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the principle was published in London more open the glasses and fix them to an exact than eighty years ago, in a work entitled square : place them over a circle, and move " New Improvements of Planting and Gar- them to and íro till you see the representadening, bolh philosophical and practical, oth tion of the oval figure you like best; and Edition. By Richard Bradly, Professor of so having the glasses fixed, in like manner Botany at the Universily of Cambridge, and move them over a square piece work, F R. S. Printed for J. aiul J. Knapłon, in St till you find the tiggire you desire of a long Paul's Church-yard, 1731." The following square." is printed from Bradley's first chapter. In the foregoing description of Crailley's " Description and Use of a new Inrention for which he constructs it, is precisely that
invention, the principle of reflection on the more speedily designing of Garden Plats, whereby we may produce niore rarie. which Dr. Brewster has employed in bis
Kaleidoscope; but the means by which the ty of Figures in an Hour's Time, than are to be found in all the Books on Gardening objects that are to be relected, are quite
latter presents to the reflecting surfaces the now, extant.
different. Even with Bradley the kind on "Since the instrument I now design to objects and the means by which he presenttreat of has afforded some pleasure to many ed these objects to the mirrors were what of my acquaintance, I have been easily per- constituted his instrument a new invention ; suaded to make it public. It is of that na for the arrangement of the reflectors theniture, that the best designers or draughtsınen selves was not of Bradley's discovering, as may improve and help their fancies by it, we shall prove immediately. and may with more certainty hit the hu We copy the following from John Baplista snour of those gentlemen they are to work Porta's Natural Mogic, the English Translafor, without being at the trouble of making tion published in 1038. many varieties of figures or garden plats, “ To make a plain Glass that shall reprewhich will lose time and call an unnecessary expense, which frequently discourages geri.
sent the Image manifold. tlemen froin making up their gardens. In " A glass is made that will make many short, the charge of the instrument is so representations, that is, that many things small, and its use so delightful and profit- may be seen at once; for by opening and able, that I doubt not its favourable recep- shutting it, you shall see twenty fingers for tion in the world. But to proceed :
one, and more. You shall make it thus : * We must choose two pieces of looking. Raise two brass looking-glasses (metalliv glass of equal biguess, of the figure of a long mirrors], or of crystal, at right angles upon square, five inches in length and four in the same basis, and let them be in a proporbreadth: they must be covered on the back tion called sesquialtera, that is one and a with paper or silk, to prevent rubbing off the hall, or some other proportion, and let them silver, which would else be apt to crack off be joined together longways, that they may by frequent use. This covering for the back be shut and opened, like a book; and the anof the glasses must be so put on that nothing gles be divers, such as are made at Venice. of it may appear about the edges of the For one face being objected you shall see bright side.
many in them both, and this by so much the " The glasses being thus prepared, they straighter, as you put them together, and must be laid face to face and hinged toge- the angles are less : but they will be diminther, so that they may be made to open and ished by opening them, and the angles beshut at pleasure, like the leaves of a book. ing more obtuse, you shall see the fewer:
“ Draw a large circle upon paper, divide so showing one figure, there will be more it into 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 or 8 equal parts, which seen : and further, the right parts will show heing done, we may draw' in every one of right, and the left to be left, which is conthe divisions a figure at our pleasure, either trary to looking-glasses; and this is done for garden plats, or fortifications.
by mutual reflection and pulsation, whence “ So likewise a pentagon may be perfectly arisetia the variety of images interchange. represented by finding the fifth part of a able.” circle, and placing the glasses upon the out From the foregoing it is manifest whence lines of it, and the fourti partoi a circle will Bradley derived the principle which he aplikewise produce a square by means of the plied to the construction of his instrument, glasses, or, by the same rule, will give us any for he borrows the very words of Porta, tigure of equal sides. easily suppose that “ that they (the mirrors) may be shut and. a curious person by a little practice with opened like a book ;" and hence it follows these glasses may make many improvements that if the discorery of the principle cannot be with them, which perhaps 'I may not yet allowed to the Freuchi, so neither can it to have discovered, or have for brevity's sake the English: for Porta's work was first pubomitted to describe.
