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engine, without intermission, and that consequence of this new arrangement according to the number of the teeth on was, that when the plungers were forced both sides of the frame, so will be the down, the valves under each were closed, number of strokes the plungers will make and also the valve in the bottom of each during the period of each stroke of the lateral trunk, while the valve immediateengine. It will, therefore, be easily per- ly above it was opened, and permitted the ceived that by this simple movement, we water under the plungers to enter, causing may increase the velocity of the plungers the water in the lateral pipes to run out at pleasure; and that from their situation, at their upper extremity, and pass over we may increase their perpendicular sur contractors to the sides of the vessel, faces in proportion to the power of the where it was discharged. When the engine.

plungers were drawn up, the water whichi À considerable quantity of cold water had, during the previous operation, been being required to absorb the heat con- forced over the tops of the open lateral tained in the rarified air in the contrac- trunks into the trunks of the plangers, tors, I was led to think of some method was lifted to the surface, and passing also of obtaining it from under the boat, and over the contractors, was discharged in a with as little expense of power as possi- similar manner-in the mean time the ble. On reviewing the operations of the valves were opened and the trunks filled, plungers in motion, I perceived that a when the same operation was succeeded part of the reaction of the water on the by the same effects, as long as the plunstern was lost, being spent in pursuing gers were actuated by the cranks of the the plungers in their returning motion ;- shaft, which is connected with the piston to prevent this, I placed a valve in the en- rod of the engine. The effects produced trance of the inclined part of each of the by the vacuum thus obtained were ob trunks, and furnished the plungers with vious--the water at the stern being ex. valves so constructed as to operate on the cluded from entering the trunks by the principle of a lifting and forcing pump;- valves placed at the commencement of its the consequence was that I obtained a inclined part now entered altogether at supply of water from the forward part of the other extremity of the tronks at the the boat, and the water under the stern, bows of the boat-this was precisely the instead of pursuing the plungers as here- effect I had anticipated, together with the tofore, was prevented by the valves in the spontaneous movement of the boat in a trunks on which the water now reacted. forward direction, the natural result of By this method of operating, I soon dis- the operations of the pressure of the atcovered, that I had not only brought into mosphere and the lateral pressure of the the boat a considerable quantity of water water against the stern and sides of the for the use of the contractors, without vessel :-while it was excluded from the loss of power, but had relieved the forward bows by the removal of the water from part of the boat from a part of the resis- that part into the vessel, by the operation tance it sustained from the pressure of the of the pumps. Hence a new and impor. incumbent water. Hence the application tant application of power, which will be of a valve in each trunk is all-important, in proportion to the power expended by the and distinguishes this application from all engine in raising the water. The quantiothers of a similar nature that have not ty of water raised will be in proportion to succeeded merely from a want thereof. the surfaces of the pistons, and the respec

A little reflection induced me to see tive heights to which it may be raised, how far I could improve this effect by the velocity of the boat will be in propor making a more perfect vacuum under tion to the motion of the pistons, which the boat. With this intention I removed may be increased at pleasure. It then all the trunks and plungers, except two, became a matter of calculation to ascerleaving one at each side of the vessel- tain whether the pressure thus obtained the plungers in these two were then was equivalent to the force of the engine placed in a perpendicular position, and as applied in the first instance and I was had united to their trunks a similar trunk satisfied that this new mode of applicaplaced on each side-the valves were tion, combined in less compass, all the Dow taken from the plungers and they advantages of the former in a more perwere fitted to work air-tight-a valve fect degree. After carefully reviewing was placed in the bottom of each trunk this operation, it occurred to me that the of the plungers-one of the lateral trunks arrangement was susceptible of further left entirely open, the other furnished improvement—there would be convewith two valves at the extremity con- nience in reversing the motion of the boat, nected with the submerse-trunk. The and also in suspending the effects of the

