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No. 1011.17 October, 1863.




99 102 105 106 109 113 116

1. The Sun as a Dwelling-Place,

Spectator, 2. Hatred,

Saturday Review, 3. Servitude for Life,

Macmillan's Magazine, 4. A Book for the Beach,

Reader, 5. Lord Clyde-and his career,

Examiner, 6. Reserve,

Saiurday Review, 7. My First Glacier Pass,

Macmillan's Magazine, 8. Angel in the House Goblin Market. By the

Hon. Mrs. Norton, 9. Desperate Secession Project,

Examiner, 10. Secession Policy in Collapse,

Spectator, 11. The Two Carolinas and the War, 12. light of British Shipwrights to build Men of War for sale,

Economist, 13. President Lincoln's Letter,

Spectator, 14. Lord Palmerston and President Lincoln, 15. Capture of Fort Sumter in 1861,

A Lady in Charleston, PETIY.—Colin Campbell, Lord Clyde, 98. Compensation, 98.

124 130 131 133

135 137 139 141

SHORT ARTICLTS.-Modern History in France, 105, Ready-Made Sermons, 108. An English Magazine in Russia, 129. Literary Intelligence, 129, 144.

NEW BOOKS. THE REBELLION RECORD : A Diary of American Events, Edited by Frank Moore, author of Diary of the American Revolution. New York : G. P. Putnam-Charles T. Evans. [Part 35 contains Portraits of General Weitzel and General Sill.]

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COLIN CAMPBELL, LORD CLYDE, But weak the arm which that late harvest reaped, DIED, FRIDAY, AUGUST 14,

And all a knight's work left him was to die. BURIED. SATURDAY, AUGUST 22, 1863.

Dead ! with his honors still in newest gloss, ANOTHER great, gray-headed chieftain gone Their gold in sorry contrast with his gray :

To join his brethren on the silent shore! But by his life, not them, we rate his loss, Another link with a proud past undone!

And for sweet peace to his brave spirit pray. Another stress of life-long warfare o'er!

No nobler soldier's heart was ever laid Few months have passed since that grey head we

Into the silence of a trophied tomb;

There let him sleep-true gold and thrice assayed Bending above the vault where Outram slept ; Lingering as if reluctant to withdraw

By sword and fire and suffering—till the doom!

-Punch. From that grave-side, where sun-bronzed sol

diers wept. The thought filled many minds, is he the next To take his place within the Abbey walls ?

COMPENSATION. A gnarlèd trunk, by many tempests vext,

TAE bruised flower more fragrance gives That bears its honors high, even as it falls.

Than those of hardy growth and strong ; He is the next! the name that was a fear

And scarce a bird of summer lives
To England's swarthy foes, all India through,

His life of song,
Is now a memory! No more fields will hear But bears some broken joy along.
His voice of stern command, that rang so true.

The ripple on the glassy lake,
The tartaned ranks he led and loved no more

The breezy murmur of the trees, Will spring, like hounds unleashed, at his be

The flowery waves of dell and brake, hest ;

Yea, all of these
No more that eye will watch his soldiers o'er,

Are types of human destinies,
As mothers o'er their babes, awake, at rest.
A life of roughest duty, from the day

That circle on, that grieve and sigh,
When with the boy's down soft upon his chin,

That bloom and fade, and pass awayHe marched to fight, as others run to play,

While not the meanest flower can dio Like a young squire his knightly spurs to win.

From day to day,

But hath its own appointed way: And well he won them ; in the fever-swamp,

In foughten field, by trench and leaguered wall, It lives again through endless years, In the blank rounds of dull routine, that damp Each atom bearing well its part ;

Spirits of common temper more than all, And thus, O dweller of the spheres ! He trod slow steps but sure ; poor, without

O human heart !

