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* to give a brief account of the several na. brought away some marcasites mistaken for vigations and discoveries made towards the gold ore, discovered a silver mine (probable NE. and NW. viz. Nova Zembla, NE. Green not more sterling,) and took possession oi land or Spitsberg, NW.and Greenland, com the south shore of the isle of Good For monly called Groenland and Engroenland. tune, under the name of Meta-Incognita. The first discovery of these countries is ow Arthur Pett and Charics Jackman, in ing to an accident; for in 1380, Nicholas 1580, followed Stephen Burtoughs's 'track, and Anthony Zani, two brothers, and rich pussed Waygat Straits, got among the ice to citizens of Venice, having set sail from the the eastward, and encountered such peril Streight of Gibralter for Flanders and Eng. and labour'that they separated, and Peit was land, were accidentally driven northwards never more heard of. by violent storms, even as far as Friesland, In 1685-6-7, Mr. John Davis sailed to the Iceland, and Groenland. But in 1497, John east coast of Greenland, giving his name to Cabot, and Sebastian, his son, of the same the straits between that coast and James nation, received a commission from our Island. At Cape Desolation king Henry VII.'to undertake the like voy. “He found many pieces of furr and wool age, who made a draught and description of like beaver, and exchanged some commodi. some northwest parts of America, and ties with the natives, who often repaired 10 brought along with them four of the na. him in their canoes, bringing stag-skins, tives.

white hares, smail cod, muscles," &c. Hence sprung the project of discovering He reached no higher than 720 N. The a northeast passage“ into the Indies;" which Dutch about this time began to be roused to the Dutch absurdly pretended to have made a sense of the commercial advantages which out in 88° N. lat. The first adventure was might result from these northern expedi. that in 1553, consisting of three vesseis com- tions, hitherto exclusively pursued by the manded by sir Hugh Willouyliby, of whose English. About 1578, they first appeared voyage we have no memoirs,

at Kola, în Lapland, and a rivalship of the Except certain short and imperfect notes Russia Company ensuing, they, in 1594, sent which were taken off from his Table after Barents on a voyage to discover the passage his death ; wherein it is expressed, that the to the Indies. fleet under his command parted from Sey 26 In 1596, the same Wm. Barents, accomnam, which lies in 70 deg. North lat. on the panied with two other Dutch pilots, viz. Ja2d day of August: that on the 14th they cob Heemskirk and John Cornelius Ryp, were above 160 leagues from the same place first discovered Bear, or Cherry Island, and to the northeast, and continued sailing until passed from thrence to Greenland; but Bar Septemb. 14, when they came ashoar on a rents being separated from them, sailed along high, rocky, and desart country, from the coasts of Nova Zembla to the 76 deg. of whence the cold and ice forc'd them to re- N. lat, until at tength his ship was driven turn more Southerly, which they did til ashore, and broken in pieces by the ice, so they reach'd a river in Lapland, callid Ar- that all the mariners were compelled to zina, where, by the continuance of foul winter there, and endured the utmost esweather, they were shut up in the harbour, tremity of cold.". and the next spring were all found frozen to Poor Barents died before they got back to death in their ship.'

Kola. A few years after this unfortunate attempt, In 1608, the enterprising Hudson was in 1556, captain Stephen Burroughs, “i some. "sent forth to discover the North Pole, and time comptroller of the navy to queen Eli- sailed," says our authority,“ even to 82 de. zabeth,” in a voyage of the same kind dis- grees of N. latitude ; but being satisfied there covered Waygat's straits, # that run between was no northeast passage, he was appointed the south part of Nova Zembla and the coun to make the like triæi in the nortwest seas. try of the Samoieds:"—the highest latitude Therefore, in 1610, he set sail again, and he reached is laid down 800 11', and it is proceeded 100 leagues farther than any had probable be cruised on the coasts of Green- done before

But the ice hindered land, “ since he makes mention of the deso. him from continuing Iris course farther, and late country, the blew ice, and great num the sedition of his men from returning bers of various fowl thereabouts."

