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done, and some remorse for having deceiv. A circumstance almost incredible, and ed his employers.

which seems to breathe all the sanguinary Lukawski and Strawenski were both bigotry of the sixteenth century, I cannot taken, and several of the other assassins. omit. It is that the papal nuncio in Poland, At his majesty's peculiar request and en- inspired with a furious zeal against the disa treaty, the diet remitted the capital punish- sidents, whom he believed to be protected ment of the inferior conspirators, and con- by the king, not only approved the scheme demned them to work for life on the forti- for assassinating his majesty, but blessed the fications of Kaminiec, where they now are. weapons of the conspirators at Czetscho. By his intercession likewise with the diet, how, previous to their setting out on their the horrible punishment and various modes expedition. This is a fact indisputably true, of torture, which the laws of Poland de- and scarcely to be exceeded by any thing cree and inflict on regicides, were mitiga- under the reign of Charles IX. of Franco, ted; and both Lukawski and Strawenski and of his mother Catherine de Medicis. were only simply beheaded. Kosinski was detained under a very strict confinement, and obliged to give evidence against his two companions. A person of distinction who NEW VIEW OF LONDON. saw them both die, has assured me, that As we make very free in our observations nothing could be more noble and manly on foreign countries, so do foreigners make than ali Lukawski's conduct previous to his very free in their criticisms upon England. death. When he was carried to the place The following appeared in a Ghent paper of execution, although his body was almost extremely hostile to Great Britain, and, extenuated by the severity of his confine- though it may be amusing to read, is so fu. ment, diet and treatment, his spirit unsub- riously intolerant and unjust, that we can. dued, raised him above the terrors of an in- not, in speaking of it, say even, Fas est ab famous and public execution. He had not hoste doceri. been permitted to shave his beard while in

Bruges, Jan. 9, 1818. prison, and his dress was squalid to the SIR, greatest degree ; yet none of these humilia. Curiosity induced me, a short time ago, tions could depress his mind. With a gran- to visit London, where I remained about a deur of soul worthy of a better cause, but fortnight. Assuredly no one will deny that which it was impossible not to admire, he it is the largest city in Europe, and, withrefused to see or cmbrace the traitor Kosin- out contradiction, it is at present the richest ski. When conducted to the scene of ex in the world; but I must confess I was not ecntion, which was about a mile from War a little astonished to find the noblemen and saw, he betrayed no emotions of terror or citizens so wealthy, and their houses so nnmanly fear. He made a short harangue mean and pitiable. Though in England to the multitude assembled upon the occa- manufactures are carried to the highest sion, in which he by no means expressed point of perfection, yet painting, sculpture, any sorrow for his past conducts or contri- and architecture, are more backward than tion for his attempt on the king, which he in any other kingdom in Europe ;- but in a probably regarded as meritorious and patri- country where people of exalted rank abanotic. His head was severed from his body. don themselves to intemperate drinking and

Strawenski was beheaded at the same dissipation of every kind, where the grand time, but he neither harangued the people, object of the nobility is to purchase votes nor showed any signs of contrition. Pu. to obtain seats in parliament, it is not surlaski, who commanded one of the many prising that the arts and sciences should be corps of confederate Poles then in arms, neglected. and who was the great agent and promoter The best nobleman's residence in Lon. of the assassination is still alive,* though an don cannot be compared to one of secondoutlaw and an exile. He is said, even by the ary rank in Paris. " Except St. Paul's CaRussians his enemies, to possess military ta- thedral, Westminster Abbey, and the new lents of a very superior nature, nor were Waterloo Bridge, there is no public edifice they ever able to take him prisoner during worthy of notice. A small triumphal arch the civil war.

is to be erected in St. James's park, which To return to Kosinski, the man who saved will doubtless be an excellent specimen of the king's life :- About a week after Lukaw- English architecture, for the elegant design ski and Strawenski's execution, he was sent of M. ****, of Ghent, was rejected for no hy his majesty out of Poland. He now re- other reason than because he was not an sides at Semigallia, in the papal territories, English artist. Thousands of Englishmen where he cnjoys an annual pension from are at present travelling in all quarters of the king.