lished (at Naples we believe) in 1538, in -- It next follows that I explain how by four books, and 35 years after that is about these glasses we may, from the figure of a the year 1973), in its enlarged form, comcircle drawn upon paper, make an oval; and pri-ing twenty books. Braciley was not callalso by the same rule, represent a long ed a plagio ist,--probably because his ine juare, from a perfect square. To do this, strumier's thougļi identially the same as
Porta's, was applied in a different way and pable of producing an incalculable (if not an to a different purpose. Should Dr. Brewster infinite) number of combinations, by merely then be considered in that light, for having making the discs, or the whole instrument, made use of the same principle in his instru- to revolve on its axis, while the eye looks ment, which in construction is different from through it. If the previous application of either Porta's or Bradley's ? Porta, by look. any known principle to the construction of ing at objects before him, along the angle instruments, is to be considered and held as formed at the joining of his glasses, saw embracing all future applications of the them multiplied: Bradley, by placing his same principle, there can be no new invenjoined glasses upon his drawings, at right tions ; for to obtain knowledge of a princiangles to them, and looking at them, the ple, not before known, is a discovery, and not tame manner, saw them multiplied; but the an invention : no person can invent a princinumber of reilections could be calculated. ple; but he may apply a principle, when Dr. Brewster, by putting the reflectors in a known, to a new purpose, and this new aptube, and attaching thereto, and at right an. plication with the new means employed, is gles to them, two discs of glass with objects what constitutes a new invention. T. interposed, forms an optical instrument ca
ART. 12. CABINET OF VAPILTIES.
From the London Litcrary Gucekle. of Monmouth relates, on the authority of
Walter Calenius, that this lady, the daughter
of Hengist, knelt down, on the approach of To the rejoicings on New Year's tide the king, and presenting him with a cup of
succeeded, after a short interval, the wine, exclaimed, “ Lord King Was heil," that observance of the Twelfth Day, so called is, literally, “ Health be to you.” Vortigern from its being the twelfth day after the being ignorant of the Saxon language, was nativity of our Saviour, and the day on informed by an interpreter, that the purport which the Eastern Magi, guided by the star, of these words was to wish him health, and arrived at Bethlehem, to worship the infant that he should reply by the expression, Jesus.
drinc-heil, or “ drink the health :" accord. This festive day, the most celebrated of ingly, on his so doing, Rowena drank, and the twelve for the peculiar conviviality of its the king receiving the eup from her hand, rites, has been observed in this kingdom kissed and pledged her. ever since the reign of Alfred, “in whose days,” says Collier, “a law was made with Health, my Lord King,' the sweet Rowena said; relation to holidays, by virtue of which, the Health, cried the chieftain to the Saxon maid; iwelve days after the Nativity of our Saviour Then gaily rose, and ʼmid the concourse wide, were made festivals.”
Kiss'd her hale lips, and placed her by his side. In consequence of an idea which seems At the soft scene, such gentle thoughts abound, generally to have prerailed, that the Eastern
That healths and kisses ’mongst the guests wcut
round: Magi were kings, this day has been fre
From this the social custom took its rise; quently termed the feast of the three kings; We still retain, and still must keep the prize. and many of the sites with which it is at
Paraphrase of Roberi of Gloucester tended, are founded on this conception ; for it was customary to elect, from the company Since this period, observes the historian, assembled on this occasion, a king or queen, the custom has prevailed in Britain of using who was usually elevated to this rank by the these words whilst drinking; the person fortuitous division of a cake, containing a who drank to another saying was-heil
, and he bean, or piece of coin; and he or she to who received the cup answering drine-heil. whom this symbol of distinction fell, in di It soon afterwards became a custom in viding the cake, was immediately chosen villages on Christmas-eve, New Year's Eve, king or queen, and then forming their min- and Twelfth Night, for itinerant minstrels to isters or court from the company around, carry to the houses of the gentry and others, inaintained their state and character until where they were generally very hospitably midnight.
received, a bowl of spiced wine, which being The Twelfth Cake was almost always presented with the Saxon words just mei: accompanied by the Wassail Bowl, a com tioned, was therefore called a Wassail-bowl. position of spiced wine or ale, or mead, or A bowl or cup of this description was also metheglin, into which was thrown roasted to be found in almost every nobleman's or apples, sugar, &c. The term assail, gentleman's house, (and frequently of massy which in our elder poets is connected with silver,) until the middle of the seventeenth much interesting imagery, and many curious century, and which was in perpetual requirites, appears to have been first used in this sition during the revels of Christmas." jsland during the well-known interview be [llence we have the word W'assel, synonytween Vortigern and Rowena. Geoffrey mous for carousing and jovialty.)
