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angle of the plane, and are about equal from them; resembling, as those the main, in length to its diameter, i. e. about the so these the collateral points of snow. But 1-7th of an inch; bence this star was the icicles of urine are still more near: targer than the rest, though the radii re- for in the salt of hartshorti
, although the main of the same length in all. Each collateral shoots stand at acute angles with radius is supplied with pinnæ, which the main, yet not by pairs at equal height; branch off from near the place of insertion and in sal ammoniac although they stand of the radius. These pinne amount to diametrically opposite or at equal height, four or five on each side, and gradually yet withal at right not acute angles. decrease in length towards the extre- Whereas in the icicles of urine they stand mity of the radius, towards which also at equal height and at acute angles both; they all incline by angles of 60 degrees, in both like those of snow.* And it is obthe longest pair of pindæ being nearly servable that the configuration of feathers of equal length with the radius. is likewise the sarne : the reason whereof,"
It will be remembered that all these he quaintly remarks, “is because fowls modifications are upon the same plane, and having no organs for the evacuation of that the radii are constantly six in number. urine” (an egregious error by the by,)“ the
This peculiar, extraordinary, and beau- urinous parts of the blood are evacuated tiful species of crystallization, as I have be. by the habit or skin, where they produce fore remarked, has been noticed but by very and nourish feathers." From all this rcafew. Muschenbroeck saw two sorts only, soning he concludes, that the spiritous and viz. the six-petal d-flower, and stars with aqueous particles of the drops of rain, delittle branches on each ray. M. Cassini scending into a colder region of the atsaw, in 1692, the last kind mentioned by mosphere, are apprehended in their deMuschenbroeck, with this modification, scent by those of a nitro-urinous, but tiz: thc collateral branches liad leaves chiedy urinous nature. The whole mass branching from them. Erasmus Bartho, then congeals into these little starry cryslini assures os tirat he has seen pentagonal tals, which are variously modified as they stars; and that some have ever seen oc meet with gales of warmer air, or impinge tangular. But Dr. Grew* asserts, that and rub gainst each other. By these when they do deviate from the hexangular means, says he, “ some are a little thawed, it is always into the dodecangular forma- blunted, frosted, clumpered; others brotion.
ken; but the most hanked and clung in Ore solitary author, Beckman, declares several parcels together, which we call that he saw niveous crystallizations in the flakes of snow.” form of hexangular pillars, that they oc Dr. Clarke too, observed the stellar curred at Frankfort, upon the Oder, in crystallization of snow, on the 2d of April, 1667. The analysis of these columns 1800, during his travels in Russia. The would prescnt a deposition of so many thermometer of Celsius stood 'at 50 hexagonal laminæ, so that the tendency to below the freezing point, (i. e. 27° Fahhexangularcrystallization is apparent here renheit). The crystals were all precisely too.
alike, viz. of the shape of little wheels, of CAUSES.
about the diameter of a pea, each having How shot should take on this beautifd six spokes or radii.
“ This appearance stellated crystallization, and by what ope- continued," he remarks,“ during three ration the various modifications of these hours, in which time no other snow fel." stars are produced is not yet ascertained. He also states that the weather was calm ; Grew, however, has endeavoured to clear “the snow falling gently upon us as we up this matter by comparing the crystals drove along the streets'' (St. Peterse of snow with those of other substances. burgh). He has not particularized any modification So also Grew. "He who wishes to excepting that wherein the radii of the learn the nature of Snow," says
Grew, stars are pinnated with collateral branches “should observe it when it is thin, calm and diverging at acute angles. The following still.” The same is confirmed by Monge, are his own words : “ Nitre crystallizes in President of the late French Institute, the same slender spiculæ. Salt of harts who has likewise noticed this beautiful horn, sal ammoniac, and some other vo- phenomenon. Dr. Black too, corrobolatile salts, besides their main and longer shoots, have other shoots branched out * See figures 5 and 8.
