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The choice, 'twixt death or freedom, warms Yes! 'twas sublime, but sad.-The loneliness
Our breasts as theirs-To arms, to arms!'

Loaded thy heart, the desert tired thine
To arms they flew,-axe, club, or spear,

eye; And mimic ensigus high they rear,

And strange and awful fears began to press And, like a banner'd host afar,

Thy bosom with a stern solemnity: Bear down on England's wearied war."

Then hast thou wish'd some woodman's cottage

nigh, To each canto are prefixed introduce

Something that show'd of life, though low tory verses. Of these the best are those

and mean, opening the first, fourth, and fifth captos. Glad sight, its curling wreath of smoke to spy, Those of the second are passable; of the

Glad sound, its cock's blithe carol would

have been, third we may say the same while those

Or children whooping wild beneath the willows of the sixth are decidedly very inferior.

green. We quote those of the fourth cantora lofty tribute of admiration to the stu Such are the scenes where savage grandeur pendous and solitary scenery of Scotland.


An awful thrill that softens into sighs; " Stranger ! if e'er thine ardent step hath traced Such feelings rouse them by dim Rannoch's The northern realms of ancient Caledon,

lakes, Where the proud Queen of Wilderness hath In dark Glencoe such gloomy raptures rise: placed,

Or farther, where, beneath the northern skies,
By lake and cataract, her lonely throne; Chides wild Loch-Eribol his caverns hoar
Sublime but sad delighé thy soul hath known, But, be the minstrel judge, they yield the prize

Gazing on pathless glen and mountain high, Of desert dignity to that dread shore,
Listing where from the cliffs the torrents thrown That sees grim Coolin rise, and hears Corisken

Mingle their echoes with the eagle's cry,
And with the sounding lake, and with the moan-

G ing sky.


Propulsion of Navigable Bodies, and vigable bodies, introduced by an exposi-

Improvement in the Construction of tion of the causes of the great losses of

power attending the operation of common this work (for June), published portunity to offer the following diagram, some strictures on the propulsion of na in further elucidation of my position.

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A. A common water-wheel revolving in c. Square representing the whole force of

the direction of the inclined arrows, the impinging paddle.
the boat advancing in the direction of d. e. Squares together equal to c, and re-
the horizontal arrow.

presenting the proportions in which the B. B. Surface of the water,

whole force is divided between hori

zontal propulsios, and perpendicular therefore, no motion takes place in any exertion.

direction, F. When the paddle has arrived at this If external force be applied to the res.

position, its whole force is propulsive. sel by sails, water-wheels, towing, &c. & This square represents the whole force in any one direction, it has the imme

of the paddle, divided horizontally and diate effect of relieving the water press

perpendicularly in the proportions of ing in the same direction, from the re. h and i, squares together equal to g; and sistance of the water pressing in an opso on till the paddle emerges.

posite direction, and that pressure, thus To this I may add, that the injurious released, becomes active, and the vessel tendency of the present system of propul- moves; hence it is that the shape of a sion, is, in effect, still further increased ship’s after-part is considered all-importbeyond the proportion already explained. ant by nautical men, in order that the Suppose a vessel of a certain capacity, pressure of the water may be received having an engine capable of giving it's in the most advantageous manner. Now motion of eight miles per hour, if none it has already been shown that external of its power were wasted. But as three- force cannot be applied by the operation fourths of the power are wasted, an engine of water-wheels, as heretofore, without of four times the power, and more than

an immense sacrifice of power. But it four times the weight, must immediately must be obvious that if power can be be substituted-four times the quantity, employed to remove the pressure of the and weight, of fuel will also be required. water in any one direction, an equal The boat must now be enlarged and pressure in a contrary direction will be strengthened to carry the additional bur. released, and becoming active, will more then, and to sustain the prodigious action the vessel with the same advantage as of a four-fold engine. Again the engine external power applied in the most faand fuel must be increased to propel the yourable manner. Fortunately for manenlarged boat; and the boat further en kind, nature has ordained that power can larged and made stronger still, to carry very easily be so applied, without any the doubly enlarged engine: proceeding other waste than that of the friction of thas, it is true, the engine's power gains mechanism employed in the operation. at each remove on the boat's size, but How did the lucid intellect of WATT does not overtake it until both are inor improve the mechanical effect of steam? dinately magnified. The engine being not by adding to its power, but by removThen, probably, of not less than six times ing a pre-existing natural resistance, obthe power of that originally provided -- structing its natural action. and the boat enlarged one half. Yet, The following sinple experiment, withnotwithstanding these extravagant in- in the compass of every one, exemplifies cumbrances, steam-boats must be profil. the principle of the discovery elucidated able, or they would not be continued. in my last communication, in a pleasing But since these mechanical imperfections and conclusive manner:- Provide a small are inseparable from the present system, model of a boat with a projecting tube they prove indisputably the existence of inserted at the head, beneath the water some egregious error in the application line, with a valve at its inward extremity of the power of the primum mobile. -keep the valve closed by a thread ap

