from the unfounded and pal- the inherent and, as it would seem, untry aspersions which have been cast upon quenchable intellectuality of the Italians ; them in Europe. As a literary produc- -still, in the midst of all these witching tion, its characteristics are considerable charms and allurements, whether gazing facility and elegance of diction, frequent- on the marble wonders of Rome and Floly rising into a strain of rich and loftyrence-inhaling the luxurious atmosphere eloquence, justness of observation on to- of Naples-or involved in the enchantpics connected with the political and ments of Venice,--still does his heart moral state of Italy, a great command of turn homeward, and comparing with the the picturesque in description, and a noble and free institutions of his own warmth of imagination that envelopes country, the degrading and corrupt desthe whole" in an atmosphere of dazzling potism of Italy—the purity of American and seductive brilliancy.

principles and manners, with the moral As a picture of Italy, if it do not equal dilapidation of the land of the Scipios the unrivalled performance of Forsyth, it his bosom dilates with a feeling of honournevertheless furnishes us with correct able pride; and in the midst of all his clasand glowing delineations of all that came sic recollections and transports, it delights under the author's observation. But what us to witness his ardent and sincere de. gives it its chief recommendation in our votion to the land of his birth, and to obeyes, is the tone of pure and lofty patriot- serve the well-spring of his early and paism, and the sound moral feeling that per- triotic affections unpolluted by the advade its pages. While the author evinces mixture of tainted waters, and still rethe warmest sensibility to the claims of flecting from their pure and shining surItaly upon his admiration--and pays the face, the image of his country's virtues upgrudging tribute of his veneration to the and glory. These admirable feelings~ splendour of her ancient renown, while and we so pronounce them frond our deeg

Vol. 114.-No. y.

Tooted conviction of the superiority of ing those acts of wanton violence and America in every thing relating to the oppression which stained his career, we dignity and happiness, properly under- cannot avoid thinking, that to France stood, of mankind-break forth in the and Italy, but more particularly the latvery commencement of the book, and ter, his dominion was productive of bene. even the scenery of Italy, luxurious as it fits of the most substantial description, is, abounding in all the softer beauties, and that had not ambition, which Pope, and deriving additional attractions from its however describes, as association with so many of our earliest and most delightful impressions, only

“ The glorious fault of angels and of gods.” serves to carry his mind back to the rich- beset him with ber tempting baits, occuer and more sublime landscape of Ame- pied every avenue of his soul, and at length rica-where, if we meet with fewer in. precipitated him to destruction, bis reign dications of the great and illustrious in would have proved eminently prosperous art and genius, we are in no inconsider to Italy, and that under his rule, she would able measure recompensed by the un have gone far towards the redemption of stinted prodigality with which nature her former dignity and importance. A few has arrayed her surface; and contem- observations on that mighty change in the plating the majesty and variety of her system of Europe, whose consequences works in this her latest and favourite are, perhaps, even now but partially un. creation, it seems impossible to suppose folded, will not, we conceive, be consibut that regions so vast in their extent, dered out of place in treating of a coudand magnificent in their form and aspect, try so deeply concerned in its operations. and tenanted by a population, active, sa The French Revolution, originating in gacious, brave, and more intelligent, be- the despair of a people trampled in the cause better educated, than any people dust by the government it rose to destroy, on the face of the earth, will in the pro- could be maintained only by the energy gress of time, rival and perbaps surpass of extraordinary abilities, acting upon even the classic shores of Greece and immense physical means, and bad not the Italy in every thing that copfers upon a destinies of France been guided by minds country the charm of moral interest and of the first magnitude, had not the cbange dignity; the light of genius and philoso- itself in her domestic polity, called forth phy will diffuse itself over these immense from the bosom of the people and fertile tracts, time will shed over a to the most imminent crises, and filled thousand delightful spots the spells of tra- her councils with civil wisdom, while it ditionary and historical renown, and a stationed at the head of her armies the structure of society be built up that will finest military talents of Europe, -15 exhibit the human character in all its fine, had not the entire administration of grace and glory.