Thou shalt thy usefulness impart.
Winning no way, save by his swent and blood;
Heart-sick too often, when from earned amends Thou hast a germ of life within,
He saw himself swept back by the cold flood, That evermore shall deathless be ;

By mortal suffering thou shalt win
Against which all must strive, who strive like

The liberty

Of all that is enslaved in thee.
By merit's patient strength to win the goal,
Till many a swimmer's eye grows glazed and

Each faith, each hope, each warm desire, dim,

IIeld captive in the chains of earth, And closes, ere the tide doth shoreward roll.

Shall, chastened by affliction's power,
Stout heart, strong arm, and constant soul to aid,

Hail sorrow's birth,
He sickened not nor slackened, but swam on; And deem earth's joys of little worth.
Though o'er his head thick spread the chilling

And if thou art so circumstanced
And oft, twixt seas, both shore and stars seemed That earthly pleasures are not thine,

Then shall thy soul be recompensed

By joys divine :
Till the tide turned, and on the top of flood

The furnace doth the gold refine.
The night spent swimmer bore triumphant in ;
And honors rained upon him, bought with blood,

Thou atom of a power divine !
And long deferred, but sweeter so to win.

Where'er unhappiness is rife, And fame and name and wealth and rank were There let a bright example shine : heaped


all thy life, On the gray head that once had held them Assist thy brother in the strife. high ;

-New York Observer.

From The Spectator. bodied creatures we can form a few notions THE SUN AS A DWELLING-PLACE. based on more trustworthy facts. Indeed, In the physics of the universe, as in the the elder Herschel, who was one of the earcustoms of human societies, there are many liest theorists about the sun's spots, always serious qualifications to the advantages of a held that the sun might be inhabited ; that central situation. Sir William Armstrong its solid nucleus, that is, need not be so hot suggested, in his inaugural address last week as to prevent the existence of beings organized to the British Association, that that curiously more or less as we are. It is, at least, worth mottled appearance of the sun's bright atmos- while to consider what sorts and degrees of phere when seen through a telescope, which difference such a life, if it be possible, would has given rise to Mr. Nasmyth's expression imply, even without an atmosphere of giganabout the solar “ willow-leaves,” might be tic salamanders, and a converging fire of indue to “ organized” forms of matter ; and numerable meteors and planetoids, or a lashthat the constant supply of heat which warms ing by cometary tails a few millions of miles the whole solar system may, as previous as- in length. tronomers have suggested, be due to the con In the first place, there is, no doubt, room stant concussion of falling bodies rushing into enough for a very considerable immigration the centre of our system, and heating it just there, as the surface of the sun would accomas his own cannon-balls or shells hcat the modate in mere extent the population of great targets at Shoeburyness. Both these 12,000 earths. In other words, if the earth suggestions are, of course, mere guesses, had been fully peopled during 12,000 generathough the latter, at least, is as probable as tions, and all its population transferred to any other mere conjecture concerning the the sun, the sun would only then become source of the solar heat; but both of them fully peopled, supposing its surface to be in suggest so many marvels and inconveniences the same proportion susceptible of cultivawhich would attend its possible inhabitants, tion. Unfortunately, however, the muscular if it could be the habitation of beings in any power needed for walking on the sun would way resembling the inhabitants of this earth, have to be twenty-eight times as great, for a that if astronomers were to acquiesce in them, man of the same size, as the muscular power or, at least, in the latter of them, the sun needed for walking on the earth. The sun would probably be given up as rapidly as the is very much less dense than the earth,not moon to that desolating theory of Dr. Whew-much, indeed, above the density of water,-ell, which refuses to give rational animals a but its enormous size increases the gravitation foothold anywhere in the universe except upon there to twenty-eight times its power on our little planet. Certainly, one would not earth. Every man, therefore, suddenly transchoose for a dwelling-place a sphere, however ferred to the surface of the sun,-if he could majestic, eternally bombarded from all parts ive there at all,- would appear to himself to of the celestial spaces,-a world into which have an accumulation of twenty-seven other minute planets, that had been travelling from men upon his back-a weight under which it infinite distances with a constantly acceler- is needless to observe that no human muscles ating speed, should be constantly crashing could stagger. llowever, swimming upon home, where the annexation of a comet would such a surface, in any fluid as light as water be an every-day event. Sebastopol or Vicks (and the bulk of the sun appears to be made burg under siege would be a sort of heaven up of fluid at least as light as this), would be to such a life as that, besides that, they at far casier than it is here ; for all weights least had the satisfaction of returning the being multiplied by about twenty-eight, the fire, which would be impossible for the sun, difference between the weight of the water seeing that the force which would keep up displaced and of the human body-which the bombardment would be of no alien origin, mcasures the supporting force-would also but inseparable from its own existence. The be multiplied by twenty-cight; and just in big salamanders, 100,000 miles in area, which proportion, thereforc, as the difficulty of walkSir W. Armstrong pictured as floating in the ing is increased there, that of swimming (in solar atmosphere, and this heavy celestial such a fluid as our water) would be diminartillery, are alike matters of conjecture; ished. but of the sun as a dwelling-place for cm But these differences arc trilling conspared

