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The Afghauns* constitute the third Asi- the eastern provinces of Persia, the orialic people, among whom we discern con ental including the conquered parts of siderable proofs of a meliorated state of Hindustaun, and the northern stretching society, and a practical consciousness of over the snowy peaks of Hindu Kosh (or the value of liberty, at least equal to that Caucasus) into the regions of Tartary. A of many European nations.

line carried from the southern to the Afghaunistaun contains, within a loosely northern limits, and again to the western calculated circuit of two thousand miles, confines from the castern boundaries, may more or less, a population of fourteen be conceived as the general diameter of a millions.

circumference of two thousand miles. The The name and importance of the Af- ranges of Hinda Kosh proceed in irregughauns are conspicuous in the early pe- lar lines from the north through nearly riods of the modern history of Hindús- the whole of this tract. The country is taun. The territories inhabited by that divided between mountain and valley, brave and rising people extend in the though many plains of considerable extent form of an imperfect circle, the western (those of Caubul and Peshawer are presection of which is composed of some of eminently fertile and beautiful) intervene

between the arms of Caucasus, and afford * Mr. Elphinstone's " Account of Carbulhas space and pasture to the wandering tribes. furnished the materials for the observations in The Sind and its branches are the printhe text During the government of lord Minto, cipal streams, but innumerable rivulets, in British India, and by his direction, Mr. El formed by the melting of the snows in phinstone was charged with a mission to the the superior cavities of Hindů Kosh, amfrom the possible invasion of India by Napoleon, ply suffice for the purposes of irrigation and the known endeavours of the Imperial Go- in those parts of the country that are devernment to effect a good understanding with ficient in great rivers. CAUBUL, PESHthe states of Western Asia, appear to have been AWER, Ghaznah, Candahar, and Heraut, the causes of the embassy, the preparations for which were made at Delhi with a magnificence of Peshawer be taken as the criterion of

are the chief cities; and if the population extraordinary even in the East. Audience was given at Peshawer (the second city of Caubul.) that of the other towns above mentioned,

Mr. Ephinstone's work is divided into two we shall find that about 1-28th of the whole parts—The first and shortest, embraces the jour people of Afghaunistaun is resident in ney to and from Peshawer, beyond which city cities immemorially celebrated as seats of the convulsed state of the country prevented hiin Asiatic politeness and science. The clifrom proceeding ;-the second contains a regular, minute, and admirably-digested account of the mate is healthy, and unsubject to the degeography, productions, animals, &c. of Caubul; pressing and overpowering beats of the the inhabitants, their dispositions, attainments, Indian heavens; but the monsoons rage manners, &c.; the tribes composing the popula- with awful violence, and during the petion ; the dependent provinces; and, lastly, the riods of their stay, the sheety rains and government. Five appendices are added; the first-a bistory of the Dooraunee monarchy; the raving winds transcend the wildest from the Ahmed Shauh to Shauh Shaja, the so storms of Europe. The productions of vereign in possession when the English ambas- both hemispheres abound and flourish in sador arrived at Peshawer;-the seconda nar the generally rich soil and temperate atrative of a journey into Caubal by one Mr. Durie, (a native of Bengal,) written at Mr. El mosphere of Caubul. phinstone's request;-ihe third-an account of

Afghaunistaun has seen the rise in her countries bordering on the Afghaun dominions ;- bosom of the most powerful Muslim states. the fourth---an extract from lieut. Macartney's To Hindústaun she has sent forth her cogeographical memoir on Caubul ;—the fifth-a lonies of conquerors and kings, and but vocabulary of the Pushtoo language, the general for the superior fortune of the descendants from any other spoken in India. Such are the of Timour, the present shadow of an emcontents of Mr. Elphinstone's valuable and in- peror might have been an Afghaun. On teresting work; bui, to form an adequate idea of the west they have pushed their victorious its great merits, the mass of information of al arms into Iraun, and the expulsion of the most every description which it includes, the Sefies was the work of an Afghaun mouncorrectness and clearness of its arrangement, taineer, in whose name the Khootba rethe sound and discriminating judginent so conspicaous throughout the volume ; the masterly sounded in the musjids of Isfahaun-and manner, in brief, in which the author has man- whose dynasty gave way only to that aged a subject at once so extensive and com- mighty chief, who, from the humblest obplex, and the exemplary modesty which renders scurity, burst forth into greatness and rehim so anxious that his attainments shall not be nown and bound the diadem of Persia overrated--to become acquainted with these combined claims to the reader's applause, is not round the brows of a hero, and sent out possible without a careful perusal of the work afar the tidings of his exploits, and called itself,