the public weal been entrusted to the With respect to the political discussions ablest hands, France must have yielded to of the author, as far as they consider the the force of her confederated enemies, and present condition of Italy, they are, as nearly thirty years before she was fated we bave already said, the result of much to drink so deeply of the cup of calamity, observation and reflection, and with bis beheld her fields' blasted by the fires of opinion as to the melancholy conse- . invasion, and her cities dismantled and quences of the Austrian government, the plundered by the friends of her present uniform testimony of every intelligent rulers. Nor was this sudden and wide traveller compels us to agree :--but upon display of talent confined to the field and one topic we must say we do not think he the cabinet. The glowing and genial has spoken with his usual candour and impulse extended itself to all classes and consideration-we allude to the influence professions, and spread with the velocity of the French Revolution, and the sway of the electric fluid through the whole of Napoleon, on the fortunes of Italy. community, whom it animated with a lofiy He conceives them to have operated to and exulting spirit of self-defence. The her disadvantage, and the necessary in- barriers which formerly obstructed the ference from all that he advances upon paths to eminence and distinction, being the subject, is, that her present languish- utterly destroyed, and the invitation of ing state is almost wholly ascribable to the state to its members to come forward the measures pursued by the imperial in her cause, being universal in its appli

. government Now, though we by no cation, not only were her armies incesmeans wish to be regarded as the apolo- santly and cheerfully recruited, but every gists of Napoleon, and though we shall citizen practising a liberal and useful art, be ever among the foremost in condemn- felt it his interest, as it was his most im

men equal

a

perious duty, to labour in his vocation, a government radically corrupt and deswith a view to the public benefit. And potic, stimulated the neighbouring nations thus the national affairs being conducted to investigate the abuses and mismanagein their superior departments by the most ment of their own and the spirit of indistinguished political abilities, who wil. quiry opce roused, proceeded with a lingly and with alacrity availed them- rapidity that promised the most favouraselves of the aid tendered by men of ble results. Its first effects were maniscience and genius, the safety of France fested in the almost unresisted progress was ensured by a system which employed of the French army wherever they apand stimulated the whole intellect of the peared-and so universal at one period, country, and threw over its proceedings had the dissatisfaction of the people a splendour that fascinated even the eyes throughout the continent toward their of its enemies. The sanguinary scenes rulers become so small an interest did of domestic horror, produced by a few they take in a cause in which only the fierce and unprincipled individuals, we government and its ministers seemed to shall always deplore, but it is impossible be concerned that had the invaders actto withhold our admiration from the mag. ed with caution and prudence, and shown nanimous spirit that presided in the coun- by their conduct and deportment, that cils of republican France, or to deny that the diffusion of freedom was the real and her mural crown was indebted for no sole object of their glorious ambition, we small portion of its lustre to the genius do think that a general revolution would she fostered with a sage generosity. The have taken place in Europe, and that all same system was pursued by the leader those sublime and delightful prospects whom the exigencies of bis adopted coun- which the first few moments of the revor try invested with the purple. The generals lution in France appeared to hold out to -the prefects--the civil and military the philanthropist, might have been refunctionaries—of Napoleon were uniform- alised on an ampler and more magnificent ly selected from among the most eminent scale, and that long before the present in merit-the beams of his patronage period, there would not have been a warmed every department of learning, single region of the old world to which science, and the arts--and while his the blessings of liberty would have been thrope vas environed and supported by unknown. It was a misfortune that can the veteran commanders of the republi- never be too deeply lamented, that a can wars, it was clothed with the reflect- cause so pure and holy should have fala ed light of the talent he encouraged. len into hands morally incompetent to its During five and twenty years was this preservation and triumph-and that so magnificent spectacle exhibited before splendid an opportunity for establishing our eyes, and it would, indeed, have been the liberties of man upon a broad and strange if a period so rich in all that lasting basis, should have been lost invites and detains contemplation, had through the volatility of the principal passed away without leaving impressions agents, and their forgetfulness of the prininore durable than those of a theatrical ciples upon which, indeed, they professed pageant. In truth, since the expulsion to act, but which their subsequent conof the Bourbons, a spirit bad arisen in duct but too plainly proved them to reEurope to which she had ever been a gard as mere political pretences. The tystranger, and which soon extended be- ranny and spoliation of the French geneyond the limits of the couptry in which it rals—the wanton insolence with which had its birth;-it passed the waves and they treated the people—the affronts valley of the Rhine-it enlivened the offered to national feeling--the overmarshes of Belgium-it animated the weening arrrigance and egotism which plains of Germany-it crossed the Alps was perpetually endeavouring to give a and Appenine, and wakened the dormant French form to every social as well as energies of Italian souls :-a spirit hos- political institution of the countries which tile to all the old political fabrics, and yielded to their arms—soon disgusted the which grew daily more and more inimical warmest friends of France, and though to the inveterate defects of the ancient her power was still maintained in the governments a spirit essentially republi- conquered provinces, it was upheld rather can, and at open war with the oppression by fear than by those warm and animaand prejudices that had so long exercised ted feelings which hailed the first enan undisturbed sway over the mind of trance of her armies. The continuance, Europe. The example of a numerous and perhaps aggravation of this system, and powerful people rising with one ac- uoder Napoleon, at length entirely wean. cord and overturning from its foundations ed the popular inind from his cause, and