If we pause for a moment to inquire plied to a small lever, so adjusted as to into the laws of statics, by which floating open the valve when the thread is sebodies are sustained quiescently in water, vered-put the boat in water-divide the we shall find :

thread with a lighted taper, to avoid the 1st. The water eerts a perpendicular possibility of accidental impulse froin pressure upward beneath the whole area contact-the valve now opens, and the of the vessel, having a constant tendency boat moves forward spontaneously ils whole to raise it—a tendency as constantly re- length, with accelerated velocity, thrustsisted by the gravity (or weight) of the ing the tube before it through the water. vessel, and therefore it does not rise. Why, if my principle be false, does not

2d. The water exerts a lateral pressure the water flow backward through the tube, in every direction, against the sides of the and the boal remain stationary?- The vessel towards the centre, and has a ten- boat is at length filled, and the water dency to move it in every direction—but received by the tube being met by the as a body can only move, or be moved, internal opposite end of the boat, motion in one direction, at one time, the opposite is impeded, and ceases of course-but pressures, or tendencies to action, of the were it convenient (it is not in this model) water, counteract and destroy cach other; to bail the admitted water, the boat's

progress would be continued, ad infinitum, in the following figures; making a most on the principle causing its commence- fascinating experiment, and of a nature ment. A beautiful method of showing so simple as to be within the reach of any the operation of the raceway, is exhibited common tin-plate worker:

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Fig. 1.

water discharges itself at the outer leg, A. A. Surface of the water contained in and the boat instantly advances with raa circular cistern or pan.

pidity, in the direction of the arrow, and B. B. A model of a boat floating in the continues in motion, ad infinitum, if the water at the circumference of the cis- emitted water

be returned at intervals to tern.

the cistern. Now both legs of the siphon C. The raceway attached to the boat. being of equal lengths and inclinations, it D. A siphon, one extremity terminating is manifest that the pressure of the water in the raceway; the other hanging over contained within it, cannot be the cause the cistern, the lower extremities of of motion, because that pressure operates both legs being placed exactly on a equally in two opposing directions. The level.

fact really is that the siphon by merely Fig. 2.

allowing the water opposed to the forward A. Bird's-eye view of the circular cis- end of the raceway to flow off by its own tern, full of water.

gravity, the pressure of the external waB. The boat, raceway, and siphon, con- ter behind the raceway becomes unbal

nected to a pivot in the centre of the lanced, and therefore active, and imparts cistern, by an arm, merely to preserve motion to the boat, &c. &c. Thus the the regular curvilinear direction when siphon, in this experiment, effectively perin motion.

forms the office of the water-wheel, as C. A circular channel on the outside of explained in my late disquisition, but can

the cistern, into which the outer leg of not do more. the siphon depends, and discharges wa This, my newly-discovered use of the ter when the apparatus is in action. siphon, admits of very various applica

tion. Boats may be navigated on canals Let us now imagine the siphon er- through its agency, without mechanical hausted of air in the common manner, it or animal power, simply by means of hy. of course becomes full of water.-Tbis drostatic pressure, provided a gutter be

made to carry off the water discharged. water, as explained by Dr. Olinthus Gre. If a proper figure be given to the siphon, gory, in his mechanical treatise. and an increased length, and inclined But to return to the subject of the race. spouts, added to the outer leg, the race. way, as applied to mechanical navigation, way may be omitted. Mills may be con- I find the principle may be brougbt into structed with singular economy and ad- action, beneficially, by placing it at the vantage on this plan, particularly when head of a vessel, with two long cylindri. the level of the adjacent country does not cal water-wheels, one on each side (as afford a great head of water ;-the siphon shown in the diagram) having their shaft will then communicate motion to ma- parallel with the line of the boat's tro chinery from the centre of rotation, or at tion. The float-boards when in the water the circumference, as may be required. being placed obliquely with a gentle And, finally, the movement being nearly spiral backward inclination. When thus devoid of friction, may be variously em- circumstanced, the raceway is baled loployed to actuate petty machinery, on terally, and by a comparative slow me. very advantageous principles. These chanical action, the wheels revolving with latter applications of the siphon, operate about one-third of the boat's velocity ;-; on the principle of Barker's Mill, but fact attended with great practical adrasentirely without the great loss of power tage. proceeding from the vis-inertiæ of the


A. The boat advancing in the direction Abandoning the law of statics, by which of the arrow.

fluids rise spontaneously to their original B. The forward end of the raceway. level, the ancients erected those mighty C. D. The water-wheels, with inclined structures called aqueducts ;-the en

float boards, baling the raceway on lightened moderns effect their purposes each side.

by the more convenient ascent of water

through tubes. In mechanical naviga. These longitudinal water-wheels, may tion the ancient system is still pursued ; also be applied in raceways at the sides but, why should not the natural laro, actor sterns of vessels with equal advantage. ing with perfection in the first instance,