home." But the first name most celebrated “for Hence, however, Hudson's straits and endeavouring to search out a north west bay, and circumjacent coasts, in these parts. passage into China, was sir Martin Frobish- In 1611, sir Thomas Button prosecuted the er, who, in several voyages, made divers discoveries in the same quarter; and in new discoveries of large bays, streights, 1612-5-6 islands, capes, &c. and imposed on them dif “ James Hall and William Baffin proceedferent names."

ed much farther in the northwest parts, and His voyages, however, seem to have been imposed names on divers places discovered principally among the islands about Hud- by them.” son's straits and the coasts of Labrador, be During the first half of this century a tween 60 and 65° N. lat., where he establish- number of expeditions were fitted out froin od a friendly intercourse with the natives, Denmark, but did little towards extending exchanged toys for salmon and other fish, the geographical knowledge of the Peluz

seas. Our own investigation seem to have Philosopher's Stone ; in regard that it was languished from Baflin's trip in 1616, till SOMETIMES not to be found when his ships that of captain Luke Fos, in 1630 :

took a voyage thither; and because a certain “ He traced Frobisher, Hudson, Davis, Dane, in 1626, brought some sand from Button, and Baffin, meeting with whales, thence which was of the same colour and much ice and fowls," &c.

weight with gold.” In 1631, near Port Nelson, he met captain The hardships endured by many of the James, whose very interesting narrative early adventurers, and the miserable deaths was published by the special command of of many others, would fill volumes in the reCharles I. in 1633. Wood's Voyage, in 1676, cital. It may well, therefore, be considered proceeded no further than 76° N. lat., where fortunate for commerce and the interests of he lost his ship on the coast of Nova Zem- nations, that there is implanted in man's nahla, and returned home in the Prosperous ture a desire of novelty, which no present l'ink, wbich accompanied him.

gratisication can satisfy ; that, having visited Such were the chief expeditions at the

one region of the earth, he is eager to exclose of the sixteenth and during the seven- plore another; that having escaped one teenth centuries; and when we consider danger in his progress, he is no less resolute the state of the appointments and the frail to encounter others, which may chance to nature of the ships employed, we shall not obstruct him in the course of his pursuits. only be surprised at the extent of their in- if the history of former hardships could vestigations, but be led to entertain sanguine have deterred men from engaging in new hopes of much further progress from such adventures, the voyage of discovery, which vessels as have now sailed on a similar mis- has just left the British shores, would not sion, with all the aids of science attached to have been undertaken. The dreary regions them.

that surround the Poles are so little accus. Of Greenland (Groenland, Groenlandia, tomed to feel the kindly influences of the or Grainland) we are told that the eastern enlivening sun, and are so destitute of the and western sides are encompassed with two ordinary productions of the earth in happier vast oceans.

climates, that little less than one whole “ This land is supposed to have been first quarter of the globe is by its sterility rendiscovered by a Norwegian gentleman, dered uninhabitable by human beings, and named Eric Roscop, or Red-head, who have but thinly occupied by a very inconsidering committed a murder in Island (Iceland,) able number of the brute creation. to save his life attempted to make his escape The many and almost insuperable difficul. into another country, whereof he had only ties that must therefore be expected in traheard some obscure flying reports. This versing these forlorn deserts, where no regentleman was so fortunate as to get safe to lief is to be expected, but from the favourathe harbour of Sandsbasin, lying between ble interposition of that Power, whose provitwo mountainous promontories, one on an