During the reigns of Elizabeth and James account of the ceremonies of Twelfth Night, 1. the celebration of the Iwelfth Night was, as we may suppose them to have been ob., equally with Christmas Day, a festival served in almost every private family. through the land, and was observed with great ostentation and ceremony in both the
Now, now the mirth comes, amusement of the royal family on this night;
With the cake full of plums, and Dugdale in his Origines Judicales, has
Where Beane's the king of the sport here ; given us a long and particular account of the
Beside, we must know,
The Pea also revelry at the Temple on each of the twelve days of Christmas, in the year 1562. It ap
Must revell, as Queene, in the court here. pears from this document, that the hospitable
Begin then to chuse, rites of St. Stephen's day, St. John's day,
This night as ye use, and Twelfth day, were ordered to be exactly Who shall for the present delight here, alike; and as many of them are in their
Be the King by the lot, nature, perfectly rural, and where there is
And who shall not every reason to suppose, observed to a cer Be Twelfe-day Queene for the night here. tain extent in the halls of the country gentry and substantial yeomanry, a short record
Which knowne, let us make Jiere, of those that fall under this descrip
Joy sops with the cake; tion, cannot be deemed inapposite.
And let not a man then be seen here, The breakfast on Twelfth Day is directed
Who unwig'd will not drinke
To the base from the brink to be of brawn, mustard, and malınsey; the dinner of two courses to be served in the
A health to the king and the Queene here. hall, and after the first course “cometh in
Next crowne the bowle full the master of the game, apparelled in green
With gentle lambs-wooll; veluet; and the Ranger of the Forest also, Adele sugar, nutmeg and ginger, in a green suit of satten; bearing in his hand
With store of ale too; a green bow and divers arrows, with either
And thus we must doe of them a hunting horn about their necks : To make the l'assuile a swinger. blowing together three blasts of vencry', they pace around about the fire three tiines.
Give then to the King Then the master of the game maketh three
And Queene wassailing ; eurtesies," kneels down, and petitions to be
And though with all ye be whet here, admitted into the service of the lord of the
Yet part ye from hence,
And free froin cffence, least.
As when ye innocent met here This ceremony performed, a huntsman
Herrick's Hesperides. eometh into the hall, with a fox and a purse.net, with a cat, both bound at the end of a staff; and with them nine or ten
ANECDOTE OF THE EMPEROR JOSEPI II. couple of hounds, with the blowing of hunt. ing-horns. And the fox and cat are by the The Emperor Joseph II. bcard every hounds set upon, and killed beneath the fire. body who pretended to discover to liim any
Tbis sport finished, the marshal, an officer thing useful. By this means he often lost so called, who, with inany others of different much precious time. appellations, were created for the purpose Baron Calisius once begged an audience of conducting the revels, placeth them in to propose to the Emperor a matter of great their several appoiuted places.
importance; it was granted him : the con. After the second course, the “ ancientest versation was as follows-of the masters of the revels singeth a song,
Calisius. The city of Comorn in Hungary with the assistance of others there present;" has the misfortune to be visited nearly every and after some repose and revels, supper, five years by earthquakes, which have often consisting of two courses, is then served in occasioned great damage, and still expose it the ball, and being ended, “ the marshal pre to the utmost danger, and threaten it with senteth himself with drums afore hiin inount- total destruction. Now I have remarked, ed upon a scaffold, borne by four men; and that in Egypt there never were nor are any goeth three times round about the hartbe, earthquakes. But as Egypt differs from crying out aloud, a lord, a lord,' &c. then other countries only in rg pyramids, it he descendeth, and goeth to dance.
follows that pyramids must be sure preven“ This done, the lord of Misrule addresseth tatives of earthquakes. himself to the banquet; which endeth with The Emperor. So then it would be good some minstralsye, mirth and dancing, every to build some of these edifices in Hungary? man departeth to rest."
Calisius. This is my huipble proposal, and Harrick, who was the contemporary of I here present your majesty a plan how they Shakespeare for the first twenty-five years may be erected. of his life, that is, from 1591 to 1616, has The t'mpcror. But hare you calculated the given us the following curious and pleasing expence ?
AN ANCIENT CROWN DISCOVERED IX SCLA.
Calisius. No: but I believe for three or up to the old peasant with the long beard, four hundred thousand florius two handsome and said, “ Permit me, venerable father, lo pyramids might be built; a little sınaller in- salute yon after the fashion of my country." deed than those in Egypt.