+ Vol. i. p. 6. * Vid. Traps, of Royal Soc. Lon. No. 92, by Vague notices of niveotis crystals have oc: Dr. Nehemiah Grow.
cassionally appeared in our newspapers ; but I + Vid. Trans. of Royal Soc. Lon. "He called cannot discover any accurate descriptions of thema * Nix Columnasie
in these sources,
rates this fact, and remarks that the the difference of density. In like manweather should also be “very cold."* ner he adds, the drops of rain from thun
We hence perceive, that the obser- der clouds are larger than those from tations of Grew, Black, Clarke and others. Morge, as well as my own, all tend to In the opinion of M. De Ratte, the the conclusion, that these crystals are agents to which these extraordinary phemore frequent and more regularly formed, nomena are ascribable, are the following: when the atmosphere is in a state of quies- “ the degree of cold, its mildness or its cence-a conclusion which might have rapid accumulation, (sa lenteur ou son been readily anticipated, when we call to accroissement rapide, the direction and our recollection that a state of quiescence violence of the wind, the part of the atis considered essential to the crystalliza- mosphere from whence the snow falls, and tion of all other substances.
the various kinds of exhalation mingled with But Macquart informs us, that niveous the congealing water."* The agency o crystals are observed at Moscow, “when any extraneous matters, whether saline it snows riolently and the atmosphere is or other exhalations, in the formation of not too dry!"
these crystals, as suggested by this author Dr. Black declares that they are pure and Dr. Grew, must be doubted, after icy concretions. That they are oftener what has just been stated from I)r. Black. formed in the clouds than upon the earth, Monsieur De Ratte is, no doubt, right in Dr. Black very rationally supposes to be supposing the crystallization of snow to owing to the lewer obstacles which exist be more or less infuenced by the rest of there to oppose the pecnliar crystallic these agents ; but in regard to the imdisposition of water. He thinks too, po- mediate cause of their production, as with larity nas something to do with it. He all the other results of the minute affinities does not believe that an admixture of of matter, t it is impossible perhaps ever to saline or other particles is necessary to arrive at the truth. And it is as yet their formation, this being disproved on doubtful, whether philosophers have even experiment; for the water of these crys- approximated to this point. For without tals is purer than any other natural water. recurring to the less supposed influences, And hence he calls it a property of pure or taking any notice of Caloric, as conwater.
nected with the explanation of this subBeccaria supposest the crystals of snow ject, we see the question still asked, wheas well as the drops of rain attributable to ther or no, these phenomena are to be electrical agency. In snow it acts with ranked in the great class of Galvanic or less energy than in bail, hence, says he, Magnetic agency.
P. S. T
ART. 2. Remarks on Antiquities, Arts, and Letters, during an Excursion in Italy, in
the years 1802 and 1803. By Joseph Forsyth, Esq. Boston, 1818. Wells and
Lilly, 8vo. pp. 443.
have been published on Italy, but none, ments as a man of letters, a soundness of tre conceive, more admirably calculated to judgment, keepness of perception, and geimpress just and lively conceptions of its neral capaciousness of intellect that fitted present state, than the volume before us. him peculiarly for the survey of a counDeeply imbued with the ancient and mo. try upon which so much has been said dern literature of a region interesting not and written, and so little to the purpose. merely to the scholar, but to the man of To be sure, there is Mr. Eustace, whose taste, and the lover of nature, Mr. For- fine taste and classical enthusiasm have
supplied us with many and glowing pic* See his Chemistry.
tures of the remains of ancient art and 4" When it snows violently and the atmos. magnificence that are scattered over the phere is not too dry, the air is observed at Moscow surface of Italy. His descriptions of the jo be loaded with beautiful crystallizations re
ularly flattened and as thin as a leaf of paper. scenery and climate, too, of that enchant-
gical and accomplished writer Jno. Murray, Dr. Hutton's Philosophical and Mathemati- Esq. of Edinburgh, vol. i. Art. Attraction; and cal Dictionary. Art. Snow. Vol. ii.
