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Boyer is a coloured man, about 40 Jacob B. Varnum, factor, Chicago. years old; he was one of the commanders John Fowler, Sulphur Fork county, of who expelled the French invaders of St. Natchitoches. Domingo under Le Clerc and Rocham Geo. W. Gaines, factor, Choctaw trad. beau, and although he is not supposed to ing house, Mississippi. possess as high talents and as comprehen Daniel Hughes, factor, fort Mitchill, sive views on Petion, yet he is reputed to Georgia. be a man of great energy and precision Appointments by the president, with the in business, and accounted a skilful and
concurrence of the senate. intrepid general.
Albion K. Parris, judge of the United UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. States for the District of Maine. The war with the Seminole Indians has Henry Y. Webb, of North Carolina, been vigorously prosecuted by gen. Jack- judge of the Alabama territory. son, who appears to have nearly subdued Victor Adolphus Sasserno, consul of or annihilated them. Geo. J. is said to the United States at Nice, in the kinghave demanded permission of the governor dom of Sardinia. of Pensacola to transport to the head of Jobn P. Marberry, of Ohio, receiver of the bay of Escambia, provisions for his public moneys at Marietta. troops. A most horrid massacre of friend John C. Wright, attorney of the Unily Indians, on the Georgia frontier, has ted States for the district of Ohio. bcen perpetrated by a partizan corps un Augustus Chouteau, commissioner to der the command of one Wright, soi-dis. treat with the Bilinois, Kickapoos, Pottaant captain.
watamies, and other tribes of Indians Appointments.
within the Ilinois territory. Indian Agents, appointed by the presi Robert Walsh, attorney of the United
dent, under the act passed at the late States for the Missouri territory. session of congress, and confirmed by George Washington Campbell, of Tenthe senate.
nessce, envoy extraordinary and minister David B. Mitchell, agent to the Creek plenipotentiary of the United States to nation.
Russia. John M.Kee, agent to the Choctaw na William Clark and Augustus Chouteau, tion.
cornmissioners for holding a treaty with R. J. Meigs, agent to the Cherokee the Quapaw, tribe of Indians. nation.
Jonathan Jennings, Lewis Cass, and Henry Sherburne, agent to the Chick- Benjamin Park, commissioners for holdasaw nation.
ing a treaty with the Indians in the state Thomas Forsyth, agent to the Missouri of Indiana. territory.
Isaac Shelby and Andrew Jackson, John Johnson, agent to fort Wayne commissioners for holding a treaty with and Pique.
the Chickasaw nation of Indians. William Prince, agent to Vincennes. Jobn M.Kee, Wilham Carroll, and
Richard Graham, agent to Illinois ter- Daniel Bnrnet, commissioners to treat ritory.
with the Choctaws. Reuben Lewis, agent to Arkansas. John Brown, of Tennessee, agent for
Nicholas Boilvin, agent to Prairie du taking the census of the Cherokee Indians Chien.
on the east side of the Mississippi river. John Jamieson, ageot to Nachitoches. Wm. Young, of Tennessee, agent for Charles Jourett, agent to Chicago. taking the census of the Cherokee Indians John Bowyer, agent to Green Bay. on the west side of the Mississippi river. Alex. Wolcott, Jun. agent to the lakes. Henry Hitchcock, secretary for the
Jacob Tipton, agent to Michilimacki- tertitory of Alabama. nac.
Samuel Hodges, Jun. of Massachusetts, Superintendent and Factors to the Uni- consul of the United States for the Cape
ted States' trading houses, appointed as de Verd Islands. aforesaid.
James Schee, of Delaware, consul of Thomas L. M-Kenney, superintendent the United States for Genoa. of Indian trade, Georgetown, D. C. Alexander M.Rae, of Virginia, consul
George C. Sibley, factor, Osage trading of the United States for Amsterdam. house, Missouri.
C. A. Murray, consul of the United John W. Johnson, factor, Prairie du States for Gottenburg. Chien, N. W. territory.
Decius Wadsworth, formerly of ConIsaac Rawlings, Jun. factor, Chicka- neeticut, register of the land office for the saw Bluffs, Tennessee.
district of Iloward county, in the Missouri Matthew Irvin, factor, Green Bay. territory:
ART. 13. DOMESTIC OCCURRENCES.