Europe ;-is it not astunishing that none of

their inen of learning should import to their . After the conclusion of these troubles, Pu- native country some of the beautiful models laski escaped from Poland, and repaired to of architecture which they see on the con. America. He distinguished himself in the Ame- tinent? Can they pass through Autun with. rican service, and was killed in the attempt to out admiring its triumphal arch? There is a force the British lines at the siege of Savannah, noble design which they might copy. The 1779.

grand entrance gate of Berlin, which is in

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the Doric style, migbt likewise be worthy February, 1814, baron de Humboldt was one of their notice : but they will bestow no at- of the plenipotentiaries of the allied powers, tention on the magnificent monuments they who assembled at Chatillon-sur-Seine, to meet with, and prefer following their own negotiate for peace with France. At the conbad taste; for they have no more notion of gress of Vienna he was distinguished for taarchitecture than of music. They do not lent and extensive knowledge. He was one scruple to expend enormous sums on ob- of the principal authors of the plan for a jects, the value of which they are incapable constitution, the discussion of which conof appreciating. I went to view the new tinued until the 16th of November, 1814. He church erected at Marylebone, under the di- was likewise a member of the general comrection of earl Grosvenor. I thought it mittee of the eight powers who signed the wretched; built without any regard either peace of Paris, for the questions relative to to taste or principles: the meanest archi- the abolition of the slave trade. On the 13th tect on the continent would have blushed of March, 1815, he signed the first declara, at the very thought of proposing such a de. tion of the same powers, concerning Napo. sign. I likewise saw the new square in Wa- leon Bonaparte's return from Elba; and, terloo-Place. It is built of bricks and mor on the 12th of May following, the second tar, and will serve, perhaps, for a few years, declaration, which may be regarded as tho to charm the eyes of the prince regent, last profession of faith made by the Euro. whose knowledge of arehitecture is not re- pean powers. In the course of the same markably extensive.

month, he likewise concluded with Saxony A monument is to be erected to the me a treaty of peace, by which the king of Sax. mory of the beloved and regretted princess ony renounced, in favour of Prussia, his Charlotte of Wales. This statue is to be claims to various provinces and districts. executed by an English Sculptor, instead of This treaty was signed at Vienna on the 18th being entrusted to the most celebrated sta- of May, and ratified on the 21st. Towards tuary in the world (Canova,) who would the end of the year 1816, M. de Humboldt have created a model fit for the study of was appointed ambassador extraordinary young artists. It is a singular fact, that I and minister plenipotentiary to the court of never observed, either at Carlton House or Vienna; he was, however, recalled in Fethe palaces at Windsor or Brighton, a single bruary, 1816, and in the month of July was production of that eminent artist. A new sent to Frankfort, to negotiate respecting custom-house has recently been erected in territorial arrangements, and to be present the vicinity of London bridge.' It is built at the diet of the Germanic confederation. on an immense scale, and in a style resem. In October he laid before the members of the hling the gloomy gothic monuments of the diet, a memorial respecting the mode of ages of ignorance.

treating the affairs which might be submit. After having visited the two grand thea. ted to their discussion. As a reward for his tres (which are very inconsiderable with services, the king of Prussia, about this time, regard to size,) and the shops, in which created him a member of the council of are deposited the rich productions of Eng- state, and granted him a donation amounting glish commerce, I spent several days in to the annual value of five thousand erowns. walking about the town, without experi- About the commencement of 1817, M. de encing any other emotion than that of ex. Humboldt was appointed ambassador to treme fatigue. At length, heartily tired of London, in the room of M. Jacobi Kloest. a city in which all is noise, bustle, and con. Though M. de Humboldt has acquired so fusion, I joyfully embarked on board a brilliant a reputation as a diplomatist, bis packet-boat, and returned to Bruges. literary attainments are by no means vnim

Lon. Lit. Gaz. portant. He has produced an excellent trans

lation of Pindar, and a poetical translation BIOGRAPHY

of Æschylus's tragedy of Agamemnon, which appeared in 1816.