ing land, can scarcely be surpassed in the malle du voyage, ready to be consulted
“ from consciousness of in one instance, he does not hesitate to
mand deposit in their fraud, and oppression always followed in
the rear of a Roman force, and the lands pictures ;-these, as we have said, he dethat submitted to their arms became the scribes and his remarks upon şubjects victims of their tyranny;--the expeditions that had exhausted the eulogistic or deof the Greeks, most frequently justified by preciating talents of his predecessors, the aggressions of their enemies, generally have an animation and originality that ameliorated the condition of the people must excite the surprise of all who reflect against whom they were directed, and by upon the difficulty of saying any thing at the introduction of the useful and elegant once true and novel upon topics which arts, more than counterbalanced the tem- have been the themes of discussion for so porary evils unavoidably attendant on war. many centuries ;—but it would be doing In their least civilized state, the Greeks this eloquent writer a great injustice to have always appeared to us a more lofty- suppose that he travelled merely as a congenerous-souled-and in many points, noisseur—that he was so steeped in virtù, a more refined-people than the Romans as to pass through a country like Italy in the proudest periods of the Republic. without bestowing a thought upon any Every success of the Romans was a curse object that did not make an immediate ap-every conquest of the Greeks a blessing peal to his taste or imagination,—that the -to mankind. With the praise to which character, the manners, the pursuits, and the primitive purity of their manners, and political condition of her improving, the intensity of their patriotism, unques- though still degraded population, should tionably entitle them, we cordially agree, not call forth any observations from a and unite with Mr. Eustace in his admira- writer so eminently and variously gifted, tion of their literati, and the mighty and would be a just cause of surprise, and to majestic monuments of their former power be accounted for only on the score of inand magnificence ;—but here we stop ;- dolence, or by supposing him to bave enwe are not prepared with him, to worship joyed too little leisure or opportunity for the purple either of the Cæsars or the the exercise of other powers than those Popes—we cannot forget that the guilty possessed by ordinary travellers. But if greatness of Rome was founded in the sub- Mr. Forsyth were deficient in affording us jection and plunder of the world—that information respecting the important and her eagles were the uniform harbingers of primary objects of enquiry to wbich we blood and destruction—that fraud and as- have alluded, he could not plead the want sassination were the steps by which she either of time or opportunity as a sufficient mounted to glory—and that the triumphs excuse for his sins of omission :-a résiof her arms impeded, in an incalculable dence in Italy of two entire years would degree, the improvement and civilization enable an acute and active mind (and the of the human race. The countrymen of mind of Mr. Forsyth was active and acute Washington should ever remember that in the highest degree) to collect and comthe bases of true greatness are laid in the bine together a mass of usefel and instrucarts of peace, and that more real glory is tive intelligence on the actual condition derived from the noiseless labours of civil of the people-he had, besides, access to wisdom, than from all the false and glit- the highest and best informed society of tering pageantry of military or imperial the country, and as far as we can gather despotism.
from his own unostentatious language, the Too long has Mr. Eustace detained us esteem in which he was generally held from the interesting and, indeed, delight- afforded him every desirable means of obful volume which we are solicitous to in- taining, viva voce, information upon every troduce to the notice of our readers. Ne- topic which conversation was capable of ver perhaps, has Italy been sketched with elucidating--and now having stated to so elegant, vigorous, and masterly a pen- our readers what they have a right to excil;- never have the vestiges of ancient pect from Mr. Forsyth, it scems but fair grandeur, or the labours of modern genius to inform them he has availed himself to and taste, been so clearly and vividly de- the utmost of all his advantages, and givlineated as in the pages of Mr. Forsyth- en us a book upon one of the most interyet it must not be supposed that the tal- esting regions of Europe, superior in nearents of the author are simply those of an ly every respect to the works that have archaiologist, or that he carried with him hitherto fallen in our way. His style is to Italy a mind intent only upon the beau- original in a very eminent degree-brief, tiful, but inanimate, objects of art ;-his vigorous, and animated—nothing of the intellect was too extensive in its grasp set air of regular composition about it his powers of observation were too various no laborious effort at effect ;-but in and independent to be confined to the every page you meet with those unsought analysis of buildings, and statues, and graces of diction which captivate the at