MASEACHUSETTS. THE sea serpent has returned to his old bunch, and placed it in an earthen-jar, co
haunts on the coast of this state ; and, vering it with dry white sand, and put it if we may credit well-attested accounts, has away to be opened on Christmas day. On very much increased in bulk since his last the 29th of the same month, another of the visit.
few remaining bunches was cut off and put Frederick Tudor, Esq. has obtained from away in a similar manner,and was intended to the French government the exclusive privi- be opened on the 1st of February. On Christlege of supplying the islands of Guadaloupe mas day, about twelve weeks from the time and Martinique with ice, for ten years, com I gathered the first bunch, it was taken from mencing on the first of Jan. 1819. The use the jar, as firm and as fresh as when first deof this article has been introduced at hospi- posited. The other was forgotten until the tals, and it is expected, will have the bappy, 22d of February, when it was found quite effect of counteracting the fatal diseases of as sound and perfect as when pulledtropical climates.
from its having been on the vine so much
longer than the first, it was, when pulled, Oliver Wollcott has been re-elected go- rather shirivelled; but this had not increased vernor of this state for the ensuing year. from its long confinement of nearly three
months. As to its taste and excellence it is The ship Sea-Fox, under the command of equal to any before eaten, and infinitely sucapt. Fanning, has performed a voyage from perior to those which, at so much expense the port of New-York, to the South Sea and and trouble, are brought to us from Spain back, in the short period of seven months and Portugal. and twenty-three days, having filled herself
JOHN R. COXE. from stem to stern with oil and skins. Capt. Philadelphia, March 5, 1818. F. states that an extraordinary change of weather has taken place in the vicinity of " Agricultural Society of New Castle Cape Horn, and on the coast of Patagonia County.” Under this title, pursuant to the during the last summer : the winds, which provisions of a law of the 31st Dec. 1817, usually prevailed from the westward, have, there has been a society organized, and a in that time, almost uniformly blown from committee of five appointed to draft ordithe eastward, with frequent gales.
nances, by-laws, and regulations for perpeThe snow on the Catskill mountains is tuating, well ordering and governing the afstated to have been 18 inches deep on the fairs of the society. A resolution was pass17th of April.
ed on the 4th, adjourning the meeting to the
last Saturday of May, inst.—then to meet In this state are published more than 84 at the court-house of New-Castle county, to newspapers, of which 15 are printed in the receive the report of the committee, &i. German language.
A letter from the upper part of this state The following interesting letter was pub- says, the late frosts have entirely destroyed lished in a Philadelphia paper.
the favourable prospects of a wheat crop. Having some fine grape vines in my gar It was estimated that, on the 29th April, den which afforded a luxuriant crop of grapes in one day, 2,000,000 of herrings, besides last fall, I was led to ascertain, with a few great numbers of shad, were taken near of the remaining branches, how long I could Havre de Grace. leave them on the vine, notwithstanding the frosts of the season.-For this purpose, A melancholy instance of hydrophobia I selected about half a dozen bunches, and occurred in Richmond a few weeks ago. A pulled them at various dates, from the ear boy of fourteen, who was bit in the band, liest part of October to the latter part of was attacked with all the symptoms of the November. They continued unaffected by disease about six weeks after the wound the frosts which, during that time, took was entirely bealed. He died in the greatplace :-the only effect produced was a very est agony upon the fourth day. The India slight shrivelling, and which might have stone, generally applied in such cases, was been anticipated from the advanced season placed upon the wound a few hours after of the year. In taste, I think them equal, if the accident happened, and other medical not superior, to those antecedently gathered. remedies were also given. He appeared to
But an extension of the experiment oc- experience no uneasy sensations from the curred to me, perhaps of more utility than time he was bit until the symptoms of the hythe above, and which may give rise to the drophobia appeared; but attended school . preservation of this delightful fruit among as usual. ourselves, for winter use, as we preserve
This furnishes another proof to many apples and other articles of horticultural others. of the inefficacy of the India stone, and agricultural industry. On the 12th of which has frequently sold for several thouOctober, I carefully cut off a very fine sand dollars.
TO MR. POULSON.