with the differences arising from the central sun's surface, to produce a heat equal to that
position of the sun. To inhabitants of that radiated from the solar orb.” We can easily
globe there would be no such phenomena as imagine how very thick a stratum of cloud
day and night, but a perpetual and uniform and air it would need to protect the solar in-
blaze, like the light with which the roofs of habitants, if such there are, from a heat and
the Houses of Parliament are nightly lighted light so intense and so constant, where there
up, though infinitely intense, would be al- is no periodic light to lower the temperature
ways blazing above that semi-transparent and rest the eye after the heat and glare of
cloudy screen which Sir William Herschel the day. This beat and light would have to
thought might temper the light and heat of shine through a most effectively protecting
the solar world. Most of our best astrono- roof of cloud to be in any way consistent
mers believe that the sun bas three strata of with human or quasi-human organisms. At
atmosphere. The highest stratum is a gen- the same time, it may be reasonably argued
uine atmosphere like our own, the existence that the heat we picture to ourselves must at
of which is betrayed by the red beads of the some point or other be tempered, if only
solar eclipse, due to the same atmospheric towards the very centre of the solar globe,
cause as the red light of sunset, and also by since it would otherwise reduce the whole
the comparative paleness of the edges of the globe to gas, while the sun has, in fact, an
solar disc (whose obliquer light would travel average density greater than water; and this
to us through much more of this atmosphere being so, there must be a limit at which this
than the light from the centre). The middle enormous heat is reduced—though, of course,
is the phosphorescent atmosphere in which the nearest approach to solidity might be seas
the light (and perhaps heat) of the sun is of molten iron. Still the probability of some
situated. The lowest one, again, is an at- deep cloudy stratum of atmosphere envelop-
mosphere full of thick cloud, which is seen ing a cooler world seeme considerable.
by us only when one of the cavities opens in But even if this be so, the vast difference
the outer atmosphere which we call “ spots” between the physical situation of the Sunites
on the sun. At all events, it is quite cer- and that of our race would scarcely be much
tain that the illuminating power of the sun is diminished. With a sufficiently thick sea of
quite external to its principal mass,-for it cloud between them and the intolerable light
is proved that the spots are cavities in the and heat, they inight manage to exist, like
illuminating surface showing a much darker the fabled mermen who, living on the ocean
world beneath. Sir David Brewster, indeed, floor, saw sunlight only through the unfath-
believes that though the light of the sun is omable depths of the sea. But then, though
derived from the higher strata of its atmos- living in the centre of our system, they could
phere, its heat comes from the body of the sun never know that there was a system at all
itself, and urges, we believe, in confirmation, beyond this centre. They could not even
that those years are bottest when there are know that their own sun revolves in about
most of these dark spots on the sun, instead twenty-five and a half of our days on its own
of when there are fewest. This, however, is axis. For no celestial phenomena at all
an exceedingly doubtful fact, and prcbably could be accessible to them. The constant
there are as yet no data for deciding it either and uniform light would shut them in far
way. In the mean time, it is natural to sup- more effectually than any darkness, and the
pose that the light and heat are derived from cloud which would be essential to soften that
the same source, and that since we have at constant and uniform light would be a second
times glimpses into the recesses of a darker screen. We could never know that our own
sphere, that darker sphere would also be a carth revolved on its axis if a blaze stronger
cooler sphere than we usually connect with than the strongest noon always shut out the
our visible sun. Indeed, il iniiabitable at all, night. And the solar inhabitants certainly
it would need to be. The temperature of the would be far more effectually cut off from
sun's heated surface is calculated to be seven astronomy, both by their light and by the
times as hot as the hottest known blast fur- internal screen which would interrupt the
nacc. It would require the combustion of light, than by any darkness. The planet
more than 130,000 lbs., or nearly sisty tons Neptune would have a better chance of good
of coal per hour, on cachi syuare foul of the astronomers than the sun. The absence of