dence extends to the remotest corners of isle over against Greenland, which he call- the earth, is, upon reflection, enough to cool ed Huiilserken or White-Shirt, by reason of the ardour of the most enterprising minds. its being covered with snow; the other on In our present statement we have passed the continent bearing the name of Huarf over the claims made by the Icelanders in Eric. He wintered in the island, and after- 1001, under Biarn,* and of the Germans, in ward passing into the continent, imposed on 1484, under Martin Bebens,t of Nuremberg, it the name of Groenland or Greenland, from to this discovery, because they are unsupits flourishing verdeur. His son being sent ported by any later writer; and have conto Olaus Trugger, king of Norway, to pro- fined ourselves to such attempts only as are cure a pardon, easily obtained it upon in- well authenticated, and their results suffiformation of the new discovery. Thus, in ciently known. process of time, a plantation was settled From the whole it appears certain that there, and two cities were built, viz. Garde though Spitzbergen was also called Northand Albe; the latter was honoured with a east Greenland, there was undoubtedly a bishop's see, and the residence of the Nor- colony once, settled on the east side of Old wegian viceroy, the cathedral church being Greenland, which was sometimes approachadedicated to St. Antony. However, these ble and oftentimes blocked up within an icy new inhabitants having been long since de. barrier. Whether this land may be again stroyed, either by the natives, the rage of visited, and what remains of its former con. the epidemical disease called the black dition, are problems which the enterprise of plague, or otherwise, very little intelligence our bold sailors will probably solve within a concerning Groenland has come to us since few months, and in the interim, we trust this the year 1349. Nevertheless, in 1389, (as brief retrospect at the long past exploits of they say,) the king of Denmark determining their predecessors will not be read without to re-establish his dominion in those parts, adding to that strong feeling of interest sent a fleet thither; which having suffered which accompanies their adventure. shipwreck, he was discouraged from any

Lon. Lil. Gaz. farther enterprise, until of late that naviga # Journal de la Belgique, Dec. 5, 1816. tion was somewhat renewed by Christian Torsæus and Angrim Jonas, iwo Icelandic IV. who was wont to call this country his writers of good repute.

JEU D'ESPRIT.

could scarcely answer for the world's lasting To the Editor of the Quotidienne. three weeks longer. I may add, that wbilst Sir,—From a late article in your journal, sitting before my looking-glass the other day, I observe that Madame Krudener, and her I observed several spots on my forehead, principal secretary, M. Keller, announce which has always been whiter than the finest that the world will soon be at an end, and satin, (you will be pleased to recollect that that the day of judgment is rapidly approach this perfectly coincides with the spots on the ing. Allow me likewise, en passant, to ex sun's disk.) Besides, Sir. you cannot fail press my satisfaction at finding that my sex to have noticed, that almost every day apnow enjoy the privilege of saying and doing pointed for the promenades at Longchamp the most extraordinary things imaginable. has proved rainy, and worse than all, I have This, together with my own inclination, every reason to fear that no one so much as has induced me to note down such signs as noticed my elegant carriage and superb har. appear to me to presage the grand and awful ness, or the new hat which I wore ornacatastrophe in question. I know not, I con- mented with a bouquet of polyanthus and fess, whether the planets have deviated from lilac. When, in addition to all this, it is retheir wonted path, whether the ices have di- collected that America and Africa repel the minished at the poles, whether corn now con- lights of this age, and that Potier is going to tains less nutritive substance than formerly, the Porte Saint-Martin, the best thing we &c. &c.; but, Sir, I think I have discovered can do is to be speedy in obtaining passports many other symptoms of the termination of for the chaos which must necessarily follow a world, which, having existed (according the end of the world, of which indeed I am to philosophical suppositions) about fifteen heartily tired whenever there is no perform. thousand years, may certainly be resigned ance at the opera, or a new piece is repeated to its fate, and cannot in reason complain of night after night at the theatres. being cut off in the flower of its age.

CAROLINE. Within my sphere of observation, I have remarked many things which cannot be natural, and which, I assure you, give rise to We some time ago notified the invention the most serious reflections.

of a self-moving carriage in Germany. This To begin then with what concerns myself, machine has been named a Draisienne, and I must inform you that my husband is so one of the Paris journals of last week con-' changed, that I scarcely know him. Would tains the following account of its exhibition you believe it, Sir? he absolutely refuses to in that capital :buy me a new Cochemire, or to pay my « An immense concourse of spectators. milliner's last bill, under pretence that he assembled yesterday at noon, at Luxemcannot afford it! He declares his determi- burg, to witness the experiments with Draination to be master in his own house! in a siennes (a species of carriage moved by maword, Sir, his whole conduct towards me chinery without horses.) The crowd was proves that he has not a vestige of common so great that the experiments were but imsense remaining. However, this is nothing, perfectly made. The machine, however, and even under such a state of things the went quicker than a man running at speed, world might possibly last some little time and the conductors did not appear fatigued. longer. But a poet of my acquaintance About three, a lady appeared in a Draisienne, evinced a singular instance of modesty last conducted by the chasseur of the Baron de week: he confessed to me, that there were Drais, who made with it several turns in the perhaps a few instances of negligence to be alleys, in the midst of the crowd. The mafound in his hemistichs; and that he was chine, although charged with a double only the second poet in the world!