By a statement, extracted from the cusThe president and directors of the Neuse tom-house books, and published in the Sariver navigation company, have entered vannah Museum, it appears that no less than into a contract with Mr. John D. Delacey, 61,797 bales of cotton, 13,680 tierces of to open and render the river at all times rice, and 1,500 hhds. of tobacco, were exnavigable, from judge Stone's mill to New- ported from Savannah, from the 1st of Ocbern, for boats of seven tons burthen, tober to the 31st of March last. The value within six months, and for boats of four- of these exports is estimated at $6,264,697. teen tons burthen, within three years. An association for improving the navigaAnother contract, it is expected, will be tion of Savannah river-another for buildmade to bring navigation much, nearer to ing a steam-ship, to ply as a packet between the city,
Savannah and Liverpool, and a third for a Died.] In Richmond county, on the
13th building and insurance bank, have all been day of April, at the seat of colonel T. Pate, fully subscribed for at Savannah. Thomas Hathcock, aged 125 years.
The inhabitants of Huntsville, (which, by Letters from Columbia, in this state, un the late division of territory between Misder date of 28th April, say, the weather, sissippi and Alabama, is located in the latter) during the last week, has been extremely have subscribed $7,200 to clear out Indian cold for the season; in some parts the cold. creek and make it navigable to the Tennesest since Christmas. The damage done by see river. the frost is incalculable. In the low country, where the cotton had attained a con The rapidity with which this remote counsiderable growth, the crops have been en try is populating is astonishing Distance tirely cut off; and in the up-country, the cannot awe the spirit of American entersmall grain has felt its effects, equally se- prise. Arkansas county contains 10,000
Our vegetable and flower gardens males, and Boone's settlement 8000. The kave also suffered severely; and all nature whole population of the territory is now esbear marks of its destructive ravages. What timated at 60,000. Old col. Boone, (says adds much to the evil, is the great scarcity Mr. Niles, the first settler of the powerful of cotton-seed for re-planting, not a tenth of state of Kentucky, yet living, we believe, which it is feared can be procured. who lately seated himself so far up the Mis
souri as to possess a well grounded hope that The season has been very cold, and the a teeming population would not again comfrost has done great injury to the crops, in pel him to seek a new abode, to enjoy unthis as well as the other southern states. molested his favourite manner of life, may
The capital employed in the steam-boat yet be driven to the rocky mountains, and company of Georgia, is 800,000 dollars, di even there be disturbed in 8 or 10 years, if vided into 1600 shares of 500 dollars each. he lives so long.
ART. 14. ANALECTA.
From the Philosophical Magazine. glance of this ice struck me as bearing a ON A CASE OF FORMATION OF ICE ON AN AL strong and marked resemblance to the snoir KALINE SOLUTION. BY MR. GAVIN INGLIS. observed by Dr. Clarke during his stay in To Mr. Tilloch.
St. Petersburg. I immediately sent for that Dear Sir,
volume of his Travels, and on the spot comA CURIOUS case came under my obser- pared the figure given in vol. i. p. 12, and
vation this morning, of a formation of found it was impossible to give a more exice on a solution of ashes. It had so much act representation, than by extending the attracted the attention of the servants be- dimensions of Dr. Clarke's big. 1. The beaufore I got sight of it, that a number of them tiful radiations of this ice must have prowere ranged round the boiler in a state of ceeded from the component parts of the soadmiration, looking at what they called the lution which was made from ashes recoverpattern, alluding to beautiful six-pointed ed from waste lees highly carbonated, constars of the most regular formation which taining some ammonia and a portion of nicovered the surface of the liquor, each point tre. The latter is formed in considerable bearing a most striking resemblance to the quantity in the lees during the operation of termination of a full-spread fern Icaf. The bleaching, particularly when cottons are most beautiful and perfect were in the cen- under operation. The specific gravity of tre, towards the sides the same form of a this solution was 1:115. Two other boilers leaf continued, but they were laid rather containing a solution of carbonate of pot. like a parcel of stars, previously formed, ash, the specific gravity 1.057 and 1-073, thrown confusedly over one another. The were covered with a coat of ice, soft and pocomplete stars measured from the centre to rous, better than an inch in thickness, rather, the point of the figure 24 inches. The first resembling wet snow slightly compressed,
having no regular figure, and little more ad prior to freezing or forming into snow, and hesion than to admit its being taken off in the beautiful regularity of this phenomenon flat pieces: no appearance of lamination proceed from the habitudes of ammoniacal whatever, whereas the laminated ice was crystallization as recorded by Hauy? May thin, solid, and shining.