Saying this, slie embraced him, and gave The Emperor. Has the city of Comorn so him a kiss. She then presented him the gold much money?
which was on the plate, with these words, Calisius. No, but I hope your Majesty " Take this as a remembrance of me, and as will contribute, and the rest might perhaps a sign that the Russian girls think it their be raised by a subscription.
duty to honour old age." The Emperor. Well
, I have nothing against it. If a suitable place can be found, which is fit for nothing else, and you will undertake the work on subscription, begin to build as soon as you please; but I can
On the 230 of last March, in making a not fix the amount of my subscription before
road at Mallier, a little village in Sclavonia, I see at least one pyramid quite linished.
as the wise of a soldier named Gasparowich,
found, about two inches deep under ground, ANECDOTE OF A RUSSIAN PRINCESS.
a piece of metal rolled up, which she took Many of our readers are doubtless ac
for iron, and threw it into the road. At a quainted with the name of the Swiss doc
second stroke she discovered the basket. tor Michael Schuppach, of Lengnau, in the
formed vessel ; which, in the opinion of all Emmenthal, who was highly celebrated, who bave considered it with attention, is and much in vogue in the last century: He supposed to be a crown. It consists of two is mentioned by Archdeacon Coxe, in his parallel circles of strong gold wire twisted Travels in Switzerland, who himself con
together, which are about four inches asunsulted him. There was a time when peo- der, and connected by a spiral ornament in ple of distinction and fortune came to him, this form X. The inside of the crown, particularly from France and Germany, and shaped like a hat, consists of a braid of the even from more distant countries; and innumerable are the cures which he performed button in the middle, in rose-shaped braids,
same kind of gold, which surrounds a net upon patients given up by the regular phy. The whole weighs a little more than 24 sicians. There were once assembled in Michael Schuppach's laboratory, a great small hat.
ounces. The diameter is equal to that of a many distinguished persons from all parts of
As the workmen's attention was attracted the world; partly to consult him, and partly to this valuable relic, it was soon discovered out of curiosity, and among them many that the whole mass was gold. By chance French ladies and gentlemen, and a Russian
a corporal came up, wbo gave notice of it prince, with his daughter, whose singular beauty attracted general attention. A young ing morning, the ground in that place was
to the captain. Immediately on the followFrench marquis attempted, for the amuse
dug up five or six fathoms, and carefully exment of the ladies, to display his wit on the miraculous Doctor; but the latter, though noted. Since the 25th of October, the crown
amined; but nothing farther was discovermuch e quainted with the French language, has been at Vienna, and it is not doubted answered so pertinently, that the marquis but that this curiosity will be delivered to had not the laugh on his side. During this the Imperial Treasury or Museum. conversation, an old peasant entered, meanly dressed, with a snow white beard, a neighbour of Schuppach's. Schuppach directly turned away from his great company, to his old neighibour, and hearing that his wife was Who has not heard of the celebrated piece ill, set about preparing the necessary medi- called The Forest of Bondy, and of the apcine for ber, withiont paving much attention plause which the dog of D'Aubry has obtaiato his more exalted guests, whose business ed in Paris, London, Vienna, Munich, Dreshe did not think so pressing. The marquis den, Berlin, Leipsig, Cassel, &c. ? There is was now deprived of one subject of his wit, nothing new under the sun: see what Pluand therefore chose for his butt the old tarch relates--de solertia animalium! man, who was waiting while his neighbour I must not pass over an example of canine Michael was preparing something for bis ingenuity of which I was witness at Rome, old Mary. After many silly jokes on his A mime, who performed a complicatei long white beard, he offered a wager of piece, in which there were many characters twelve louis dors, that none of the ladies had a dog with him, which made all kinds would kiss the old dirty looking fellow. of gesticulations necessary for the represen: The Russian princess bearing these words, tation. He afforded a striking proof of bis made a sign to her attendant, who brought talents, after taking poison, which was to her a plate. The princess put twelve louis- produce sleep and then death. He took the d'ors on it, and had it carried to the marquis, bread in which the poison was given him, who of course could not decline adding and, after he had eaten it, he pretended to twelve others. Then the fair Russian went tremble, to stagger, and to become giddo",
THE DOG MIME.
and then he stretched himself out as if dead, applied to king Christian IV. and said that and let himself be pulled and dragged along neither she nor her husband had signed the as the progress of the piece required. When, pretended bond. His majesty promised to from the dialogue and action, he saw that take her affair into consideration. He sent the moment was come, he began to move for Rosenkranz, questioned him closely, himself by degrees, as if he awoke out of a begged, exhorted, but all to no purpose. profound sleep, raised his head, and looked The creditor appealed to his written bond. about him; lie then-approached the person The king asked for the bond, sent Rosenrequired by his part, and evinced his joy by kranz away, and promised that he would his caresses, to the great astonishment of all very soon return it to him. The king rethe spectators, and even of the old Emperor mained alone, to examine this important Vespasian, who was at the time in the paper, and discovered, after much trouble, Theatre Marcellus.