up the reverence of the East for the name

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of NADIR. Previously, however, to the to free his compatriots from the yoke of
appearance and reign of Ahmed, the Af- foreigners, and the reward he proposed to
ghauns, though thus powerfully interfering himself was the sovereignty of his coun.
in the concerns of circumjacent states, try. Those glorious scenes on which the
and held to be formidable neighbours by eyes of ambition delight to dwell, floated
the potent sovereigns of Persia, Hindús- before the vision of the daring and undaz-
taun, and Tartary, bad not permanently zled aspirant. His vigorous and undaunt-
established their dominion over the regions ed mind contemplated the perils of the
now comprehended within the boundaries enterprise--and despised them. His sa-
of Caubul. The form of society among gacity indicated the measures proper to
them favourable to the achievment of accomplish his object—and he embraced
foreign conquest, was wholly hostile to them. The hatred of the Afghauns against
the establishment at home of a great and the Persians was, at once, political and
well-settled empire. The division of the religious ;-as their oppressors, they de-
riation into tribes, between whom the tested them they abhorred them as schis-
bonds of friendship and alliance were sel- matics. This disposition the khaun ren-
dom strong, or for any considerable time dered the lever of his designs. By his
lasting, confined the attention of the clans deeds of arms he attracted the observa-
and their chiefs to their own peculiar in- tion, the applause, of his countrymen; his
terests; civil dissentions would, of course, victories gained at the head of his tribe,
frequently occur between communities, over the late conquerors and lords of Af-
whose views and enterprises must so often ghaunistaun, excited their grateful ed-
clash-and the weaker party, yielding to thusiasm ; the spirit of an avenger seemed
the stronger, vented its resentment on, and enshrined in the frame of Ahmed, and it
procured a settlement in, the territories of required but slight persuasion to induce
its less martial neighbours. The authority the people and their leaders to choose a
of their chiefs might depend, in some hero for their king.
mcasure, on their personal character; but The deliverer of his country was the
their legitimate power was confined within first monarch of Caubul; but those who
very narrow limits. As the administra- from the establishment of a regal govern-
tors of justice, they were the constitu- ment, should infer, that from the heights
tional depositories of the law, and the le- of independence the Afghauns dropped
gal dispensers of rewards and punish- at once to the depths of slavery ;-that
ments. In disputes between members of having for centuries enjoyed the liberty,
the same community, it was permitted, somewhat licentious ;--and the manners,
nay, it was almost imperative upon them, somewhat rude-of a turbulent but high-
to interpose their respectable influence souled people they were suddenly meta-
to assuage the animosity of the contend- morphosed by the spells and incantations
ing parties, and by amicable compromise, and mighty magic of royalty, into the ser-
present the fierceness of the quarrel from vile vassals of an overbearing despotism,
degenerating into a bitter and incurable would be, indeed, wonderfully deceived.
feud. But when any plan or enterprize The spirit of independence which their
was in agitation touching the interests domestic manners an laws, and, above
of the tribe at large, and to execute which all, their martial habits, so powerfully fos-
the efforts and resources of the commu- tered, was at least equal to their grateful
nity would be required, the chief was un- admiration of the merits of Ahmed. Rais.
der the wholesome and indispepsible ne- ed to the throne by a nation to whom the
cessity of convening the members of the name of king was a strange name, that
clan, and taking the sense of a general politic sovereign was too wise to imitate
council on the expediency of the measure the system of tyranny and spoliation so
in deliberation.

generally in vogue with oriental princes. Such was the domestic polity of the Af- A revenue sufficient for the expenses of ghauns till the death of Nadir Shah. The the state, and its punctual payment--the assassination of that extraordinary poten- appointmentof magistrates--the establishtate gave birth to an order of things con ment of a national army-the selection of siderably different. The civil wars that ministers—the choice of viceroys and proconvulsed Persia on the demise of her vincial governors such appear to bave late sovereign, would not permit the can- been the principal features of the modidates for the throne to attend to the se- narchy as established by Ahmed. But curity of the distant dependencies of the these provisions for the moderate power empire. The khaun of the Dooraunees, and dignity of the prince were not sufferthe chief of the Afghară tribes, was ed to encroach on the rights, well underFoung, brave, and ambitious. He aspired slood and strictly guarded, of the people.