not this also account for the extraordiDr. Clarke, in bis Travels, 4th edit. vol.i. nary quantity of nitre found in some soils p. 11, marked on the margin “ Extraordi- where deep vegetable mould predominates ? nary Phenomenon,” says," the season began The nitrogen descending with rain or snow, to change before we left Petersburg, the may combine with the potash of decayed cold became daily less intense, and the in- vegetables already existing in the soil, and habitants were busied in moving from the become the parent of this native salt. Or Neva large blocks of ice into their cellars. can it be possible that the mere abstraction A most iuteresting and remarkable pheno- of caloric has any share in the formation of menon took place the day before our de- potash, and hence nitre? It is well known parture; the thermometer of Fahrenheit that frost alone produces in potatoes a sacindicating only nine degrees of temperature charine matter that renders them sensibly below the freezing point, and there was no sweet to the taste. It is also known to you, wind. At this time snow, in the most regu- that potatoes once gone into putrefaction by lar and beautiful crystals, fell gently upon the effects of frosts, contain nilre in such our clothes, and upon the sledge as we were quantity as to answer the purpose of makdriving through the street. All of these ing match paper : before the potato undercrystals possessed exactly the same figure goes these changes by the effects of frost and the same dimensions. Every one of and putrefaction, no saccharine matter is them consisted of a wheel, or star, with six perceptible, nor nitre to be found : from equal rays, bounded by circumferences of whence come they? equal diameters; having all the same num
I remain, dear sir, yours, bers of rays branching from a common cen
GAVIN INGLIS. tre. The size of each of those little stars Feb. 6, 1818. was equal to the circle presented by the section of a pea into two equal parts. This appearance continued during three hours, The Eden British sloop of war (new), in which time no other snow fell; and which was lately sunk in Hamoaze, to enas there was sufficient leisure to examine deavour to cure ber of the dry rot, has been them with the strictest attention, we made raised, commissioned, and taken into dock. the representation given in fig. 1.
On opening her, she has been found defec“ Water in its crystallization seems to tive in every part, and must undergo a consist of radii diverging from a common thorough repair. The Topaz frigate, also 'centre, by observing the usual appearances ordered for commission, which was repairon the surface of ice :-perhaps therefore it ed not long since, is found to be in the same may be possible to obtain the theory and to state. The Dartmouth frigate, built at Dartascertain the laws from which this structure mouth, three years old, never at sea, is also results.
undergoing a complete repair. Not a ship “ Monge, president of the National Insti- is taken into dock but is found to be nearly tute of Paris, noticed in falling snow, stars rotten. The very best ships do not average with six equal rays descending, during win more than twelve years existence. The San ter, when the atmosphere was calm. Hauy Domingo, 74, was ripped up (four years old) pecords this in his observations on the mu at Portsmouth. The Queen Charlotte, 110, riate of ammonia."
was built at Woolwich, sent round to Ply. As all regular crystallization must be go- mouth, found rotten, and underwent a. verned by, and depend on, some unaltera. thorough repair; she was also several months ble laws in nature, I have no doubt but the under the care of Dr. Lukin, an admiralty Russian snow observed by Dr. Clarke, and chemist, who received 50001. for his ineffecthe Parisian stars noticed by M. Monge, and tual labours to stop the progress of vegetathe above radiations on this alkaline solu- tion in the ship. ` After a short cruise, the tion, were identically from the same cause Queen Charlotte was laid up at Portsmouth, the presence of ammonia and nitre in where she remains in a very defective state. both. The quantity of ammonia produced in large cities must be immense : independent of every other source, what must be formed in the ordinary culinary operations It is, at present, the general belief that the of the kitchen ? this must be driven into the two celebrated cities of Pompeii and Heratmosphere. From the same source nitro- culaneum were overwhelmed and destroy. gen per se may be supplied in no mean quan- ed by an eruption of Vesuvius in the year tity, or liberated by the decomposition of a 79. "It is now, however, maintained, that portion of the ammonia. May not conden- this was not the case. Pompeii is said to be sation be of use in atmospherical combina- covered by a bed of lapillo, of the same nations, and nitrates as well as ammoniacal ture as that we observe daily forming by the salts formed, and the aqueous vapours im- agency of water on the shore at Naples : pregnated with these saline productions, while Herculaneum is covered by a series of VOL. III.No. n.
NEW OPINION IN REGARD TO POMPEII AND
MANUSCRIPTS OF HERCULANEUM.