If it be matter of surprise that, amidst the BARON C. W. DE HUMBOLDT.

important affairs with which this minister We have deferred, till our next Number, has been entrusted, he should have found the continuation of the review of M. Hum- time to complete a work which required no holdt's new work, in order to make room less erudition than poetic genius, our astofor a biographical account of that distin- nishment is increased two-fold on reading guished traveller, and his brother, the pre- the translation. He has imitated the Greek sent Prussian ambassador at the court of metre, both in the dialogue and chorusses ; London.

and the translation is altogether so faithful, Baron Charles William de Humboldt, mi. that it gives the original not only line for nister of state, and privy-counsellor of the line, but word for word. Finally, it is an efking of Prussia, chief of the department for fort of which perhaps the German language superintending religion, and director-gene. alone is capable. It is equally remarkable ral of public education, was, in 1810, ap- that M. de Humboldt has studied the Basque pointed ambassador extraordinary to the language to a greater extent than any other court of Vienna, and created a knight of the literary character. During his travels, he Red Eagle. He had previously been minis- chanced to live in the house of a Biscayan ter from Prussia to the court of Rome. In curate. The good pastor spoke of his native

language with so much enthusiasm, that the that he might easily find means to proceed traveller determined to reside for several from Spain to Barbary, he set out for the weeks in the village in order to acquire it. former country, carrying with him a consi. He read every work that is printed in the derable collection of physical and astronoBasque language, and all the manuscripts hemical instruments. After remaining several could procure, and thus enabled himself to months at Madrid, the Spanish government communicate to the rest of Europe an ori- granted him permission to visit their colonies ginal and almost unknown language, which in the new world. He immediately wrote bears no resemblance to any other. M. de to Paris, to request that M. Bonpland would Humboldt has published a Basque vocabu- accompany him, and the two friends emlary consisting of about 6000 words, in the barked at Corunna, on board a Spanish ves4th volume of Adelung's Mithridates, con- sel. They arrived at Cumana, in South Ametinued by M. Vater, Berlin, 1817.