It is a fact somewhat remarkable, that be appealed to with corresponding efficathe idea of this negative application of cy in the second ? power seems never to have suggested it The grand object of propulsion being self either to the ancients or moderns. Dow achieved on equal terms, it is scarce The Phænicians--the Egyptians--the ly possible to contemplate the advantages Tyrians—the Greeks--the Carthaginians resulting in a national point of view, (and --and the Romans, had their single gal- I might even go further) without risking lies, their biremes, triremes, &c. all move the charge of immoderate vanity from ing by operation against the inertia of the those who have not devoted their attenwater. The Italian gondolas are still tion to the subject; but supported as I am, navigated on a similar principle. The by the fundamental laws of nature, testschemes of the French engineers are, with. ed by repeated experiments, will I venture out exception, modifications of the same to call public attention to a matter fraught idea. The British experimentalists have with consequences of high importance. one and all followed the individual sys Let every one seriously reflect, that, if tem. The Americans, in the persons of steam-vessels, supported as they now are, Fitch, Rumsay, Stevens, Allison, and at an enormous cost, are deemed (and Livingston, have pursued the same plan deservedly so) one of the proudest boasts under various devices: and, lastly, Ful- of America, and one of her most diston, following the beaten track, produced tinguished blessings, where, in the long results superior to all, just inasmuch as and brilliant perspective of succeeding he applied a more powerful primum mo- ages, shall we seek a termination of the dile.

beneft to result from a discovery mul

tiplying, in six-fold ratio, the present ef- pursued further, because the pressure of fect of power? rendering a few horses the atmosphere, upon which Mr. Staples efficient as the most powerful steam en- places so much reliance, was found to gine; saving its cost, its current expenses, act, unavoidably, in the worst possible diand its other inconveniences; added to rection, having an effectual tendency to those of the massy floating fabric indis- force the water backward upon the valves, pensable to support the ponderous action and thus impede the boat's progress. of the mechanical mammoth? Under The suggested improvements to the these circumstances, I say, what daring trough of Mr. Staples' inclined wheel, imagination shall prescribe limits to me would seem to trench upon the princi. chanical navigation ?- The frail canoe, ples developed in my Essay-but the apand the majestic ship, are alike suscepti- plication is so imperfect, that I am conble of its advantages and a period may vinced Mr S. Gandot have made the exere long arrive, when mankind, rousing periment. I shall, therefore, never in. from the lethargic influence of antiquated terfere with its adoption. If, in addition habit, shall with one voice exclaim, the to the closed valve described behind the land is our resting place, but the water is inclined wheel, Mr. S. bad added lateral our road !

C. A. BUSBY, openings in the trough, also behind the

No. 2. Law Buildings. wheel, the effect would have been imJuly 10th, 1818.

proved ; for the water would then have

sound vent on each side, instead of being Postscript.--Having perused in the last compelled to rise above the trough, (at a number of this Magazine a description of great loss of power) in order to obtain a Mr. Staples' “ Air Boat,” which has, passage. I find, been supposed by some of that gen

An“ Air Engine,” previously suggestleman's friends to assimilate itself to my ted by the aeronaut, Montgolfier, was paplan, I perceive the mode of propulsion tented in England, about four years since. there explained, is that of exhausting (Vide, Repertory of Arts, 1815:)-Many certain troughs attached to the boat, by expensive experiments (some of which I means of what are termed “ Plungers, witnessed) were made upder the superinworking on the principle of a pump, as tendence of the first mathematicians and sisted by appropriate valves—the whole mechanicians—but finally the idea was being actuated by an Air Engine, as a abandoned. The ingenious Mr. Murray, primum mobile.

Engineer, of Leeds, (England) has also Referring to my Catalogue of Schemes, been many years engaged in a similar it appears that the exact idea originated pursuit. with the great Franklin, being suggested The statement of these facts, since Mr. by the learned doctor as a problematical Staples would seem to be unacquainted improvement on the plan of M. Ber- with them, is not intended to detract from nouilli. (Vide, Transactions of the

Philoso- the ingenuity, or personal originality, of phical Society of Philadelphia, Dec. 2d, his ideas; particularly as I am informed 1785.) The same method has also been the subject of which he has treated, is tried frequently in England, and finally foreign to his ordinary vocations. I cana patent was obtained by Mr. James not, therefore, omit to express my regret Linaker, in London, July 14, 1808, for that the zeal of his friends should have various modifications of the same princi- inade it necessary for me to explain mat. ple. (Vide, Repertory of Arts, second se ters of record, perhaps not generally rics, vol. 16.) These plans have not been known.

C. A. B.


Eagazines erever in short papers fish. To

ART. 7. ORIGINAL COMMUNICATIONS. To the Editors of the American Monthly fleece of the Caramanian Goats to the Magazine.

manufacture of hats. GENTLEMEN,

3. Description of a most curious fossil OFFER for insertion, in your valua- fish, from Westmoreland, Oneida county, read at the Lyceum, during the last sit As I think them all interesting to ting, to wit:

science, art, and the country, I place 1. Dr. Clark's communication on the them at your disposal, and assure you at vivacious or perennial flax, with my own the same time of my highest esteem and notes.


SAM. L. MITCHILL. 2. Capt. H. Austin's application of the Norr-York, July 14, 1818. Vol. 111.–No. iw


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