COUNT VON KUNHEIM.
strata, altogether forming a mass sixty feet
POLAR ICE. thick, of a tuff having the characters of Prosessor Parrot, in Dorpat, has written those tuffs formed by water. From the facts on the freezing of the salt water, in respect just stated, it is conjectured that the cities to the origin of the polar ice. Though naviwere destroyed by a rising of the waters, gators say that the polar ice contains no which deposited over them the stratified salt, yet the author thinks and proves that rocks, and not by matter thrown from Vesu mere tasting cannot decide the problem. 11 vius. It is also said, that no eruption of the ice in the polar regions contains no salt, Vesuvius took place in the year 79. it cannot be frozen sea water, but ice of
glaciers, which cover the pole of our earth,
and to which our European glaciers are A letter from Naples says--- Among the from the glaciers is lighter than the sea wa
mere mole hills. The unsalt water fowing manuscripts discovered at Herculaneum, ter, and consequently keeps on the surface, there is a copy of Justin, and one of Aulus makes the latter less salt, and thus more liaGellius, in such a state of preservation that ble to freeze. Therefore, the ice which cothe persons appointed to decypher these manuscripts are able to read them almost continue to increase, every year, in beight
vers the polar regions must increase, and without any difficulty. This discovery is and extent; for this reason the climate of the more valuable, on account of the alter- Iceland and Greenland becomes continually ations that are known to have been made in the texts of these two authors ; and be and more of the inhabitable surface, &c.
more severe, and those countries lose more cause the eighth book of the Noctes Allice of Aulus Gellius, which was lost, is now recovered.
The following article is from a German Journal:
Lieutenant-general count Von Kunheim, A new comet has been discovered in the an officer in the Prussian service, the last constellation of the Swan. It was first ob- branch of the family of Dr. Martin Luther, served on the 26th of December last, by M. died recently at Koningsberg, at the ad. Blanpain, at Marseilles, who has communi- vanced age of 88. The general was de. cated to the Bureau of Longitude at Paris scended in a direct line from the daughter his observations upon it down to the 18th of of Luther, who, in 1555, married George January. The astronomers of Paris have Von Kunheim, lord of Mulhausen, Sasseiheen since constantly on the watch ; but, neu, &c. by whom he had nine children. It in consequence of a very cloudy state of is well known that the line of the male dethe heavens, they have not yet been able to scendants of Martin Luther became extinct discern it. The movement of the comet, as with Martin Gottlob Luther, an advocate of described by M. Blanpain, is very slow, its the regency of Dresden; but there still reright ascension increasing only seven mi- main in Prussia several descendants of Marnutes in twenty-four hours, and its declina- garet Luther, the only daughter of the retion, in the same time, not diminishing more former, from whom general count Von Kunthan from thirty-three to thirty-five minutes. heim descended in a direct line. Margaret The observations of M. Blanpain embrace Luther was born in 1634, and was twelve but a very small arc. M. Nicollet has, how- years of age at the death of her father. She ever, deduced from them a parabolic orbit, herself died in 1570. which, though only a mere approximation to correctness, may enable observers for some time to trace pretty exactly the course The storm of the 23d of February, from of the comet. According to his calculations the effects of which our shores were exit would pass its point nearest to the sun empted, spread its ravages over the greatest on the 3d of March last, at fifteen minutes part of Europe. At Turin, it was attended past eleven. Its peribeliel distance will be with two shocks of an earthquake. Genoa, equal to 1:12567, that of the earth to the sun Savona, Alanco, and San Remo, were being taken for unity.
thrown into the greatest consternation for The inclination of its orbit
two days by repeated concussions, and sey. to the ecliptic
S8° 38' eral houses were partly demolished at Alazes, Longitude of the ascending
but happily no lives lost. At Antibes, in node
5 Provence, the whole day (the 230 of FeLongitude of perihelium,
bruary) had been very tempestuous.-- About calculated by the orbit =187 32 four minutes past seven in the evening a
Its heliocentric movement is direct. most tremendous rush of wind took place,
As yet, there is nothing very interesting in and was followed by an instantaneous calmn. its physical appearances. In the first days A dull subterranean noise was heard, the of January it resembled a small nebulous sea suddenly dashed against the rocks, and body, not of any determined form, and of a in the space of three seconds three oscillavery feeble light. On the 18th it appeared tions of the earth were felt in a direction sensibly augmented, both in size and bril- from the S. E. to the N. W. The wind then liancy
rose again, and all the violence of the storm