rica, in July 1799. The remainder of the BARON F. H. A. DE HUMBOLDT. year was spent in visiting the provinces of Frederick Henry Alexander, baron de New Andalusia and Spanish Guyana. They Humboldt, a celebrated traveller, brother returned to Cumana by the mission of the to the individual before mentioned, was Caraibees, and in 1800 proceeded to the isl. born at Berlin on the 14th of Sept. 1769. and of Cuba, where, in the space of three He pursued his studies at Gottingen, at months, M. de Humboldt determined the Frankfort on the Oder, and lastly, at the longitude of the Havanna, and assisted the Commercial School at Hamburgh, (see planters in constructing furnaces for the preBuch's Universal Biography.) In 1790 he paration of sugar. In 1801, several false reundertook his first journey throagh Europe, ports were circulated respecting the voyage accompanied by Forster and Geuns. He of capt. Baudin, which induced M. de Hum. visited the banks of the Rhine, Holland, and boldt to form the design of meeting him; bat England, and published his Observations on in order to avoid accidents he sent bis colthe Basaltes of the Rhine, Brunswick, 1790, lections and manuscripts to Europe, and set 8vo. In 1791, he studied mineralogy and out himself in the month of March. The unbotany, under Werner, at Freiberg; and in favourable state of the weather, however, 1793, printed at Berlin, his Specimen Flore prevented him from pursuing the course he Freibergensis Sublerrana. In 1792, he be- had traced out; and he resolved to visit the came assessor of tire council of mines at superb collection of Mutis, a celebrated Ame. Berlin, and aftewards director-general of the rican naturalist. In September, 1801, M. de inines of the principality of Anspach and Humboldt set out for Quito, where he arrived Bayreuth, in Franconia. There he founded in the month of January, 1802. There he several magnificent establishments, such as was at length able to repose after his fatigues, the School of Steben, and was likewise one and to enjoy the pleasures of hospitality of the first who repeated the five experi- amidst the most beautiful productions of naments of Galvani. Not satisfied with merely ture. At Quito, M. de Humboldt, accompanied observing the muscular and nervous irrita- by the son of the Marques de Selva Alegre, bility of animals, he had the courage to (who, through an ardent passion for science, make very painful experiments on himself, had never quitted him since his arrival,) dethe results of which he published, with re termined on an enterprise, the execution of marks by Blumenbach, in a work written in which cost him incredible labour. Finally, German, Berlin, 1796, 2 vols. 8vo. The first he departed, towards the middle of the sumvolume bas been translated into French by mer, for the volcano of Tungaragno and the J. F. N. Jadelot, under the following title : Nevado del Chimborazo. They passed Experiences sur le Galvanisme, et en general through the ruins ot Riobamba, and several sur l'irritation des Fibres Musculaires et Ner- other villages, destroyed on the 7th of Feb. veuses, 1799, 8vo. In 1795, M. de Humboldt 1797, by an earthquake, which in one motravelled to Italy and Switzerland, accom ment swallowed up more than 40,000 indipanied by M. de Friedeleben; and in 1797, viduals, and ultimately, after innumerable he proceeded with his brother to Paris, difficulties, arrived, on the 23d of June, on where be became acquainted with M. Aime the eastern side of Chimborazo, and fixed Bonpland. At that time he entertained a their instruments on the brink of a porphyry wish to form part of the expedition of cap. rock,which projected over an immense space Baodin; but the renewal of hostilities with covered with an impenetrable bed of snow. Austria prevented him from embarking. M. A breach, about five hundred feet in width, de Humboldt now turned his thoughts seri- prevented them from advancing further. ously towards executing a plan which he The density of the air was one-halt reduced; had long since formed, namely, of making they experienced the bitterest cold; they a philosophic visit to the east. He anxiously breathed with difficulty, and the blood Nowwished to join the expedition which had de- ed from their eyes, lips, and gums. They parted for Egypt, from whence he hoped to were then on the most elevated point that penetrate as far as Arabia, and then to the had ever been touched by mortal footsteps. English settlements by crossing the Persian They stood at an elevation of 3485 feet Gult. He waited two months at Marseilles higher than that which Condamine attained to obtain his passage on board a Swedish in 1745, and were consequently 19,500 feet "frigate, which was to convey a consul from above the level of the sea. From this posiSweden to Algiers. At leagth, supposing tion of extreme height they ascertained, by