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anything like night and dew, and of all the mighty spherical chandelier, rather than a consequent periodic changes in the vegetable sun, which they can never turn down, which and animal world, would certainly revolu- roofs in their universe and roofs out the intionize the whole character of the agriculture, finitude of worlds, they might, if they had and natural history. Sleep might perhaps any suspicion of the truth, say, with the exist without night, but both plants and ani- poet :wals must have a different structure in order “Oh! who could tell such darkness lay conto secure it. Then, too, there could be no cealed change of the seasons, and even mountains,

Beneath thy beams, 0 Sun? Or who could

find, instead of rising into a colder zone, would

When fly and leaf and insect lay revealed, probably rise into a hotter. The equator of That to such countless orbs thou mad’st us the sun, indeed, would, Sir John Herschel blind ?" thinks, be hotter than its poles, owing to the —nay, to more than countless worlds outside greater accumulation of the third or external them,—for to the varieties of torrid and frigid atmosphere around its central belt (just as zone, of spring-time and harvest, of morning water set spinning gets heaped up round the and evening,-probably even of work and middle and flattened at both ends), so keep- rest,--and to a large proportion of that which ing the heat in more at the equator than at makes countless worlds of ihought and reflecthe poles. And to this Sir John Herschel tion within, the same dreadful uniformity of ascribes the spots which appear and disappear splendor would equally blind them. Then, in two belts--corresponding to the belts of too, shadow would be as rare there as it is our trade-winds-on the sun's surface. He frequent here, -for the light always flowing thinks these are apertures caused by the ex- equally from North, South, East, and West, terpal atmosphere breaking through the fiery it would be only at a door, window, or a cavatmosphere, in eddies like water-spouts,—for ern’s mouth, where the other quarters were reasons analogous to those which restrict cir- protected from the light, that shadow would cular whirlwinds and water-spouts even on be seen. Imagine all the intellectual fruits our earth to the region of the trade-winds. of such varieties struck out of cur literature The notion is confirmed by the fact that these and history, and what would the human näind spots on the sun have been observed to spin be? The sun may be a dwelling-place for round on some axis of their own, before clos- beings whose inner world has begun to deing in, just as if they were of the nature of velop itself regularly withont the stimulus monstrous eddies. But even these tornadoes, of outward variety and change, but scarcely which in certain latitudes of the sun, perhaps for any natures lesz advanced. That which break through as far as the lower envelope knows“ no variableness nor shadow of turnof cloud, can scarcely open to the Sunites a ing" must either be God or nothing,—the tunnel through which they could see the stars, highest life or the most absolute nonentity. --for if it really penetrate the inner veil of If we did live there, we should soon, perhaps, cloud, it would probably carry fire and de- prefer being bombarded by fraginents of planet struction with it.

rushing sunwards, even at the risk of annihiIn a word, the Sunites must in all proba- lation, to the hot, changeless uniformity of bility pay for their central position by being such an orb. We almost wonder no one has quite ignorant of it, and of thousands of other suggested the sun as a physical locality of the phenomena to which the alternation of night place of torture. That it would make evil and day, summer and winter, are absolutely the root and centre of our system, would only essential. “ A glorious privacy of light” is be an additional recommendation to a very theirs, if glorious it be. Illumined by a popular form of modern theology.

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