operating power. To effect these objects, be able to carry a press of sail, --cona pair of upright sliding valves, with lift- siderable depth in the hold for the cargo, ing rods attached to them, were placed -long keel, and little breadth to prevent in each submersed trunk, near the centre, her falling to leeward. When she is to on each side of the perpendicular trunks. sail by mechanical force, her form and When both of these valves are raised or size should be very different. For this pushed down, the motion of ths boat is purpose the bottom should be formed quite suspended. When the boat is in motion Hat, (to sail as much as possible on the in any direction, one valve is up while the water,) and the sides made to rise per-other is down—and when it is required to pendicular from it, without any curvareverse the motion of the boat, the ope- ture; which would not only render her ration of the valve is also reversed. This more steady, as being more opposed to arrangement suggested the idea of fur- the water in rolling, but likewise more nishing the trough of the inclined wheel convenient, accommodating, &c. while with valves for the purpose of producing the simplicity of her form would contrithe effect of the vacuum thus obtained, bute greatly to the ease and expedition though in an imperfect degree. With this and economy with which she might be intention a perpendicular valve with a fabricated. Diminishing the draft of walifting-rod attached to it, was placed in the ter is undoubtedly the most effectual metrunk, on each side of the wheel, for the thod of augmenting the velocity of the purpose of altering or suspending the mo-, vessel, but as it proportionably diminishes tion of the boat, &c. The effects pro- her hold of the water, and renders her duced by these valves were new and sure more liable to be driven to leeward, this prising. When the water-wheel is put in defect is remedied by the trunks under motion, it removes the water out of the her bottom, which are an excellent subtrunk, or trough part of it, which is under stitute for a keel. By means of these the wheel; while this operation is going side trunks she will be kept steady in the on, the pressure of the atmosphere and greatest gale, quite easy in a great sea, the gravity of the water are partially re- will not strain in the least, and never take moved from the forward to the after part in water on her deck; and when at anof the trunk operating on the valve be- chor, will ride more upright and even bind the wheel, which is down while the than any other vessel can do. Her exother is up. Hence the boat advances for- treme breadth should be no more than ward, and the trunk is supplied with wa- the 5th or 6th part of her length: her ter, which is resisted partially by the ena bows a little curved to break the force of tering paddles, and, in proportion, assists the water, and her stern something narthe wheel in its progress, while the water rower than the bows, having a gentle in thrown out contributes to increase the clination from the stem to the stern, to effects of the pressure of the atmosphere promote the action of the atmosphere and and the gravity of the water. Hence ac- the water on the sides. cording to the velocity of the wheel so I think in the preceding remarks that will be the quantity of the water dis. I have established the following facts : placed, and the vessel will advance in 1st. That the power of atmospherical proportion. The application of this prin- air and fixed air, increased by condensaciple is new and interesting, and, though tion and heat, as digested and arranged greatly inferior to the other indirect ap- by me, is not only a very great, but the plications, will be attended with many most eligible and most powerful agent for advantages.

mechanical purposes. It remains to give a description of the 2d. That in applying this power, a cir. peculiar form and construction of the boat cular engine, on my construction, is the alluded to in the preceding remarks, which most useful of any other: and that by the I have denominated an Air Boat, accom- simple escapement of the piston-rod of panied with necessary explanations. the steam engine, I have given it an adDescription of the Air Boat.

vantage in reciprocating movements it

had not before. A vessel ought to be constructed so as 3d. That in the present steam-boat to answer the particular purpose for which system there is an aggregate loss of nearly she is intended. When she is intended to three-fourths of the power of the engine: sail by means of mechanical force, her and that on my plan the whole force of form should be different, because when the engine can be applied without diminusails are used, she is then acted upon by tion, and with the one-fiftieth part of the two elements, the wind and water, and fuel usually consumed in the present merequires a greater degree of stability to thod. Hence my method of applying the

power of air as a substitute for steam is it is very probable many inaccuracies attended with an economy and advantage may exist, or important facts have eshitherto unequalled.

caped due notice.

If I find any, it will 4th. That the power of the engine in be endeavoured to correct them in the one instance is applied directly and also next number of this Magazine. indirectly, alternately, with or without Fully convinced in my own mind of the intervention of exterior wheels: and the practicability and utility of the whole in the other indirectly, solely by the pres- arrangement, not only as to the propulsion sure of the atmosphere and the gravity of of vessels, but as applied to all mechanical the water, without the intervention of wheels purposes where motion and force is reor other exterior instruments.

quired. I have taken measures to obtain 5th. A boat which unites economy and a right of patent in England, France, convenience in an eminent degree. Germany, and Russia. Circumstances have hurried me into

JOHN I. STAPLES. the matters now given to the public, and Flushing, 25th June, 1818.