means of a trigonometrical operation, that genes de l'Amerique, 1811 ; 2 vols. large fothe summit of Chimborazo was 2140 feet lio, with plates, 1814, 2 vols. 8v0.3. Rehigher than the point on which they stood. cueil d'Observations Astronomiques, et de NeHaving concluded these important observa sures executees dans le Nouveau Continent, 2 tions, M. de Humboldt directed his course to vols. 4to. M. de Humboldt has neglected uo wards Lima, the capital of Peru. He remain means of verifying his calculations. Ile has ed for several months in that city, enchant- submitted to the examination of the Bureau ed with the vivacity and intelligence of its de Longitude, a portion of his astronomical inhabitants. During his residence among the observations on lunar distances,and the eclipPeruvians, he observed, at the port of Cal ses of the satellites of Jupiter. Nearly 500 lao, the emersion of the passage of Mercury, barometrical heights have, moreover, been on the disk of the sun. From Lima he pro- calculated by M. Prony, according to the ceeded to New Spain, where he remained formula of M. La Place.-4. Essai sur la for the space of a year; he arrived at Mexico Geographie des Plantes, ou Tableau Physique in April, 1803. In the neighbourhood of des Regions Equinoxiales, fonde sur des Ob. that city he discovered the trunk of the fa servations et des mesures failes depuis le 10° mous Cheirostemon Platonoides, the only tree degre de latitude australe, jusqu'au 10° degre of that species that is to be seen in New de latitude boreale ; 4to. with a large plate. Spain: it has existed since the remotest ages, 5. Plantes Equinociales, recueillies au Mex. and is nine yards in circumference. The la- ique, dans l'Isle de Cuba, dans le Provinces, bours of M. de Humboldt were now drawing de Caracas, de Cumana, &c. 2 vols. folio. to a close. He made several excursions dur- 6. Monographie de Melastomes ; 2 vols. folio. ing the months of January and February —7. Nova Genera et Species Plantarum; 3 1804; but they were his last, and he hasten- vols. folio.-8. Recueil d'Observation de ed to embark for the Havanna. In July he Zoologie et d'Anatomie comparees, faites dans set sail for Philadelphia, and after having re un Voyage aux Tropiques ; 2 vols. 4to.-9. sided for some time in the United States, he Essai Politique sur la Nouvelle Espagne; erossed the Atlantic and arrived in France, 1811, 2 vols. 4to, with a folio atlas, or 5 vols. after an absence of six years, marked by 8vo. with plates.-10. Physique General et labours the most useful and satisfactory, Geologie ; 1 vol. 4to, (not yet published.) though filled with fatigue, dangers, and dis 11. Ansichten der Natur ; Tubingen, 1808, tress, of every kind. During his travels, M. 8vo.; translated into French by M. Eyries, ele Humboldt rectified, by the most exact under the superintendence of the author. operations, the errors which had been com 12. De Distributione Geographica, Plantainitted in fixing the geographical positions of rum secundum Cæli lemperiem et altitudinem most of the points of the New World. He montium prolegomena; Paris, 1817; 8v0.has likewise discovered a very ingenious 13. Sur l'Elevation des Montagnes de l'Inde ; method, preferable to any description, for 8vo. M. Humboldt and M. Bonpland hav. demonstrating, under a single point of view, ing shared together all the fatigues and danthe accumulated results of his topographi- gers of their journey, agreed that their cal and mineralogical observations. He has works should be published under the names given profiles of the vertical sections of the of both; the preface of each work explaincountries he visited. The herbal which he ing to whom such and such a portion is spebrought with him from Mexico, is one of the cifically due. M. de Humboldt also laboured richest in exotic plants that was ever trans in common with M. de Guy-Lussut. They ported to Europe: it contains 6300 different conjointly verified the theory of M. Biol, on species. Animated by an ardent desire for the position of the magnetic equator; and making discoveries, and endowed with the ascertained that great chains of mountains, means of satisfying this noble ambition, M. and even burning volcanos, have no sensible de Humboldt has extended his researches to influence on the magnetic power, and that every branch of physical and social know- this power progressively diminishes in proledge. The mass of curious information, portion as we depart from the terrestrial which he collected in the New World, sur equator. The narratives of M. de Humboldt's passes all that has ever resulted from the in- voyages have been published in several difvestigations of any other individual. He has ferent languages; but he bas disavowed diffused a new light over the history of our them by publishing those which we have species, extended the limits of mathematical mentioned in the course of this article. It geograpby, and added an infinite number of lias been stated in several public journals, new objects to the treasures of botany, zoo that this indefatigable traveller intends visitlogy, and mineralogy. These precious ac. ing the Alps of Thibet, the most elevated quisitions, each classed in the order to which point of which is said to be 2700 feet higher they belong, were published in 1805, and than Chimborazo. At one of the sittings of several succeeding years, at Paris, Ham- the French Academy, in 1817, M. de Humburgh, and London, in the following man boldt produced his chart of the river Oronooner:- 1. Voyage aux Regions Equinoxiales ko, which presents the phenomenon of the du Noveau Continent, pendant les Annees junction of that immense river with the Ama. 1799, 1800, 1801, 1802, 1803, et 1804:4 vols. zon, by the intermediate waters of the Rio 4to. The first published in 1814–1817, lias Negro; a coufluence which was supposed to likewise appeared in 4 vols. 8vo.-2. l'ues evst by d'Anville, but which had hitherto rede Cordilieres el Monuments des Peuples indi nained a inatter of doubt.-Lon. Lil. Gas.