weight, had the same rapidity, and the efBut I have something yet more wonderful forts of the conductor did not seem to be to tell. The most liberal philosopher I know, increased. The machine ascended with fa-, who has saved the universe thirty times cility the hillocks which are placed in some within the last thirty years, by means of his parts of the garden. The Draisiennes apprimordial truths and fundamental principles, pear to be convenient for the country, and, this philosopher acknowledged the other for short journeys on good roads." day that the world was not yet saved, and

Lon. Lit. Gaz. that much remained to be done ere that object could be accomplished; that several of his truths were in reality untrue, that one or two of his principles could not possibly be The eyes of all the lovers of antiquity and applied, and for that reason appeared some the fine arts are, with reason, turned upon the what ridiculous. He moreover confessed remarkable journey which his royal highness that several intelligent gentlemen of his ac- the crown prince of Bavaria has undertaken quaintance have not yet attained that degree to the classic ground of Greece. This auof perfectibility which they wished to make gust patron aud enlightened judge of the us believe they had, and that among the per- arts, having first visited all the most remarkfections of the age a few momentous errors able places in Sicily, and its noblest ruins had accidentally intruded themselves. of antiquity returned to Rome, where he has

To judge from these confessions, Sir, one dedicated some time to profound study, pre.

TOUR OF THE CROWN PRINCE OF BAVARIA.

ANECDOTE.

ANECDOTE OF FOUCRE.

paratory to his intended tour. It is his royal of the soil, a stone slab covering the mouth highness's intention to depart from Rome to of a large amphora. Upon raising the stone, Greece in the beginning of the present month there were found within the amphora, which of April. The prince has sent for M. Klenze, was full of water, a black vase of terra-cotarchitect to the court of Bavaria, to accom- ta, of very elegant form, half filled with hupany him in this tour. He goes first through man bones; also two small vessels of red terThe Peloponnesus, and all lonia, to Athens, ra-cotta, with handles. This discovery of the perhaps to Asia Minor, and probably by way amphora having been actually used by the of Constantinople back to Bavaria.

Romans instead of a sepulchre, remarkably illustrates its meaning, as a symbol upon the gems and medals of the ancients; among

the Greeks especially, the figure of an amThe following anecdete of Professor Jahn, phora was used as a type of Hades; whence in Berlin, whose system for making youth it became also one of the symbols of the perfect in gymnastic exercises, has given rise Dira triformis. to endless disputes in Germany, is highly characteristic. When the French were in Berlin, Jahn went with his scholars to eser. cise on the heath out of the city. On bis The well known poet Raynonard once return, he took it into his head, to ask a boy read his tragedy of Charles I. to a large com. who loitered under the Brandenberg gate, pany, in which Fouche was present. All “What nsed to stand upon this gate?" "The eyes were fixed on him, yet his features reVictory.” “What is become of her?" " The mained unchanged. The reading began; French have carried her to France!" "What still he remained unmoved, though at many do you think of it?” “Nothing at all.”. Upon allusions the scrutinizing eyes of the hearthis Jahn gave him a hearty box on the ear, ers were turned upon him. When at last with the serious admonition, " She was the minister of Charles I. defending his masthere, and may be fetched back again, if ter, exclaims, “ Le jugement d'un Roi n'est every one help!" The school never forget qu'un assassinat," the company were going it, though the citizens of Berlin thought the to express their approbation aloud, but they Professor mad, because he required that a were prevented by the presence of the minboy should think something at seeing the ister. This did not escape him, and seemed gate without the victory, while thousands to embarrass him for a moment. When passed through it every day without think the reading was finished, every one went soig any thing

away except Fouche. After some general remarks upon the plan and the characters of

the piece, he added, “ in respect to that ANTIQUITIES.