tention, when the studied beauties of fine tion may well be pled in apology for an writing would fail altogether of producing occasional and involuntary acerbity or the slightest impression. It is not art, even haughtiness of manner. but its real or apparent absence, that A short biography of the author is prelends to Mr. Forsyth's style its chief and fixed, from which we shall extract such prominent attractions—it has all the life passages as we think necessary to let our and vivacity of high-toned conversation, readers into a knowledge of the habits every object is presented to you through and dispositions of Mr. Forsyth. a clear and transparent medium that per Joseph Forsyth was a native of Elgin, mits you to form an idea of its outline and in the county of Moray, in Scotland. His essential qualities as correct, nearly, as if parents were respectable-his father was you actually bebeld it ;-were we dis- a merchant of long and reputable standposed to raise any objection, we should, ing. Joseph was early sent to the gram. perhaps, be tempted to say that the com mar school of Elgin, where his progress position is too uniformly ambitious and was so rapid that his master pronounced brilliant, and maintains an elevation to him, when only twelve years of age, fib which the minds of readers in general, are for the university. He was accordingly not always disposed to soar-it may be, entered at King's College, Aberdeen, and that Mr. Forsyth is too constantly splen- here the superiority of bis exercises, and did—it is possible that he sacrifices à lit- the gentleness of his disposition soon won tle too much to the desire of dazzling the the attention of his tutor, Professor Ogilvy. imagination—and that the web of his “ As he successively passed under the diction would be improved were its rich care of the professors, he found himself and sparkling materials interwoven with the object of their approbation and solicithreads of a less gorgeous tint ;-we can- tude. Returning every summer to the not be always roving on the mountain- bosom of his family, he devoted his whole tops--we love occasionally to descend into time to study, and thus laid the foundation the valleys—to repose our wearied limbs, of that eminent knowledge of the Greek and refresh our exhausted faculties, in and Roman classics, which it was the the calm and humble shades of their soli- business and chief pleasure of his life af. tary retreats ;--Mr. Forsyth was a man of terwards to complete. On concluding unusually comprehensive and original in the four years usually employed in the tellect-habituated to depend upon the Scotch universities, his parents left to dictates of his own judgment-and rarely himself the choice of a profession, but drawn aside by prejudice or false enthu- with a secret hope that he would prefer the siasm-and this temperament of his mind church; his natural diffidence, and the is evinced in almost every subject upon little prospect he then saw of obtaining which he touches. Seldom is it that he a patron, determined him on trying to turn leans upon the crutches of another's opi- his classical acquirements to some acnion,-where he has nothing valuable to count in that universal mart-London.” offer of his own, he is usually silent--and There he entered into an engagement with the treasures of others are rarely render- the master of a respectable academy in the ed subsidiary to a mind wealthy even to neig!ıbourhood of the metropolis--where overflowing in its own resources.-Tbis forsome time he officiated as assistant-but intellectual independence, it is admitted, subsequently purchased the establishment makes occasional inroads upon the grace and for thirteen years conducted it and suavity of the general style--and son his own account with the higbest rehere and there the self-love of the reader putation and success. The drudgery and is a little revolted by bursts of disdainful irksomeness of this business were too much observation, and the splenetic eruptions for his strength and spirits. Having a of a conscious superiority :—but really, tendency to pulmonary complaints, he when we consider how frequently we are was, during this period, twice reduced by offended by the unbounded and baseless them to the brink of the grave. Seeing arrogance of modern writers,-with all the impossibility of struggling longer with the pride, but none of the pretensions of such incongruous duties as the care of his genius--and turn in disheartening retros- health, and the conscientious superinpect to the quantity of inane and imper- tendance of the education of nearly an [a] tinent trash which is almost diurnally dis- hundred boarders, he resigned the charge, gorged from the press in every Protean and retired to Devonshire in the spring shape of instinctive vanity-we do feel of 1801, to recruit his constitution. disposed to exercise a more than common The remainder of the memoir we should patience and lenity towards a writer injure by abbreviation-it embodies the whose extraordinary claims to our atten. regrets of a relation and the sacred