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I. I. The cranks attached to the piston A. The boat divested of part of its deck ends of the air pump, condenser, reand side to show the works.

ceiver, and plungers, &c. B. B. The horizontal trunks under the K. M. The furnace with two small forcing bottom of the boat.

pistons to keep up the fire, and also to C. The cylinder of the steam-engine in discharge the smoke into water pear its modified state.

the side of the vessel. D. The air or condensing pump. L. The forcing pistons in the chimnies or E. The receiver.

smoke funnels. F. F. The perpendicular trunk at the N. N. The upright sliding valves in the

side of the vessel in which the plungers submersed trunks to regulate the moact, including the contractors.

tion of the boat. G. The piston-rod of the engine with its N. B. The piston, rods, &c. are eletoothed end.

vated above the deck for the purpose of 31. H. The shape and cross bar or pallet explanation. The contractors" are not between the teeth of the rack.




entitled, The Tribunal of the People, and

; edited by a Society propose to publish A Treatise on the of Gentlemen. .Atonement. By Edward D. Griffin, D.D. A seventh newspaper is commenced in of Newark, N. J.

the county of Ontario, and proposals are Proposals have been issued for publish- issued for the eighth. ing in the City of Washington, a new TANNER, VALLANCE, KEARNY & Co. periodical paper, (three times a week) to be engravers, Philadelphia, propose to pub


lish a new and elegant American Atlas. covered an excellent quality of Compact The materials for the general maps have Peat in this state. On this subject he been selected and arranged by the late read a paper before the Lyceum of NatuJohn H. Eddy, of this city.

ral History, The Rev. J. W. Gibbs, of Andover, John H. Tilge, late from Leipsic in Mass. has “ translated from the Hebrew- Germany, and now a resident in the city German,” and will shortly publish, the of Washington, has discovered a mode of Hebrew Lexicon of W. Gesenius, D. D. stiffening hats, by which they are made Professor of Theology at Halle, Germany. water-proof.

Hats made in this way are JAMES EASTBURN & Co. will speedily as soft, light and pliable as any other. publish Dialogues in Chemistry, by the W.PURNELL, Elkton, Md. has obtainRev. J. Joice. From the third London ed a patent “ for the invention of a Horiedition, corrected and very much en zontal and Perpendicularly Moving Walarged, with an account of all the late ter-Wheel.discoveries, and additional notes by an John D. Weston has opened “a New American Professor of Chemistry. Modelled School” in Philadelphia.

SAMUEL W. CLARK, Hudson, N. Y. In a letter, dated Liverpool, 5th mo. has published The Life, Deeds and Opi- (May) 7th, 1818, Professor GRISCOM nions of Dr. MARTIN LUTBER. Faith- writes to his friend THOMAS Eddy, Esq. fully translated from the German of of this city: “We had with us at RathJohn Frederick William Fischer, Super- bone's a sailor of the name of Scott, who intendent at Plawen in Saxony. By John was six years a prisoner among the Arabs. Kortz. With an Appendix.

He saw Capt. Riley, he says, ten or P. W. GALLAUDET, N. Y. has pub- twelve miles from Mogadore. His story lished The Art of Swimming. Accom- will be published.” panied with illustrative plates. By J. Frost.

In London, an English translation is in COLLINS & Co. New-York, have pub- preparation of “ The History and Process lished Phillips's Mineralogy, with notes of Lithography, or the Art of Printing and additions on American Articles, by Designs from Stone, by the Inventor, Professor Mitchill.

Mr. ALVIS SENNEFELDER, of Munich, URI K. Hill, of the American Conser- (Germany) illustrated with a series of ratory, New York, has published his sa- specimens of Lithographic Art.” cred duetto, Praise ye the Lord. Adapted Dr. A. BROWN, Professor of Rhetorio to the piano forte.

in the University of Edinburgh, who was The New-YORK LITERARY AND PAILO some time resident in the United States, SOPHICAL SOCIETY has limited the num has nearly ready for the press a great ber of its honorary and resident members. work on the Physical, Moral, and Poli

A Society has been lately established tical History of America." in Baltimore, denominated the “ New M. RENOUARD, Paris, has circulated tonian Society of Maryland." The at a specimen of a new edition of Voltaire's tention of this Association is directed to Works, in 60 volumes 8vo. with 160 enNatural History.

gravings. A Medical Society has been established A new volume of the Transactions of at New Orleans : The Medical Society of the Royal Academy of Sciences, Belles Louisiana. The learned Dr. Trabuc is Lettres and Arts, of Pistoja, Italy, has president, and M. Gerardin, secretary, recently appeared. Professor Mitchill has been elected a cor The first volume of RosenMÜLLER'S responding member.