verse, I utterly despise it." Raynaurd did On the 5th of February, a mile and a half not answer, but Fouche walked up and down from Chiusi, in Tuscany, a countryman dig. with long strides, and said, after a pause, ging in the field, found a sepulchral cham " the political part of your tragedy is very ber in very good preservation. It is of a weak, you stand upon the tower of Notre rectangular forin, six or seven fathoms long Dame instead of penetrating into the inteand five broad. The entrance is by two rior. In politics every thing has a different folding doors, which move easily on their point of view. Circumstances--you do not hinges. In the inside were found eight fu- know the effect of circumstaces."—Rayneral urns in very good condition : they are nouard interrupted him by repeating the adorned with human heads and foliage. On " le jugement d'un Roi n'est qu'un the lids are engraved several Etruscan in- assassinat," and Fouche left the room. striptions, six of which are very legible. Five of these orns are of different sizes, and smaller than the others; in all of them were fuu. ashes and pieces of burnt bones. The Mr. George Liebig, in Darmstdadt, anwobele sepulchre is now carefully guarded, nounces, that he has made a discovery reand all proper measures are taken to pre- specting gas light, from which he promises serve uninjured a monument of antiquity himself various advantages. His gas yields which is so interesting and perhaps unique light and warmth, and the material of which in its kind.

it is made, is of more value when it comes During the last summer we had occasion out of the retort where it is burnt than when to notice an excavation made in a Roman it is put in. “We will leave," says he, tumulus near the old Roman road which oc. " coals and charcoal to the manufactories; eurs immediately after passing Lord's Bridge, my gas is derived from a finer material, on the left hand of the road leading to Wim- which we have in abundance in our counpole. Some remains, then discovered, have try.” been deposited in the University Library. On Wednesday last, as some labourers were digging gravel near the same tumulus, at the Some one said to Dufresny, Porerly *: same distance from the Roman road, they dis no crime."-ill is a great deal worse," saio #grered, fourteen inches below the suriace he.

verse:

A NEW KIND OF GAS.

ART. 16. REPORT OF DISEASES.

ACUTE DISEASES.

CHRONIC AND LOCAL DISEASES.

Report of Diseases treated at the Public Dis preceding month, and the Weekly Bills at

pensary, New York, during the month of ford evidence that the mortality has conMay, 1818.

siderably diminished. Inflammatory affec

tions of the respiratory organs, consequent FEBRIS Intermittens, (Intermittent Fevery) on sudden changes of the weather, though

3; Febris Remittens, (Remiltent Fever,) frequent, considering the time of the year, 4; Typhus Mitior, 12; Synocha, 3; Febris have not, in general, been of a severe nature. Infantum Remittens, (Infantile Remittent Fe Typhus still continues to be the most comver,) 6; Phlegmone, 3; Ophthalmia, 9; mon form of sever, particularly in those Cynanche Tonsillaris, (Inflammation of the parts of the city, where poverty, wretchedTonsils) 2; Bronchitis, 1; Catarrhus, 2; ness, and filth preserve the fomes of contaPneumonia (Inflammation of the Chest,) 28; gion. As this disease was generally gradual Pneumonia Typhodes, 5; Pertussis, (Hoop- or insidious in its attack, so its progress was ing Cough,) 4; Hæmoptysis, (Spitting of seldom rapid. In some instances, its attack Bloody) 1; Angina Pectoris, i; Cholera was slight, or so disguised, that the disease Morbus, 2 ; Hydrocephalus, (Dropsy of the has hardly been distinguished, till its characHead, 1 ; Varicella, (Chicken Po.c.) 1 ; Vac- ter has been manifested by some more pro. cinia, (Kine Pock,) 152.