The clans still continue to enjoy their dis- his several duties, must have left an intinct local governments and jurispru- delible impression on the bearts of those dence. The khaups are occasionally, it who were the peculiar objects of them. may be, appointed by the king-but this, Joan H. Eody was the eldest son of when it occurs, is an affair that requires Thomas Eddy, Esq. of New-York, and considerable delicacy; and he whom the was born in this city, in 1784. At an voice of the clan pronounces to be best early age he entered upon the study of adapted to the office, is the person on the ordinary elements of education, and whom it will be most prudent in the so- equally by the ardour of his application vereign to confer it. All affairs of gene- and by his progress in knowledge, while ral importance or interest are still discus- labouring under all the disadvantages of a sed in open Jeerga, or council, and de- total deprivation of hearing, engaged the cided by a majority. No acts of summary most affectionate sympathy of his friends. punishment or capricious cruelty, either It was between the twelfth and thirteenth by the monarch or heads of tribes, can be years of his age, that he had the great committed with safety. The khaups, in- misfortune to lose entirely the sense of deed, are regarded rather as magistrates hearing, by a dangerous and protracted than political rulers. Literature is culti- attack of the scarlet fever. Notwithyated and encouraged; some even of the standing the great personal disadvantage abstruser branches of science are begin- under which he thus laboured, the powers ning to be inquired into, and known, and of his mind were not suffered to lie dorthe condition of the softer sex is much su mant, and he improved with great earperior to what is observed in other parts of nestness every opportunity of cultivating Asia. The recent and existing distractions them. To an ample knowledge of the Laof the state do not appear to have stop- tin and French languages, he added that of ped, though they may have retarded the algebra and the mathematics, all which he career of improvement. Works of pub- acquired without assistance from teachers. lic utility and convenience are actively The intervals of time not devoted to these proceeding. Like the Sikhs, the Afghavos substantial pursuits, were occupied in are rapidly ascending the steps of civili- reading, and few persons of his age have zation. The present tumults will, it is excelled him in the knowledge of ancient probable, terminate in the election to the and modern history. It was his practice Throne of some new Ahmed, wbo will col during the winter to rise an hour or two lcct and consolidate the fluctuating ener before day-light, and apply himself in the gics of Afghaunistaun, and, with a resolv- morning to general reading, and during ed heart and a vigorous arm, give them a the course of the day he seemed to be direction auspicious to the prosperity and every moment employed in the pursuit of grandeur of his people, and send down to some favourite study. posterity a name erbalmed in the tears That such ardent and constant inteland admiration of his country.

lectual exertions were not caleulated to G. F. B. do good to his constitution, will not ex

cite surprise; and the anxiety of his re

latives became awakened at the sympBiographical Sketch of the late Geogra- toms of disease which he himself little pher, John H. Eddy, of New-York.

regarded. In order to restore him to his The subject of the following memoir, former health, he was persuaded to abandied, at the house of his father, on the don for a time bis closet studies. It has morning of the 22d of December, last, in osten been observed, that a change of the thirty-fifth year of his age. The few mental occupation is itself sufficient for particulars of his life, which are here the purposes of physical renovation. He given, though drawn up by the band of now resolved to indulge that fondoess for friendship, are stated with all the impar. the works of nature, to which, at an early tiality of truth, and it is hoped may serve age, he had formed an attachment, but to furnish to the reader some idea of the which he bad, from various circumstances, unwearied industry and extensive attain- been prevented from gratifying. That ments of the deceased, though labouring his attainments in this pleasing departunder one of the most severe calamities ment of rational investigation, entitled incident to humanity. Those who were him to high praise, cannot be denied; and happy in a personal knowledge of the sub- the success that attended bis labours in ject of this basty sketch can best bear botany and mineralogy, is known to the testimony to his integrity as a man, and cultivators of these branches of science. to his warmth and constancy as a friend; But, while thus engaged, Mr. Eddy while the manner in which he performed did not neglect those ornamental studies