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On the Propulsion of Navigable Bodies. spent on board to propel it through water,

fits this great country experiences applied from the shore, the pecessity for
from its incprovements in nautical me the excess must proceed, not from any
chanism, and the extraordinary magni- imperfection in the engine, but from cir-
tude of the vessels actuated by mechani- cumstances connected with the machi-
cal power, are circumstances that infal- nery, actuated by it as a primum mo-
libly excite the attention of an European bile," and the medium (i. e. water) upon
on his arrival in the United States. The which it operates.
Brooklyn steam-ferry-boat was the first That power is unavoidably lost in the
moving object that arrested my attention friction of the wheels giving motion to the
as I entered the port of New-York. The water-wheel is obvious, and some allow-
effect, to me who bad Dever witnessed ance must be made on that account, but
the spontaneous march of the huge fabric, the amount of that loss bears but a small
laden with carriages, horses and men, proportion to the total deficiency-the re-
now glidiog past our ship, was delightful, mainder must therefore be attributable to
and impressed upon my imagination a other causes which I will endeavour to
more elevated idea of the enterprising point out.
spirit of the New World, than would the Let us for a moment suppose the two
most lofty panegyric, unaccompanied by vessels forming the Nassau ferry-boat, to
the test before me.

float, connectedly as they now do, but Thus forcibly impressed, before I had each in a separate canal

, divided by a even touched the American shores, an firin bank, and that the water-wheel, inhabitual fondness for investigation, bås stead of acting against water, rolled upon subsequently impelled me to study the pro- solid ground, as quickly as it now turns, gressive history of mechanical pavigation, (i. e. 20 times per minute,) the result from the obscure hints of the first projec- would be an advance of the boat, as rapid tors of the steam-engine, to the more as the revolution of the wheel, w ich, finished works of Fulton. In the course taking its actual measurement of 12-6 of my pursuits, the latent principles of diameter, would give a pace of nine miles action were developed, and it became ob- per hour. But we find by experience, vious that, notwithstanding the excellence that although the water-wheel of this already attained, the machine was still boat does actually revolve at the rate of imperfect-imperfect in its original prin- nine miles per hour, the boat never adciple, and that there yet remained a wide vances through the water, more than five unlocated field for the introduction of im- and a half miles. Whence this enormous portant improvements.

deficiency? Comparing the magnitude of vessels The paddles of water-wheels impinge with the power ordinarily expended in upon unsolid matter, that yields to the their propulsion, there seemed to be a stroke, and one-third of their velocity is great disparity, and the fact became in- spent in agitating the water into which disputable, when I reflected, that, on the they dip: thus, every three feet of the canals in England, barges carrying thirty wheels' motions imparts two to the boat, tops, and themselves weighing at least and one in opposite course to the water. fifteen tons, making a total gravity of The powers thus expended, in producing forty-five tons, (measured by the displace- these opposite motions, are, as the squares ment of water), are towed, through still of their velocitics, and, therefore, onewater, five miles per hour by one horse. fifth of the primum mobile, is thus lost to But here the Brooklyn twin ferry-boat, every useful purpose. each half being shaped like the English To illustrate this position more sensibly, canal barges, displaces only four times let us again imagine the vessel placed in the bulk of water, (i. e. 180 tons,) and the double canal, above instanced, but yet advances but five and a half miles per that the dividing bank, upon which the hour through the water, her engine ex wheel rolls, consists of loose sand, instead erting a power equal to that of twenty- of hard ground, the sand will then slip four horses.

back with the wheel, and inasmuch as it Now it is manifest that the power of a does slip back, so much will the motion steam-engine must be the same, whether of the boat be less than that of the wheel. exerted on board a vessel or on shore; The effect in water is similar, except that and, therefore, if a greater power be water, consisting of more minute, stoothVOL. III.-No. II.


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