minent symptoms. Its cliaracteristic marks

were general languor, or torpor of the nerAsthenia, (Debility,) 2; Vertigo, 6; Ce vous system, dejection of spirits, muscular phalalgia, 5; Lyspepsia, (Indigexion,) 6; 0b- debility, febrile heat and dryness of skin, stipatio, 3; Colica, (Colic,) 1; Epilepsia, pain in the head and restlessness, or stupor, (Epilepsy, 1; Mania, (Madness,) 1; Ophthal- and more or less confusion of ideas. In most mia Chronica, 2 ; Catarrhus, 3; Bronchitis instances, it was accompanied with difficul. Chronica, 4; Phthisis Pulmonalis, (Pulmo. ty of breathing or oppression at the chest; nary Consumption,) 5; Asthma et Dyspnea, and at times was attended by pain in the 2 ; Rheumatismus Chronicus, 12; Pleuro- sides and cough, which induced goine to dyne, 2; Lumbago, 3; Amenorrhæn, 5; have recourse to Venescction, of which Dysmenorrhea, 1 ; Suppressio Urinæ, 1; there was soon cause to repent, as a copious Diarrhæa, 4; Anasarca, 1; Hydrothorax, evacuation of blood, seldom failed ultimate(Dropsy of the Chest,) 1 ; Scrophula, (King's ly to destroy the patient. Cleansing the Evil) 1 ; Vermes, (Worms,) 3; Syphilis, 4; prinæ vice with gentle evacuants, opening Urethritis Virulenta, 3 ; Contusio, (Bruise,) the skin by the use of antimonials, or other 6; Stremma, (Sprain,) 2 ; Fractura, 1 ; Vul- appropriate remedies, blisters to the chest nus, (Wound, 5, Abscessus, (Abscess,) 3; where the local affection seemed to require Ulcus, (Ulcer,) 4; Psoriasis, 2; Pityriasis, their application, and the judicious adminis1; Erysipelas, I; Scabies et Prurigo, 8; tration of tonics and cordial medicines az Porrigo 3; Herpes, 2; Eruptiones Variæ, 3. soon as the excessive action was sufficiently

This month has presented almost every diminished to justify their employment, apavariety of atmospheric change of which the peared to be the most suecessful plan of şeason is susceptible. Frost occurred on treatment. When there was much tendenseveral nights ; and a cold unseasonable cy to putrescency, recourse was had to the temperature, very unfavourable to vegeta- Aristilocbia serpentaria and mineral acids. tion, prevailed until the 20th, after which the early exhibition of tonics and stimuthe weather was generally mild and agreea- lants, rarely failed to aggravate the disease, ble. There has been very little thunder, by increasing the excitement and producing but more or less rain fell on the 2d, 3rd, stricture of the ehest. 4th, 6th, 8th, 9th, 13th, 15th, 16th, 18th, Iu some typhoid cases, the pneumonic 19th, 27th and 30th ; the whole quantity symptoms were so exquisitely marked, as to may be estimated at more than 7 inches on constitute the genuine Pneumonia typhodes. a level. The prevailing winds have been A numberof cases of this sort have occurred from the east, south-east and south. Thermo. in the medical .practice of my friend and metrical range estimated between sunrise colleague, Dr. Townsend, who has abligins. and sunset, has been from 41 to 81°. The ly furnished me with the following result os lowest temperature in any morning was bis observations: “ the symptoms of Pneu41°, highest 68°; lowest temperature in monia typhodes, according to the pbservaany afternoon 44, highest sio ; lowest tions I have made upon the disease the pretemperature at sunset of any day 42°, high- sent season, differ materially. est 74". Createst diurnal variation 22.0 61 Ist. The disease was sometimes eviBarometrical range from 29.06 to 30.20 dently complicated from the very cominches.

mencement of the attack; both the local Notwithstanding the cheerless and unsea and general affection existing in equal intensonable weather of the greater part of this sity. This is the legitimate form, and the interval, the health of the city has rather symptoms are then painful (not necessarily improved.

The general quantum of dis- difficult or laborious) respiration, with dry case appears to bave been less than in the and painful cough ; full, frequent and weak:

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