Morgenland, &c. has lately been pubAgricultural Societies in this state are lished at Leipsic. The East, Ancient increasing. One was organized in West and Modern, or Illustrations of Holy Chester county on the 6th of June, 1818. Scripture, derived from the Nature of John, Jay Esq. is president, and William the Country, the Conditions, Manners Jay, secretary.

and Usages of the East. Professor CLEAVELAND, of Bowdoin JOHN WAITAKER, London, publishes College, has been elected an hono- in numbers, The Seraph; a Collection of rary member of the Wernerian Society Sacred Music, suitable to Public or Priin Scotland.

vate Devotion. Consisting of the most DR. BREWSTER's Optical Instrument, celebrated Psalm and Hymn Tunes, with the Kaleidoscope, (see the Monthly Maga- Selections from the Works of Handel, zine for May, p. 63) has been imitated, Haydn, Mozart, Pleyel, &c. &c. To and improved, by a gentleman in this city. which are added, many original Pieces.

Tax Rev. F. C. SCHAEFFER bas dis FISCHEP, of Schaffhausen, (Germany)

has succeeded, by means of powerful Professor BERZELIUS, of Stockholm, heat, in obtaining regulus of Manganese has discovered a new metal, which, from with great facility. It promises to become its resemblance to tellurium, he has called highly useful in the arts.

selenium. It possesses some properties EDMUND Davy, Chemist, and Secre- of tellurium, and also of sulphur. tary to the Cork Institution, has made ARVEDSON, a young Swedish chemist, experiments on the Composition of the has discovered a new fixed alkali, in a Atmospheric Air in the most infected new mineral, called petalite. In its great Wards of the Fever Hospital of that City. capacity for saturating acids, it surpasses It contained precisely the same quantity magnesia. of oxygen gas, 21 per cent. as enters Dr. WEIGEL, of Dresden, has underinto the constitution of the most exposed taken a journey into Italy, for literary and free air.


ART. 11. RELIGIOUS INTELLIGENCE. THE Rev. Dr. Steinkopff, one of the In the East and West Indies it is making

secretaries of the British and Foreign 'great progress, and in short it appears to Bible Society, writes to his correspondent be a great work of Divine Providence to in this city : “ lately we received highly prepare the way for an amelioration of pleasing letters and accounts from seve the state of man-any details of the proveral Roman Catholic Clergymen. One gress of this cause among you, will inof them has distributed since last March, terest us very much. (1817) forty-thousand new Testaments.” “ We should be glad to have every new

The following extract of a letter from account which is published of the state of the treasurer of the British and Foreign your prisons; the public attention among School Society, to Thomas Eddy of New- us is at length roused to this most interestYork, is highly interesting, and may fitly ing and important subject. Our commitbe introduced under this head, inasmuch tee is now presenting plans to governas the Lancasterian system of education ment for a Reformatory for 600 boys, which seems destined to become the most ef. we think combines all the excellencies of ficient coadjutor of Christianity in me- the very best constructed prisons in any liorating the condition of man. Under part of the world. The cost of the building date of March 27th, 1818, the treasurer would be about 50,0001.—the expence of writes :

each prisoner about 201. per head, with“We have got the Lancasterian sys- out any reference to earnings, which tem adopted among the Protestants in the would make a considerable dedaction.south of France, whom I visited last sum- What does each prisoner cost the state mer, and the result has been truly gratify- with you? ing, so that I am constantly receiving “Since Senegal and Goree have been letters from them, announcing the estab- ceded to the French, the slave trade, in all lishment of new schools ; two years ago its horrors, has been revived on that part the great mass of poor cbildren of Protes- of the coast, and several cargoes have tants in France, were without any educa- been dispatched. We have remonstrated tion at all; but if things go on as they do at with the French government, and the present, there is reason to hope that in commandant of Goree has been recalled. two years more most of them will be re- We are in hopes of prevailing with the ceiving instruction. We have just estab- French to concede the right of search, lished the system at Madrid with the as the Spaniards and the Dutch have done; sanction of the king of Spain; also on the and seeing that this would be reciprocal, continent of Europe pretty generally,– I should think that America would not They now have it also in Christophe's part object; the best of all would be for the of Hayti, and I find by recent letters from great powers to declare it piracy, for as Thomas Bosworth, a young man whom we long as it can be covered by any flag, this sent to Petion, that it is now likely to be murderous business will be carried on." established on that side of the Island.

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