which enable the possessor to take a part tive distances from principal places to in elegant and polite conversation, but of New-Orleans, New-York, Montreal, &c. which, from his peculiar situation, he was About the same time he gave to the public painfully deprived. His taste was im- a map of the Niagara river, with a profile proved by the perusal of the best poetical view of the country from lake Erie to and prose authors of the present and for. lake Ontario. The materials of these mer times. What he himself wrote he different maps were derived from the best communicated in a style characterized sources, and the accuracy of his illustraby its perspicuity and force : and in his tions could not be questioned. Mr. Eddy occasional interviews with the muses, he had, more than two years before, viz. in evidenced some of the stronger marks of 1812, accompanied his father and other genuine poetry. In a small volume of commissioners for the purpose of explore manuscript poems which he has left, there ing the western part of the state, and of is one written on the occasion of bis loss ascertaining the practicability of a canal of hearing, in which he deplores, in plain- `communication between lake Erie and tive accents, wbat so seriously affected the Hudson. bis sensibility; and in no other instance A short time previous to bis death, Mr. has he ever been known on that account Eddy finished a map of the state of Newto utter a complaint.

York. This may be pronounced his best Geography, however, was the favourite executed work as to style, accuracy. pursuit to which Mr. Eddy was attached : and scientific arrangement, it may be it is by his acquisitions on this important safely said to exceed all other maps hisubject that he is to be especially re therto published in America. It cost him garded. How large were his pecuniary nearly four years of unremitted labour : expenditures, what sacrifices of time and his materials were original; he collected of health he made in order to acquire them with uncommon care, and incurred correct geographical knowledge, how ho- great expense in obtaining distinct surnourably he supported bis pre-eminence, veys of every county in the state.* and how extensively was his usefulness He had also engaged in other importin this study directed for the benefit of ant labours of a like nature. Governor his country, are circumstances familiarly Dickenson, of New-Jersey, and a num, known and universally admitted. He ber of gentlemen of that state, made ap. maintained an extensive correspondence plication to Mr. Eddy to undertake a map with many of the most eminent characters of New-Jersey, and, with that view, fur. in England and France, as well as in dif- nished him with considerable surveys. ferent parts of the United States, on geo- The legislature, anxious that this work graphical topics. The several maps which should be executed by one so competent, he published exhibit a display of taste passed a resolution, unsolicited and unand science exceeding any thing of the known to Mr. E. directing that he should kind that had been presented to the Ame- be supplied from the public ofices of the rican public. Among the first of these state with such copies of surveys or rewas his circular map of thirty miles round cords as he might suppose useful for his New-York, which appeared in 1814. He purpose. He collected no small amount also published, at the request of the Ca- of information for the Jersey map. nal Commissioners, a map of the western The premature death of this useful part of the state of New-York, with the map has also deprived the country of an proposed tract of the intended canal from American atlas, which he had been soliJake Erie to the Hudson, accompanied cited to undertake by a number of enwith an accurate profile of the levels, and terprising individuals. Nothing perhaps with a scale showing the number of feet would more conclusively have shown how of each level above Hudson river and defective and erroneous are the Eurobelow lake Erie. Next followed, at the pean maps as it respects the geography request of his excellency governor Clin- of the United States. The enterprising ton, the President of the Board of Canal projectors of the atlas intended it as a Commissioners, a map illustrative of a national work: they have now to lament communication between the Great Lakes the death of him whom they deemed so and the Atlantic ocean, by means of lake abundantly qualified to take the lead in Erie and Hudson river. On this map are laid down the North-Western Territory, * The writer is informed, that this valuable Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Kentucky, the map will not be lost: the engraving is stated to western part of Virginia, Pennsylvania, be already executed, by able artists in Philadeland the western part of the state of New. phia, and copies of the work will be published

with all convenient expedition by Messrs. James York; with a table, showing the respec- Eastburn & Co. of New-Yorks

this great attempt, and they have can. pecuniary matters, is admitted by those didly expressed that the loss of his assist- to whom he was best known. Ío conance is irreparable.