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the disaffection of his allies waited only his will was law, the legislative bodies
a favourable occasion to manifest itself were reduced to the condition of auto-
in all its virulence. The result of his mata, the press was chained, and almost
Russian expedition presented the desired every measure of his reign seemed to in-
opportunity, the standard of insurrection dicate that he considered himself the ab-
was reared in every part of Europe, ex. solute sovereign of France. By this
cepting Italy and Poland, and a new haughty deportment, and avarice of pow-
coalition against France was formed, dif- er, he gradually declined in the affections
fering in all its features from those which of the people, while the enormous sacri-
in the first period of her revolution she fices both of blood and treasure which
had overthrown with glory to berself, his schemes of conquest demanded, com-
and, would we could say advantage to the pleted their discontent. The allies came
rest of the continent. Then she had to forward with the fairest professions, dis-
contend only with kings, and their slavish, avowed any intention of interfering in
spiritless hirelings, and she rushed to the internal affairs of France, and the
the conflict with an ardour which ensur- people, weary of war, and disgusted with
ed her triumph. Then she was free the arbitrary measures of Napoleon, stood
or at least believed herself so—and fought listlessly by, and suffered him to fall, in
for the preservation of her independence; the persuasion that it was the only event
she was threatened with the forcible by which a chance would be afforded
and sanguinary re-establishment of the them of recovering their domestic inde-
despotism that for ages had crippled her pendence, or of reinstating the country
strength ;---the rights, the undoubted in friendly relations with the powers that
rights, and honour of her sons—the chas were now advancing on their metropolis,
tity of her daughters-were at stake; at the head of the united forces of Europe.
her hearths and her altars were me- In this crisis, however, Napoleon was not
naced with destruction-her soil was wanting to himself-never was his con-
stained by the presence of her unprin- summate genius for war more decisively
cipled enemies---and her citizens were and brilliantly displayed than in the
stimulated by all the most powerful campaign before Paris : for three months
feelings of our nature to the defence be not merely kept his enemies at bay,
the rescue-of their country. Now, and with a force scarcely equal to a fourth
circumstances wore a very different of that opposed to bim, but repeatedly
and discouraging aspect. Free she had compelled them to fall back; nor should it
never been her revolution, though in be forgotten that when the allies received
many respects productive of infinite ad- intelligence of the march by which, trust-
vantages to the mass of her people, fail- ing in the fidelity of Marmont, he left
ed in the establishment of her liberty--to Paris uncovered, they were on the point
the despotism of the old government had of commencing their retreat from the
succeeded the tyranny of faction—and the French territory. The lion was caught
sceptre of the Bourbons was wielded by in the toils, but not through the sagacity
the Directory and the Emperor. She or courage of his hunters.
woke from her dream of freedom-found It is not our intention to dwell on the
that it was a vision—and was content to consequences of the fall of Napoleon, as
exchange her hopes of pure and perfect affecting France, or Europe generally

. liberty-her actual and tumultuary servi- Perhaps an inquiry into its results might tude--for the tranquility of a monarchical not be found so favourable to the allies as government. Under the auspices of Na- their admirers would wish. Perhaps such poleon she enjoyed the repose she sighed an examination might show that a highfor, and the energy of his character, the ly-talented and magnanimous despot has splendour of his achievements, the protec- been displaced to make room for a chustion and encouragement which he ex ter of meaner and base-souled tyrants, tended to merit in whatever shape it ap men who have cheated their subjects with peared, the majesty and lustre, in short, promises conceived in the spirit of treach. which be shed over the name of France, ery—and whose poor and paltry dread of would have fixed him in the hearts of a peo- their late mighty antagonist is constant, ple fond to excess of external glitter, had ly evincing itself in the persecution of he known where to stop in his domestic as every one who was attached to his for. well as foreign enterprizes. But the des- tunes, or who incautiously betrays in print pot grew so fast upon him, he could not or speech his sensibility to the great qualiendure that the slightest vestige of free- ties of Napoleon. These questions, as dom should remain to his people-he be- well as the influence of his government, came accustomed to the basest adulation, and the revolution generally, on the des.

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