that the paper-manufacturer, whose mark was on the bond, had began his manufactory
many years after its date. The inquiries ANTIQUE RING,
made confirmed this fact. The proof against The Roman Gazette relates, on the au Rosenkranz was irrefragable. The king thority of letters from Greece, that a coun said nothing about it: sent for Rosenkranz tryman, in the neighbourhood of Corinth, some days after, and exhorted him in the lately struck with his ploughshare against a most affecting manner, to have pity on the metal vessel, which contained several an- poor widow, because otherwise the justice cient coins, and a ring, with an agate of the of Heaven would certainly punish him for size of half a saldo. On this agate the naked such wickedness. He unblushingly insisted eye could discover nothing but some very on his demand, and even presumed to affect small strokes. A learned traveller purchase to be offended. The king's mildness went ed the ring, and by the aid of a microscope so far, that he still gave him several days discovered a most admirable work of art. for consideration. But all to no purpose. On the upper side of the stone he found a He was arrested, and punished with all the group of gods, distinguishable by their attri- rigour of the laws. butes; and on the lower side, Achilles drag. ging the dead body of Hector behind his chariot. This discovery affords a fresh proof of the great superiority of the ancient3 As the well known Dr. Barth preached to the moderns in works of this kind. for the first time in his native city of Leipzig,
he disdained the usual precaution of having
his sermon placed in the Bible before him, ANECDOTE OF CHRISTIAN IV. KING OF DEN
to refer to in case of need. A violent thup
der-storm arising just as he was in the midChristopher Rosenkranz, in Copenhagen, dle of his discourse, and a tremendous clap demanded from the widow of Christian Tuul caused him to lose the thread of his argua debt of 5000 dollars. She was certain ment, with great composure and dignity he that she owed him nothing. But he pro- shut the Bible, saying with emphasis, “ When duced a bond signed by herself and her de. God speaks, man must hold his peace :" he ceased husband; she declared the bond to then came down from the pulpit, and the be forged. The affair was brought before a whole congregation looked on him with ad. court of justice. The widow was condemn- miration and wonder, as a mighty pillar of ed to pay the demand. In her distress she the church.
PRESENCE OF MIND.
Art. 15. REPORT OF DISEASES.
CHRONIC AND LOCAL DISEASES.
Report of Diseases treated at the Public Dis- enteria, (Dysentery,) 3; Rubeola, (Measles,)
pensary, New York, during the monih of 1; Erysipelas, (St. Anthony's Fire,) 2; VacJune, 1818.
cinia, (Kine Pock,) 31; Convulsio, (CorACCTE DISEASES.
rulsions,) 1. FEBRIS Intermittens, (Intermittent Ferer,)
5; Febris Remittens, ( Remitlent Fever.) Asthenia, (Debility,) 8; Vertigo, 3; Ce7; Febris Continua, (Continued Ferer,) 29; phalalgia, (Head-Ach,) 5; Dyspepsia, (IndiFebris infantum Remittens, (Infantile Remit- gestion,) 6; Obstipatio, 13; Colica, 2; Par lent Fever,) 7; Phlegmone, 2; Ophthalmia, ralysis, 1; Hysteria, 1; Menorrhagia, l; (Inflammalion of the Eyes,) 4; Cynanche Hæmorrhois, 2; Diarrhæa, 6; Leucorrhea, Tonsillaris, 2; Pneuinonia (Inflammation of 2; Amenorrhea, 4; Ischuria, (Suppressioni the Chest,) 15; Pneumonia Typhodes, (Ty- of Urine,) 2 ; Ophthalmia Chronica, 3; Bronphoid Pneumony,) 4; Pertussis, (Hooping chitis Chronica, 3; Phthisis Pulmonalis, Cough,) 8; Hepatitis, (Inflammation of the (Pulmonary Consumption,) 7; Rheumatismus Lirer,) 2 ; Rheumatismus Acutus, 1; Icte- Chronicus, 5; Pleurodynia, 2; Lumbago, rus, (jaundice) 1; Cholera Morbus, 2; Dys. 2; Nephralgia, 1; Plethora, 3; Anasarca,