clude this basty sketch: it is unfortuMr. Eddy was the author of a number nately too frequently our lot to lament of essays which appeared in the newspa- the seemingly untimely departure of aspers, on botany and other branches of piring genius and worth; but it may natural history; on geography and the confidently be said, seldom could our internal improvement of this state. An regret and lamentation be more feelingly ossay on geography which he intended bestowed than on the subject of this brief for publication in this magazine, will pro- memorial. Time and talents have rarely bably shortly appear. He was a member been more constantly or more undeviatof the New-York Historical Society, and, ingly directed to objects of substantial in 1816, was elected to a similar honour importance; and it is painful to reflect in the Literary and Philosophical Society that his fatal illness was prematurely inof New-York. To this latter association duced in consequence of such exertions. lic communicated an interesting inemoir Let the qualities of his heart and his moon the geography of Africa. That un ral excellence command our regard; for fortunate mariner, Capt. James Riley, the services he has rendered let the debt the narrative of whose sufierings has of gratitude be paid to his memory. awakened so large a portion of public

W. attention, had applied to Mr. Eddy to craw for him a map of part of Africa. This gave Mr. Eddy the occasion of cx

Three cases of Gun-shot Wounds, commuamining the different accounts that had

nicated by Wm. Thomas, of Poughkeepbeen published by different travellers on

sie, Hospital Surgeon to the Division of African geograplıy; and, without passing

the Army commanded by Gen. Brown, sentence of condemnation on any writer

in the Campaign of 1814. for wilful misreprcsntations, he gives due Major Benjamin Birdsal of the 4th Rifle credit to the statement of Capt. Riley: Regt. was wounded by a musket ball at Capt. Riley has indeed been pronounced the storming of Fort Erie, August 15, a loose writer by an anonymous reviewer,* 1614. The ball struck the base of the unbut the testimonies to his worth and ve der jaw and raked it to the angle where it racity are most respectable, and, besides, is articulated with the head. For three he is subject to the evidence of living days there was no bleeding of importance witnesses. It cannot be denied that his and the wound was dressed in the usual work contains most important views of manner. But on the 4th, when the woundinterior Africa; and it is gratifying to ed parts had recovered from the torpor observe, that a gentleman possessed of produced by the ball, a violent hemorrhage the talents and learning of Hugh Murray, began, which ceased before any medical Bisq. should, in his enlarged edition of aid could be procured (the major being Leyden's Historical Account of Disco- half a mile from the general hospital.). I veries and Travels in Africa, pay the tri- was at a loss for some time to know whether bute of high regard to our American nar the blood came from the facial or lingual rator.

artery, until the third or fourth hemorrEnough has been said to show that the hage, when it proved to be the facial ar. strongest principle of action in John H. tery that was wounded. The tongue was Eddy, was the laudable desire to be use- much injured and the frenum wounded, ful: that he was superior to making a which, as at first, induced a belief that the trade of liberal pursnits, and generous in lingual artery was the injured one. The Vide Quarterly Review, No.xxxiv. Capt: larged, and the wounded artery, to the

parts became greatly inflamed and enTiiley, it would appear, however competent as a mariner, was far from being a good analo- finger, was twice its natural size and beat mist and physiologist. He has stated that the violently. Compresses of sponge were weight of some of his companions on their reach- used, but the involuntary motion of the ing Mogadore did not exceed forty pounds each; jaw and the formation of matter crowded whereas he ought to have been aware that the the sponge from the artery, and, after reweight of the skeleton of a cominon sized man would be 13., pounds; the usual weight of the peated trials, they were discontinued. brain 44 pounds; that of the circulating blood The swelling of the head and the integu27 pounds: so that there are 45 pounds without ments covering the external carotid ar. either muscles or intestines.” Did the Quarterly tery, forbade searching for that artery from Reviewer want more decisive proof of the ge- whence the facial branches, else it would neral inaccuracy of Capt. Riley's whole statement of his shipwreck, sufferings and sojour- have been tied, and the only alternative peyings?

was a compress that would press immova.

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